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Project Proposal Water Resources Research Institute Program Section 104, Water Resources Act of 1984 Alabama Water Resources Research Institute In support of the Research Proposal Examination of bacterial levels in water and sediment for the development of
refined monitoring protocols for inland recreational waters
Principal Investigator Department of Animal Sciences Auburn University, Alabama Telephone (334) 844-8146 Co-Principal Investigator Associate Director, Alabama Water Watch Auburn University, Alabama Telephone (334) 844-4785 Project Number
Examination of bacterial levels in water and sediment for the development of refined monitoring
protocols for inland recreational waters

Focus Category
Public Swimming Waters; Water Quality Monitoring; Bacteria; E. coli; Salmonella, Pathogens


March 1, 2014- March 1, 2015
Fiscal Year Federal Funds
Total $41,382

Non-Federal Funds Allocated

Indirect $40,452
Name, University, and City of Principal Investigator
Luxin Wang, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
Congressional District of University Performing the Research
Congressional District 3
Identification and Statement of the Major Regional Water Problem
The health and well-being of Alabama's citizens relative to recreational water usage depends on
credible and timely monitoring of public swimming areas and other recreational waters to assess
these areas for contamination with pathogens and other pollutants. Escherichia coli bacteria are
commonly used as indicator organisms for the presence of fecal contamination and its associated
pathogens in inland waters, while Enterococci are used in marine waters (USEPA, 2012). The
State (Alabama Department of Environmental Management) routinely monitors swim areas
along Alabama's coast (the Coastal Alabama Beach Monitoring Program involves the routine
collection of water samples from 25 high use and/or potentially high risk public recreational sites
from Perdido Bay to Dauphin Island, for details see
Inland swimming and recreational-use areas are not routinely monitored by the State. With
increasing pressures on these inland waters from urban development, industrial needs,
agricultural needs and others, there is increasing risk to the public health from contaminated
waters (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2013).
The Alabama Water Watch Program (AWW), based at Auburn University, has been training and
certifying volunteer citizen monitors in Bacteriological Monitoring since 1996, and attained EPA
approval on its bacteriological monitoring protocols in 1999. AWW monitors have been
monitoring waters for E. coli contamination using AWW's Coliscan Easygel method, and have
compiled over 14,300 data records from over 2,000 sample sites throughout the state. Recent
citizen monitoring efforts at public swimming areas have suggested significant differences in E.
concentrations measured at the same site at different times of the day. Side-by-side
monitoring by citizen monitors, agency personnel and private laboratory personnel have also
yielded difference results. Recent research supports these citizen monitoring results. Research
results and citizen data throw into question the adequacy of monitoring public swim areas only
once a day. And if sampled once a day, what time of day would be most protective of public
health. They also throw into question the source or sources of E. coli – emanating from the gut of
warm-blooded animals, or also emanating from sources living out in the environment, such as in
beach/lake/stream sediments.
Statement of the Results, Benefits, and Information
Expected project results include the following:
• Evaluation and quantitative estimates of bacterial contamination (E. coli, Salmonella) at swimming/public use areas at various times of the day throughout the recreational season (April-September) at two major reservoirs in Alabama, lakes Martin and Logan Martin. • Evaluation and quantitative estimates of bacterial contamination (E. coli, Salmonella) in the sediment of these swimming/public use areas at various times of the day throughout the recreational season. • Evaluation of coincident water column sampling by AWW volunteer monitors and state agency personnel. • Examination of relationships among project parameters including water column bacterial concentrations, sediment bacterial concentrations, time of day and human activity levels. Expected project benefits and information include the following: • Development of recommendations for swim beach/recreation area monitoring protocols that are most protective of human health will be developed. • Dissemination of project results, conclusions and recommendations to AWW volunteer monitors throughout the state and to state agencies involved in monitoring public waters.   • Improved monitoring of public swimming and recreational-use areas in inland waters based on the results and recommendations of this project. Nature, Scope, and Objectives of the Research
AWW bacteriological monitoring data have been used by municipalities, county agencies,
universities, private companies and state agencies for detecting, sourcing and solving bacterial
contamination in inland surface waters. Recent citizen monitoring efforts at public swimming
areas have suggested significant differences in E. coli concentrations measured at the same site at
different times of the day. Side-by-side monitoring by citizen monitors, agency personnel and
private laboratory personnel have also yielded difference results. Recent research supports these
citizen monitoring results (see Related Research).
The research proposed in this project is aimed at determining the temporal and spatial distribution of bacterial contamination at public swimming areas in three recreational-use areas at lakes Logan Martin and Martin, as well as developing recommendations that best protect the public health for swim-area monitoring protocols for inland waters. The objectives of this project are to: 1. sample multiple public swimming/recreational-use areas for bacterial contamination on two major reservoirs, one in the Tallapoosa Basin (Lake Martin) and one in the Coosa Basin (Lake Logan Martin) throughout the outdoor recreational season; 2. sample these same sites multiple times during the same day (early, midday-afternoon) to evaluate temporal differences within the same day to examine the relationship between sediment E. coli counts and the surface water E. coli counts; 3. sample swim beach sediments to test for the presence of E. coli, and to test for other fecal bacteria (Salmonella); 4. conduct additional side-by-side AWW volunteer monitor bacteriological testing and agency testing, and; 5. test for sourcing of E. coli using selective antibiotic disks on bacterial media cultures.
Methods, Procedures, and Facilities
1. Conducting Bacteriological Sampling at Public Swimming Areas
A. AU Coliscan Easygel Sampling The Coliscan Easygel method employed by the AWW Program will be used for water and sediment monitoring of E. coli, with slight variations to the AWW protocol for sediment sampling (Alabama Water Watch, 2012). Sampling sites will be public swimming/recreation areas on lakes Martin and Logan Martin that have a history of AWW citizen/state agency monitoring (Table 1; Figure 1). Table 1. Sample sites at public swimming areas at Lake Logan Martin (Site 1 at Lakeside Park at Cropwell and Site 2 at Camp Cosby near St Ives, AL) and at Lake Martin (Site 3 at Wind Creek State Park near Alexander City, AL). Water samples will be collected using a sterile pipette to collect one ml of water that will be discharged into a Coliscan Easygel media bottle. Sampling will be done in triplicate at each site per the AWW EPA-approved QA plan. Samples will be placed in a cooler with ice to prevent bacterial replication until samples can be plated. Plating will be done after transport of samples back to the AWW laboratory if this can be accomplished within three hours of sample collection. Otherwise, samples will be plated in the field and incubated in a portable incubator so that they are plated within a three-hour holding time. On a given sample date, each site will be sampled two times – early morning and midday/afternoon. Figure 1. Sample sites on lakes Logan Martin and Martin. B. Enumeration of E. coli and Salmonella To correlate the AWW Coliscan Easygel method with FDA microbial enumeration methods, 25 ml of water samples or 25 g of sediment samples will be collected using sterile disposable long-handled dippers from each sampling spot at each time (USFDA 2013). Those samples will be kept on ice and delivered to Wang's microbiology lab located on Auburn campus. Three milliliters of each water sample will be plated on to one 3M™ Petrifilm™ E.coli/Coliform count plate, one MacConkey agar and one XLT4 agar respectively (1ml for each plate). For sediment samples, 100 ml of autoclaved MilliQ water will be added and the samples will be homogenized before plating. The same plating procedure will be followed as described above for water samples. Plates will be incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Once suspected pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella isolates are found, they will be sent to Iowa State University for serotyping. C. Antibiotic Resistant Analyses To understand the potential antibiotic resistant properties the isolates may have, one hundred microliters of each confirmed E. coli or Salmonella isolate will be plated onto Mueller Hinton plates. The plates will be divided into four quarters and appropriate antibiotic disks will be placed on the surface of each quarter (Table 2). Plates will then be incubated at 37°C for 18 hours and the resistant zone will be measured. Table 2. Antibiotic disks used in the antibiotic resistant tests. Antibiotics
Disk concentration
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Quinolone & Fluoroquinolones Quinolone & Fluoroquinolones Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim 23.75/1.25 µg D. AWW Citizen Monitoring AWW-certified citizen monitors will conduct concurrent monitoring during the project. AWW
Program personnel will orient citizen monitors in the project goals, protocols and QA/QC plan
prior to field data collection. Lake Watch of Lake Martin and Logan Martin Lake Protection
Association volunteer monitors that have been trained and certified in AWW's Bacteriological
Monitoring protocols will sample alongside AU researchers (see Appendix – Letters of Support).
When possible, AU researchers will coordinate with Alabama Department of Environmental
Management personnel to conduct coincident sampling at select sites on the same date at the
same time.
2. Analysis of Bacterial Sampling Results
Concentrations of E. coli measured in the water column will be interpreted relative to human
health by comparison with USEPA and Alabama Department of Environmental Management
water quality criteria (USEPA 2012; ADEM 2012). Water column and sediment bacteria (E. coli,
) data will be compiled and analyzed for significant differences relative to time of
day, testing procedure, and level of human/animal activity using SAS/STAT Software
(Schlotzhauer and Little 1991). Bacteria data will also be analyzed to examine
relationships/correlations among water column bacterial concentrations, sediment bacterial
concentrations, time of day and human activity levels.
3. Facilities
Project bacteriological analyses will be conducted in the Alabama Water Watch Watershed
Stewardship Laboratory in the Center for Advanced Science, Innovation and Commerce located
in the AU Research Park. The building was completed in mid-2013, and the AWW laboratory is
a state-of-the-art facility which is ideal for bacteriological research.
Related Research
Recent research supports observed AWW citizen monitoring results indicating significant diurnal
differences in bacterial contamination at public swimming areas that appear to be emanating
from bacterial reservoirs harbored in sand/sediments underlying these areas.
Jamieson et al. (2005) found that the association of microorganisms with sediment particles is
one of the primary complicating factors in assessing microbial fate in aquatic systems. They
employed an experimental procedure, involving the use of a tracer-bacteria, to simulate the
transport and deposition of bacteria-laden bed sediments in a small alluvial stream during steady
flow conditions. The experimental data and a mathematical model were used to determine
dispersion coefficients, deposition rates, and partitioning coefficients for sediment-associated
bacteria in two natural streams.
Garzio-Hadzick, et al. (2010) found that in agricultural watersheds that were studied, substantial
numbers of E. coli may reach surface waters, and subsequently be deposited into sediments,
along with fecal material in runoff from land-applied manures, grazing lands, and/or wildlife
excreta; and E. coli survived in sediments much longer than in the overlaying water.
Piorkowski et al. (2013) found that E. coli concentrations in streambed sediments were
significantly different among monitoring sites during baseflow; significant interactive effects
occurred among monitoring sites and morphological features following stormflow; and E. coli
can persist in streambed sediments and influence water quality monitoring programs through
their resuspension into overlying waters.
Ikonen et al. (2013) found significant differences in E. coli concentrations measured at the same
site at different times of the day; and that E. coli levels in the water directly correlated with
activity in the water, UV absorbance and turbidity.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management. 2012. ADEM Admin. Code r. 335-6-10
DIVISION 335-6. ADEM, 1400 Coliseum Boulevard, Montgomery, Alabama. 433 pp.
Alabama Water Watch. 2012. Bacteriological Monitoring, Third Edition. Printed by DavisDirect,
Montgomery, AL, 82 pp.
Garzio-Hadzick, A., D.R. Shelton, R.L. Hill, Y.A. Pachepsky, A.K. Guber , and R. Rowland.
2010. Survival of manure-borne E. coli in streambed sediment: effects of temperature and
sediment properties. Water Research, vol. 44, pp. 2753-2762.
Ikonen, J., T. Pitkänen and I.T. Miettinen. 2013. Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical
Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality. Int. J. Environ.
Res. Public Health 2013, vol. 10, pp 5349-5363.
Jamieson, R., D.M. Joy, H. Lee, R. Kostaschuk and R. Gordon. 2005. Transport and deposition
of sediment-associated Escherichia coli in natural streams. Water Research, vol. 39, pp 2665–
Natural Resources Defense Council, 2013. Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens
Public Health.
Piorkowski, G.S., R.C. Jamieson, L.T. Hansen, G.S. Bezanson, and C.K. Yost. 2014. Characterizing spatial structure of sediment E. coli populations to inform sampling design. Environ Monit Assess, vol. 186, pp 277–291. Schl otzhauer, S.D., and R.C. Little. 1991. SAS® System for Elementary Statistical Analysis. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. 416 pp. US Environmental Protection Administration. 2012. Recreational Water Quality Criteria. Washington, D.C.: USEPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards, EPA 820-F-12-058, 69 pp. US Food and Drug Administration. 2013. Bacteriological Analytical Manual.
Investigator's Qualifications (pages 9-14)
Assistant Professor
Department of Animal Sciences Email: Auburn University Phone: 334-844-8146 (office) Auburn, AL 36849 Fax: 334-844-1519 EDUCATION
Ph.D. Food Science (Food safety emphasis)
University of Missouri, USA M.S. Biological Engineering
University of Missouri, USA M.S. Food Science (Microbiology emphasis)
University of Missouri, USA B.S. Microbiology
Shandong Agricultural University, China EXPERIENCE
Assistant Professor 1/2012-present
Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
Postdoctoral Research Associate 8/2010-12/2011
Mentor: Dr. Linda J. Harris
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Davis,
FDA/CFSAN Fellow 9/2009-8/2010
Mentors: Dr. Samir Assar (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and Dr. Linda J. Harris (UC-
Davis) Western Center for Food Safety, Davis, California
Graduate Research Assistant 8/2004-8/2009
Advisor: Dr. Azlin Mustapha
Division of Food Systems and Bioengineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
Graduate Research Assistant 8/2007-5/2009
Advisor: Dr. Sherman X. Fan
Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
Title: AAES Equipment grant (PI, 95% effort, with Bratcher, C. L., Price, S., and
Feng, Y.)
Budget: $14,408.00 (2013)
Grant agency:
Alabama Agricultural Experimental Station, USA
Title: Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm on meat (co-PI, 45% effort,
with Schwartz, E.)
Budget: $7,500.00 (2013)
Grant agency:
Office of the vice president for research, Auburn University, USA
Title: A systems approach to identifying and filling gaps in and between knowledge
and practice in production and distribution of local and regional foods for a more
secure food supply chain (co-PI, 16% effort, Bratcher, C. L. (Leading PI), Deutsch,
W., Mulvaney, D., Singh, M., Weese, S. J., Worosz, M. R., Hanna, J., Tackie, N. O.,
Bartlett, J. R., and Halpin, R.)
Budget: $4,818,915.00 (2012-2017)
Grant agency:
United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), USA
Title: Investigation of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistant profiles of O157 and
non-O157 shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli from young calves before and after
weaning stresses (PI, 90% effort, with Bratcher, C. L., and Rankins, D.)
Budget: $49,970.00 (2012-2014)
Grant agency:
Alabama Agricultural Experimental Station, USA
Title: Animal management as a strategy to limit carriage of E. coli O157:H7 and
Salmonella in beef cattle (PI, 80% effort, with McCaskey, T.)
Budget: $21,000.00 (2012)
Grant agency:
Alabama Beef Forage Initiative, USA
Title: Influence of the pre-harvest environment on the physiological state of
Salmonella and its impact on increased survival capability (co-PI, 45% effort, with Harris, L. J.) Budget: $97,078.00 (2010-2012)
Grant agency: The Center for Produce Safety, USA


1. Guo, M., Jin, T. Z., Wang, Luxin, Scullen, C. J., and Sommers, C. H. Antimicrobial
films and coatings for inactivation of Listeria innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium on Ready-to-eat meat. Accepted by Food Control in November 2013. 2. Guo, M., Jin, T. Z., Geveke, D., Fan, X., Site, J., and Wang, Luxin. 2013. Evaluation of
microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulse electric field system. Food and Bioprocess Technologies. Published online Oct. 1st. 3. Zhao, L., Tyler, P. J., Starnes, J., Rankins, D., McCaskey, T. A., and Wang, Luxin.
2013. Evaluation of weaning stress on Escherichia coli O157 shedding, body weight and fecal bacterial communities in beef calves. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Epub ahead of print, Oct. 18th. 4. Zhao, L., Tyler, P. J., Starnes, J., Bratcher, C. L., Rankins, D., McCaskey, T. A., and Wang, Luxin. 2013. Correlation analysis of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli
shedding and fecal bacterial composition in beef cattle. Journal of Applied Microbiology.
115(2): 591-603.
5. Harris, L. J., Berry, E. D., Blessington, T., Erickson, M., Jay-Russell, M., Jiang, X., Killinger, K., Michel, F.C., Millner, P., Schneider, K., Sharma, M., Suslow, T.V.,
WANG, Luxin, and Worobo, R. W. 2013. A framework for developing research
protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain
to the application of untreated soil amendments of animal origin on land used to grow
produce that may be consumed raw. Journal of Food Protection. 76(6): 1062-1084.
7. Kimber, M. A., Kaur, H., WANG, Luxin, Danyluk, M. D., and Harris, L. J. 2012.
Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated almonds and pistachios stored at -19, 4, and 24 °C. Journal of Food Protection. 75(8): 1394-1403. 8. WANG, Luxin, Wu, C., Fan, X., and Mustapha, A. 2012. Detection of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef by a bead-free quantum dot-facilitated method. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 156: 83-87. 9. WANG, Luxin, and Mustapha, A. 2010. EMA real-time PCR as a reliable method for
detection of viable Salmonella in chicken and eggs. Journal of Food Science. 75(3): 134 - 139. 10. WANG, Luxin, Li, Y., and Mustapha, A. 2009. Detection of viable Escherichia coli
O157:H7 by ethidium monoazide real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 107(5): 1719 - 1728. 11. WANG, Luxin, Li, Y., and Mustapha, A. 2007. Rapid and simultaneous quantitation of
Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Shigella in ground beef by multiplex real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation. Journal of Food Protection. 70(6): 1366 - 1372.

Reviewer, the "Food Control"
Reviewer, the "Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization"
Reviewer, the "Journal of Animal Science"
Reviewer, the "Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety" 1/2011-present
the "Journal of Food Science" 4/2011-present
Reviewer, the "International Journal of Food Microbiology"
Reviewer, the "Journal of Food Processing and Preservation"

Member, the American Meat Science Association
Member, the Alabama Cattlemen's Association
Member, the International Association for Food Protection 7/2010-present
Member, the Institute of Food Technologists
Eric Martin Reutebuch
Research Associate IV
Auburn University Water Resources Center Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 E-mail:; Phone: (334) 844-1163
B.S., 1981, Purdue University, Indiana (Biology)
M.S., 1988, Auburn University (Fisheries) Professional Experience:
2013-present Associate Director, Alabama Water Watch Program
Responsibilities: Manage the AWW Program, a statewide volunteer water monitoring program formed in 1992 (see, including coordinating AWW staff activities (volunteer monitor workshops, online water quality database, data interpretation presentations, technical backstopping of citizen water monitoring groups throughout AL), managing the AWW Water Resources Watershed Stewardship Laboratory, managing the AWW website, and writing web blog articles, technical reports, publications and proposals for grants. Research Associate, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, AU, AL. Responsibilities: Coordinated numerous watershed projects; organized an annual State of Our Watershed Conference – The Tallapoosa River Basin for 5 years; co-authored two watershed management plans; managed water quality data from streams, rivers and lakes in Alabama; co-managed a water quality laboratory; organized and led data collection trips on streams, rivers and lakes; installed and maintained stream gauges for measuring stream discharge; conducted statistical data analysis, data interpretation, and presentations in graphic and tabular forms; conducted data interpretation meetings with citizen water quality monitoring groups throughout the state; conducted GIS/remote sensing analyses of watersheds for delineation, mapping and land use determination; trained graduate students in water quality analysis procedures, statistical analysis, graphing and presentation of scientific data; presented at professional meetings; wrote technical reports, publications and proposals for grants. Aquaculture Specialist, U of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, GA. Graduate Researcher in Fisheries, Auburn University, AL. Fisheries Extensionist, U.S. Peace Corps/Nepal. Research Technician, Botany Department Purdue University, IN.
Significant Honors and Awards:

• President, Save Our Saugahatchee, Inc., 2014-present • Board of Directors, Lake Watch of Lake Martin, Inc., 2010-present • Woodfin Martin Lake Stewardship Award from Lake Watch of Lake Martin, 2009 • Board of Directors, Save Our Saugahatchee, Inc., 2003-2014. • Board of Directors, Alabama Water Watch Association, 1997-1998. • H. S. Swingle Award for Highest Academic Achievement at the Master of Science Level - 1987, from the Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, AL. • National Dean's List, Phi Eta Sigma, Purdue 500. • Graduated Summa Cum Laude, Purdue University, 1981
Invited Lectures and Presentations (2013):

Water Quality in Lake Logan Martin. Logan Martin Lake Protection Association Annual
Meeting, Pell City, AL, October 2013.

Establishment of Grassroots Capacity in the Clear Creek Watershed.
Haleyville Rotary Club
Meeting, Haleyville, AL, September 2013.

Alabama Water Watch Data Credibility and Applications.
Alabama Water Resources
Conference, Orange Beach, AL, September 2013.

Community-based Watershed Stewardship in Alabama.
Hydrologies Class, Auburn University,
AL, April 2013.

Lake Harding and Alabama Water Watch.
Lake Harding Home Owners Association Annual
Meeting, Lake Harding, AL, March, 2013.

Evaluation of Save Our Saugahatchee Water Monitoring Program.
Save Our Saugahatchee
Meeting, Auburn, AL, February 2013.
Professional Development Activities (Post-Master's Degree):
STEPL and Region 5 Modeling and Load Reduction Training, ADEM, 2005.
MS Access 2000: Understanding Relational Database Design, AU at Montgomery, 2002.
Understanding GIS, the Arc/Info Method, Auburn University, 1996.
Interpretation of Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing Imagery, Auburn University, 1995.
Geographic Information Systems, Auburn University, 1995.
Problem Solving with the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, 1992.
Hydrology and Climatology, Auburn University, 1991.
Management of Aquatic Flora, Auburn University, 1991.
Management of Fish Populations in Small Impoundments, Auburn University, 1991.
SAS Programming, Auburn University, 1991.
Stream Ecology, Auburn University, 1990.
Publications (select):
Saafeld, D. T., E. M. Reutebuch, R. J. Dickey, W. C. Seesock, C. E. Webber, and D. R. Bayne. 2012.
Effects of Landscape Characteristics on Water Quality and Fish Assemblages in the Tallapoosa River Basin, Alabama. Southeastern Naturalist, 11(2):239-252 Reutebuch, E. M. 2012. Citizen Volunteer Watershed Stewardship of Alabama's Reservoirs – Lake Martin Watershed. Alabama Water Watch, Auburn, AL. 32 pp.
Marzen, L., R. Sawant, B. Damghani, S. Sharma, P Srivastava, E. Reutebuch and W. Deutsch.
2010. Comparison of Traditional Pixel Based Classification with Geo-Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat TM Images for the Saugahatchee Watershed, Alabama. Abstract at the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, January, 2011, Seattle, Washington. Deutsch, W., J. Glasier, D. Bronson, W. Seesock, and E. Reutebuch. 2010. Results of the Lake Martin Water Quality Study 2009-2010. Final Report for Alabama Power Company. 40 pp. Reutebuch, E., W. Deutsch, W. Seesock, G. Lockaby, C. Anderson, R. Governo, C. Nagy, and J. D'Angelo. 2010. Saugahatchee Watershed Management Plan - Final Report. Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL. 183 pp. Marzen, L., E. Reutebuch and W. G. Deutsch. 2009. The Case for Best Management Practices to Improve Water Quality in a Rapidly Urbanizing Alabama Watershed. Abstract at the AmericaView Fall Technical Meeting/ASPRS UMC Conference, October 5-7, EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD. Deutsch, W. G., E. Reutebuch, W. Seesock and J. Oates. 2009. On-Farm and Watershed Approaches to Community-Based Nutrient and Pathogen Management - Final Report. Alabama Water Resources Research Institute, Auburn University, AL. 10 pp. Reutebuch, E. M., W. G Deutsch and S. Ruiz-Córdova. 2008. Community-Based Water Quality Monitoring- Data Credibility and Applications. For World Wildlife Fund, Alabama Water Watch, Auburn, AL. 24 pp. Reutebuch, E., W. G. Deutsch, G. Lockaby and W. Seesock. 2008. Implementing SWaMP – the Saugahatchee Watershed Management Plan. Abstract at the ADEM Nineteenth Annual Nonpoint Source Conference, January 30, 2008, Montgomery, AL. Reutebuch, E. M. and W. G Deutsch. 2007. A Transferable Model of Stakeholder Partnerships for Addressing Nutrient Dynamics in Southeastern Watersheds – Final Report – 2006-2007. U. S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Research, Education and Extension Service, Washington D. C. 96 pp. Dougherty, M., D. R. Bayne, L. Curtis, E. M. Reutebuch, W. C. Seesock. 2007. Water quality in a non- traditional off-stream polyethylene-lined reservoir. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 85 (2007) 1015–1023 Deutsch, W., E. Reutebuch, and S. Ruiz-Córdova . 2007. Validity and Applications of Citizen Volunteer Water Quality Data: A Case from Alabama. Water Resources Impact, v. 9 no 5, pp 16-20. Budget Form
REGIONAL  WATER  RESOURCES  RESEARCH  PROJECT   Proposed  Starting  Date:  March  1,  2014    Proposed  Completion  Date:  February  28,  2015    Project  Title:  Examination  of  bacterial  levels  in  water  and  sediment  for  the  development    of  refined  monitoring  protocols  for  inland  recreational  waters    Principal  Investigator:  Luxin  Wang     Cost  Categories  
Estimated  Costs  
Non  Federal  
1.  Salaries  &  Wages  
Principal  Investigator  (3.5  months)   Other  Professional   Staff  (2  months)   Hourly  workers  (2)   (2  months  @  $10/hr)   Total  Salaries  
       &  Wages  
2.  Fringe  Benefits  
3.  Supplies  
4.  Equipment  
5.  Subcontracts  
6.  Travel  

7.  Other  Direct  Costs  
8.  Total  Direct  Costs  
9. Forfeited IDC on
10. IDC on AU COST
11.  TOTAL  COST  
$ 124,726
Budget Justification
Item #3: Supplies:
1. AU Researcher Coliscan Easygel sampling supplies: (3 swim sites * 6 dates * 2 samples/site * 2 times/date) = 72 samples done in triplicate
Order enough for 80 samples @ $8 per triplicate sample = $640
2. AU Researcher FDA methodology sampling supplies: For 72 samples:
$20 per sample for disposables/agar/petrifilms = 72 * 20 = $1,440
$10 per sample for antibiotic resistant test = 72 * 10 = $720
Serotyping = $340
3. AWW Citizen Monitor sampling supplies: (3 swim sites * 6 dates * 2 samples/site * 2 times/date) = 72 samples done in triplicate
Order enough for 80 samples @ $8 per triplicate sample = $640
Total = $3,780
Item #6: Travel: 1. 6 trips to lakes Martin & Logan Martin * (350 miles1/trip * @ $0.82/mile2) = $1,722
2. Per diem @ $75/day * 6 trips * 3 researchers) = $1,350
Total = $3,072

1Distance of one round trip includes early morning travel to site and Lake Martin, followed by
travel to two sites on Lake Logan Martin, followed by return trip for mid-day/afternoon
sampling on Martin and Logan Martin followed by return to AU.
2Auburn University mileage rate = $0.82/mile.
Reporting Requirements
The AWW website ( has been posted since 1998, and is visited
thousands of times per year by volunteer water monitors and the general public. The project will
be prominently displayed on the AWW website. Upon completion of field sampling and quality
assurance checks, a summary of project results and conclusions will be posted on the AWW
website, along with recommendations for inland swimming-area monitoring protocols. The
information and recommendations can be used to advance and improve monitoring of inland
public waters to minimize the threat of bacterial contamination to the public health.
Researchers will also seek publication of one or more papers in refereed technical journals,
proceedings of professional meetings, and/or other appropriate media. A copy of those published
papers will also be sent to the Alabama Water Resources Research Institute to be kept as a part
of the project permanent file. In addition, a synopsis will be submitted 30 days after end of
project period (April 1, 2015) and a project technical completion report will be submitted 60
days after the end of the project period (May 1, 2015).
Appendix: Letters of Support from Collaborating AWW Water Monitoring Groups

Letter of Support from Logan Martin Lake Protection Association
Letter of Support from Lake Watch of Lake Martin


Optimal Power Allocation in Server Farms Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA Pittsburgh, PA, USA Hawthorne, NY, USA improve server farm performance, by a factor of typically Server farms today consume more than 1.5% of the total 1.4 and as much as a factor of 5 in some cases. electricity in the U.S. at a cost of nearly $4.5 billion. Giventhe rising cost of energy, many industries are now seeking


Application of Tixel for Transdermal Delivery Amnon Sintov, PhD Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Maja A. Hofmann, PD Dr. med Charité, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT Background: Tixel is a novel device for thermal fractional skin treatments with low pain in ablative and non-ablative modes.