Medical Care |

Medical Care

##SEVER##

/a/awsassets.wwf.org.au1.html

Chaque forme pharmaceutique présente ses propres avantages et inconvénients acheter du diflucan.

mais n'ont pas d'effets néfastes pour l'organisme dans son ensemble.

A list of australia's most dangerous pesticides v9 no reach references


A list of Australia's most dangerous pesticides July 2010 Jo Immig, Coordinator, National Toxics Network organic pollutant on the basis of its persistence, transported long distances. It found endosulfan Over 8000 pesticide and veterinary products are was "likely, as a result of its long-range registered for use in Australian agriculture, environmental transport, to lead to significant adverse human health and environmental effects, premises, parks, homes and gardens. This such that global action is warranted".ii Endosulfan has been detected in air, water, dangerous pesticides. More than 80 of these are sediment, and biota thousands of kilometers from prohibited in the United Kingdom, France, use areasiii and in the tissue and blood of Arctic Germany and the other 24 member countries of and Antarctic wildlife including seals and whales. the European Union. Endosulfan was prohibited from use in the In Europe, pesticides have to be proven safe – in European Union (EU) following reassessment terms of human health, residues in the food chain because there was insufficient information about and the environment – in order to be allowed on its environmental fate and ecotoxicology, operator the European market. It is the responsibility of exposure under indoor conditions and the route industry to provide the data showing that a and rate of degradation of endosulfan in soil and pesticide can be used safely. water/sediment systems.iv Endosulfan is listed in Australia does not have the same system as the EU Water Policy's Annex X as a priority Europe and our national regulator, the Australian substance for control of pollution in the aquatic Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority environment.v It is also included in the List of (APVMA) does not apply the same precautionary Chemicals for Priority Action by the OSPAR Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment in the North-East Atlantic because of This list also includes 17 pesticides that are its pollution of the marine environment.vi known, likely or probable carcinogens, and 48 pesticides In June 2010, the United States Environmental (hormone) disruptors. More than 20 of the listed Protection Agency (US EPA) announced it would pesticides are classified as either extremely or terminate all uses of endosulfan on the basis of its unacceptable neurological and reproductive risks Organisation. Three of the pesticides are subject to agricultural workers and wildlife.vii Although to actions by International Conventions but are still already a restricted use pesticide, a human health used in Australia. risk assessment found that handler risks were "of concern for most use scenarios, even with Some examples
maximum personal protective equipment or engineering mixing/loading systems or enclosed cabs."viii Despite its ban in more than 60 countries, including New Zealand,i because of health and The APVMA began a review of endosulfan in 1995 and issued its final report in 2005. A key concern registered in Australia for a wide variety of uses, of the review "was to prevent cattle from ingesting including many fruits, vegetables, field crops, nuts endosulfan residues".ix As a result of the review, the APVMA made a number of changes to endosulfan products: declaring them to be Endosulfan is in the final stages of assessment restricted chemical products; requiring users to under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent undertake specified training and keep records of Organic Pollutants (POPs). In October 2009, the use; restricting the number of applications per season in some crops; mandatory buffer zones for concluded that endosulfan was a persistent WWF-Australia. National Toxics Network. All rights reserved. spraying and neighbourhood notification before variety of crops including wheat, oats, barley, rye, application (in cotton only).x triticale, lupin, sugar cane, cotton, coffee, citrus, apples and pears, pawpaw, pineapples, bananas, The APVMA continues to support the registration grapes, asparagus, peas, cut flowers and various of endosulfan. Its current position is that "on the seed crops. It is also registered as a cotton basis of the available evidence, endosulfan can be defoliant, for controlling weeds and algae in and used safely in accordance with the conditions around water bodies and in marine antifouling outlined on product labels."xi Endosulfan has been identified as an endocrine The APVMA began a review of diuron in 2002 disruptor however the APVMA considers "the because of concerns about human health and endocrine disrupting potential of endosulfan is not environmental risks, particularly because of its a significant risk to public health under the existing detection in the Great Barrier Reef. In 2005 the management controls and health standards".xii APVMA released preliminary review findings, The APVMA has identified endosulfan in its priority list of chemicals to be assessed for spray • diuron is posing an unacceptable risk to drift risks due to human health, environmental, corals, seagrass and dugongs in the Great residue and trade concerns. • diuron is posing an unacceptable risk to the environment from 13 of its 22 registered Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in Australian agriculture. It is used to control weeds in sorghum, maize, and sugar cane crops, The APVMA made a number of preliminary and is also used in pine and eucalypt plantations recommendations to change the way diuron can and on triazine-tolerant canola crops.xiii be used but none have yet been implemented. The review has not been completed. Diuron has The APVMA conducted a review of atrazine from subsequently been added to the APVMA's list of 1995 to 2008 due to concerns for human and priority pesticides for spray drift risk assessment animal carcinogenicity, environmental impacts, due to environmental concerns. including the potential for atrazine to contaminate ground The EU originally withdrew diuron under its re- uncertainties. The review affirmed atrazine's approval in Australia and made relatively minor groundwater and birds and mammals were changes to label instructions; updated information deemed unacceptable on the basis of the on withholding periods; and required additional available scientific information.xviii However, a information on weed resistance reporting. further review was undertaken based on additional confidential data provided by the main registrant, The APVMA has identified atrazine in its priority and a recommendation to re-include diuron was list of chemicals to be assessed for spray drift accepted for limited uses under strict conditions. risks due to human health and environmental Diuron application in the EU is now limited to ground in strip-band application under rows, Atrazine was prohibited in the European Union in avoiding drift by using low pressure and shields.xix 2003 following re-assessment. The scientific These conditions address operator safety and the review concluded that atrazine and its breakdown protection of aquatic organisms and non-target products presented a risk to EU groundwater quality standards.xiv Diuron is a known/likely human carcinogen and The US EPA is currently re-evaluating atrazine has been identified as a suspected endocrine because of "the new body of scientific information as well as the documented presence of atrazine in both drinking water sourced and other bodies of Chlorpyrifos is an insecticide used on a wide range of Australian fruit and vegetable crops, Atrazine is a suspected endocrine/reproductive sugar cane, cotton, cereals and pastures, in termite management, home gardens and domestic pests. The APVMA initiated a review of chlorpyrifos in 1996 because of its human toxicity, Diuron is a broad-spectrum residual herbicide and acute toxicity to birds, water pollution potential and algaecide used in Australia to control weeds in a other factors.xx After 14 years, the review is still In 2000, the APVMA released interim findings that the home and garden uses of chlorpyrifos with concentrations of greater than 50g/L could no longer be supported because of acute toxicity concerns. The APVMA also found that there was inadequate residue data for the use of chlorpyrifos in some commodities. In 2009 the APVMA released further findings and recommended a number of use restrictions, as well as extending the withholding periods for products sprayed with chlorpyrifos.xxi It is unclear which, if any, of these recommendations have been implemented. The APVMA has identified chlorpyrifos in its priority list of chemicals to be assessed for spray drift risks due to human health and environmental concerns. In the EU, chlorpyrifos is authorised but only for for registered in the United States but its use there is more restricted compared to Australia. For example, chlorpyrifos is not permitted for use on tomatoes or for post bloom use on apples, home gardens and lawns, inside homes for crack and crevice treatments, post construction termite treatments for barriers and spot treatments, or for any area where children could be exposed to it such as schools and parks.xxii In 2009, the US EPA announced plans to introduce additional limitations on the use of chlorpyrifos to protect 28 species of endangered and threatened salmon and steelhead fish in four US States, following assessment under the US Endangered Species Act.xxiii Table 1: A list of the most dangerous pesticides registered in Australia Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
Acephate
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Bananas, crucifers, macadamias, US EPA: Possible human 1): Human health and ornamentals, potatoes, tobacco, Acifluorfen
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Multiple Broadleaf weeds and grasses in Descriptors, likely to be carcinogenic to humans at high doses, not likely to be carcinogenic to humans at low doses Allethrin
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Household broad spectrum surface carcinogenic to humans spray and insect kil er, mosquitos Aldicarb
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Review completed 2001 Cotton, sugar cane, citrus Prohibited in EU US EPA: Data inadequate Weeds and grasses in sugar cane for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive Cattle (ticks), pigs (mange), cotton evidence of carcinogenic potential to humans Atrazine
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Review completed 2008 TT canola, sorghum, broom mil et, US EPA: Not likely to be Spray drift priority list: Human maize, sweet corn, sugar cane, lupins, carcinogenic to humans health and environmental Eucalyptus and Pinus radiata plantations, grass seed crops, ryegrass seed crops, roadside and rights of way Azaconazole
Prohibited in EU Residual insect spray Prohibited in EU Prohibited in EU Under review since 1994 Fruit, macadamias Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns Bendiocarb
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Household nuisance pests, bananas, carcinogenicity for humans Bensulide
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Selective turf herbicide carcinogenic to humans Bifenthrin
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Review completed 2008 Apricots, bananas, barley, canola, Restricted chemical product citrus, clover, cotton, cucurbits, faba (pre-construction termite beans, field peas, grapes, lucerne, lupins, navy beans, netarines, peaches, pears, plums, poppies, sugar cane, tomatoes, wheat, ants, timber pests, garden and household pests Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive Household nuisance pests evidence of carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Bromoxynil
US EPA: Possible human Trade Advice Notice issued Wheat, barley, cereal rye,oats, triticale, May 2008, concern over linseed, grass pastures and turf Cadusafos
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Bananas, citrus, ginger, sugar cane, carcinogenicity for humans tobacco, tomatoes Carbaryl
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Under review since 1995: Fruit, nuts, vegetables, crops and US EPA: Likely to be Residue and health concerns carcinogenic to humans Carbendazim
US EPA: Possible human Under review since 2007: Bananas, strawberries, ginger seed Residue and occupational pieces (pre-planting), sugar cane setts safety and public health (pre-planting), pasture, red clover and subterranean clover, chickpeas, faba New restrictions introduced in beans, lentils, vetch, macadamias and in timber preservation Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns Carbofuran
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Nominated for review (Priority Rice, sugar cane, tobacco, wheat, carcinogenic to humans 2): Human health Carbosulfan
Prohibited in EU Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive Spray drift priority list: Brassica vegetables, apples, peaches, Environmental concerns carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Prohibited in EU Under review since 1996: Cattle dip and spray, flystrike and Occupational health and mules wound dressing safety, environmental effects Prohibited in EU Nominated for review (Priority Soil and compost fumigation, rabbits, 1): Environmental and human health and residue concerns Chlorthal
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Brassicas, beans, peas, garlic, onions, carrots, potaties, turnips, stawberries, cotton, Lucerne, perennial grass crops, lawns, ornamentals Nominated for review (Priority Almonds, bananas, cucurbits, grapes, carcinogenic to humans 2): Environmental and human ornamentals, peanuts, pulses, stone US EPA: Likely to be fruits, tobacco, vegetables, turf, Pinnus US EPA: Evidence of non- Under review since 1996: Fruit, vegetables, oil seeds, cotton, Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
carcinogenicity for humans Occupational health and cereals, pasture, turf safety, environmental effects Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns Restricted chemical product (pre-construction termite products) US EPA Not likely to be Apples, peaches, nectarines, table and additional provisions to carcinogenic to humans wine grapes, cotton, bananas, protect honey bees introduced by Directive 2010/21/EU Cyanazine
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Nominated for review (Priority Peas, chickpeas, faba beans, lentils, 2): Environmental, human vetches, onions, potatoes, sweet corn Cyfluthrin, *Beta-
US EPA Not likely to be Avocados, brassicas, macadamias, Cyfluthrin
carcinogenic to humans tomatoes, household pests, turf, cattle Cyhalothrin
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Barley, cotton, wheat, various field US EPA: Possible human Seed dressing for wheat and barely, oats, triticale, crops, sheep, household Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Barely, wheat, peanuts, potatoes, carcinogenic to humans at pruning wounds on apples, apricots, doses that do not cause a peaches, plums, ornamentals mitogenic response in the liver US EPA: Not classifiable Under review since 1995. Broadleaf weeds in legume based Spray drift priority list: pastures, lucerne, maize, mil et, Environmental concerns peanuts, sorghum, swetcorn, cereal crops, citrus, pears, sugar cane Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Review completed 1997 Wood preservative, soil fumigant as to human carcinogenicity Diazinon
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Under review since 1996: Turf, pastures, field crops, vegetables, carcinogenic to humans Occupational, public health, plantation and orchard crops, environmental, trade concerns household pests, flea and tick control on pets, cattle, pigs, goats Prohibited in EU Sheep, household insecticide fumigant Prohibited in EU Pavements, lawns, pots and synthetic courts, cats, dogs, horses, cattle, Dichlorprop
Prohibited in EU Spray drift priority list: Plant growth regulator in orange and Environmental concerns mandarin, non-crop rights of way for lantana etc Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
Dichlorvos
Prohibited in EU Under review since 1996: Stored cereal grains, industrial and carcinogenic to humans Occupational, public health, domestic pest control US EPA: Suggestive environmental, trade concerns evidence of carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Diclofop
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Likely to be Spray drift priority list: Wheat, barley, cereal rye, triticale, carcinogenic to humans Environmental concerns Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Cotton, pome and stone fruit, US EPA: Possible human 3): Environmental, human tomatoes, vegetables, strawberries, health and residues concerns grapevines, ornamentals US EPA: Possible human Potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, bananas, macadamias, seed treatment in barley and wheat Dimethipin
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Broadleaf weeds in green beans, navy beans, sweet corn, poppies, pumpkins, kabocha Dimethoate
US EPA: Possible human Under review since 2004: Fruit, vegetables, cereals, Toxicology, occupational citrus,pastures, cotton, lucerne, field health and safety, residues legumes, peanuts, ornamentals, post and trade concerns harvest dipping (eg avocadoes, Spray drift priority list: Human bananas, mangoes, custard apples), health and environmental US EPA: Evidence of non- Under review since 1997: Grasses and broadleaf weeds in many carcinogenicity for humans Environment, public and crops, pre harvest crop desiccation occupational health and potatoes an and seed crops, sugar safety, residue concerns Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns Al owed, under strict US EPA: Known/likely Under review since 2002: Apples, sugar cane, pears, asparagus, Human health and bananas, coffee, cotton, dubosia, environmental concerns citrus, pineapple, wheat, barely, cereal Spray drift priority list: rye, triticale, oats, irrigation channels, Environmental concerns rights of way, commercial and industrial areas Dithianon
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive Stone fruit, pome fruit, vines evidence of carcinogenic potential Disulfoton
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority Lucerne, cotton, potatoes, peas, carcinogenicity for humans 4): Potential to cause harm beans, bulbs, gladioli Endosulfan
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Review completed 2005 Numerous field crops, vegetables, tree carcinogenic to humans Restricted chemical product and vine crops, nursery crops, Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
assessed for inclusion Spray drift priority list: ornamentals, wildflowers, tobacco under the Stockholm Environmental concerns, human health and residue and Persistent Organic Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Cotton, cattle, horses, cats, dogs carcinogenicity for humans metabolism, Parasiticide Ethylene
Fumigant in flour mil s and food dichloride
processing plants Ethylene oxide
Prohibited in EU IARC: Carcinogenic to Fumigation, sterilisation, spray Wetting agent, Sanitiser Fenamiphos
US EPA: Evidence of non- Under review since 2003: Aloe vera, bananas, citrus, crucifers, carcinogenicity for humans Public health, occupational cucurbits, carrots, beetroot, onions, health and safety, celery, sweet potatoes, lettuce, endive, environment and residues in parsnips, grapevines, mushrooms, pineapples, potatoes, strawberries, sugar cane, tobacco, tomatoes, turf, ornamentals Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Under review since 1996: Various broad acre and horticultural carcinogenicity for humans Worker health and safety and crops, pastures, stored cereal grain environmental concerns pests, locust and grasshopper Fenoxycarb
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Likely to be Apples, pears, household pests carcinogenic to humans Fenthion
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Under review since 1994: Tree and vine crops, post harvest carcinogenicity for humans Public health, occupational treatments, capsicums, tomatoes, health and safety, ornamentals, nuisance and public environmental, food residue health pests, restricted non-native bird Restricted chemical product (vertebrate poison) Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns Fenvalerate
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Field crops, pasture, vegetable crops, US EPA: Evidence of non- carcinogenicity for humans Fipronil
US EPA: Not likely to be Under review since 2003: Cats, dogs, seed treatment (canola, additional provisions to carcinogenic to humans Toxicity, toxic photo sorghum, sunflowers), household protect honey bees degradation products, pests, turf, grasshoppers, locusts introduced by Directive occupational health and safety issues, animal safety and the adequacy of label instructions Fluometuron
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
US EPA: Possible human carcinogen Glufosinate
US EPA: Not likely to be Spray drift priority list: Human Broadleaf and grass weeds in many carcinogenic to humans health and environmental crops, forestry, rights of way, industrial areas, GE cotton varieties Guazatine
Prohibited in EU Citrus, tomatoes, rockmelons Haloxyfop
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Probable human Grass weeds in grain legume, oilseed crops, lucerne, pastures, seed crops, forestry, bananas, citrus, grapes, pineapples, pome fruit, stone fruit, pyrethrum, tropical fruit, nut crops Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Apples, pears, wine grapes, Hexazinone
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Pinus Radiata plantations, sugar cane, 2): Human health and grazing pastures, around agricultural environmental concerns buildings, commercial and industrial Spray drift priority list: Human areas, rights of way, health and environmental concerns Prohibited in EU Household pests (eg ants, Imazalil
US EPA: Likely to be Postharvest diseases citrus, apples, carcinogenic to humans pears, rock melons, potatoes Iprodione
US EPA: Likely to be Ornamentals, turf, lupins, potatoes, carcinogenic to humans smal fruit, berries, grapes, kiwifruit, mandarins, passion fruit, stone fruit, almonds, macadamias, celery, lettuces , strawberries, tomatoe Nominated for review (Priority Rotterdam Convention carcinogenic to humans Listed under LRTAP US EPA: Suggestive International ban carcinogenicity, but not under the Stockholm sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Australia is yet to ratify. US EPA: Possible human Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, carrots, parsnips, coriander seed crops, onions, soybeans, maize, sweet corn Malathion
IARC: Not classifiable Under review since 2003: Ornamentals, apples, pears, citrus, (maldison)
US EPA: Suggestive Toxicity and human health fruit trees, grapevines, stone fruit, and safety concerns cereals, pastures, lucerne, rapeseed, carcinogenicity, but not rice, cucurbits, tomatoes, vegetables, sufficient to assess human grain storage, animal quarters, carcinogenic potential Eucalpyts, mosquitoes, tobacco Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
Mancozeb
US EPA: Probable human Field crops, fruit, ornamentals, turf, US EPA: Not likely to be Nominated for review (Priority Turf, wheat, oats, barley, cereal rye, carcinogenic to humans 3): Environmental and human triticale, linseed, pastures, home health concerns. Spray drift priority list Mecoprop
US EPA: Suggestive Spray drift priority list: Environmental concerns carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Mercuric chloride
Review completed 1992 Rotterdam Convention carcinogenic to humans *Soil monitoring to be undertaken to confirm that soil mercury levels do not exceed background levels Metaldehyde
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive Nominated for review (Priority Snails and slugs evidence of carcinogenic 2): Human health concerns Prohibited in EU Under review since 2002: 4 (2 products Brassicas, capsicums, lupins, High acute and chronic at 580g/L) ornamentals, peaches, peanuts, Rotterdam Convention toxicity, delayed neurotoxicity potatoes, tomatoes (600g/L formulation and higher) Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Under review since 2002: Orchards, sub tropical crops, Toxicity, worker safety, vegetables, cereals, pastures, forage residue and dietary risk crops, cotton, rice, sunflowers Methiocarb
US EPA: Not classifiable Under review since 1995: Snails and slugs Public health, occupational health and safety, residues, and the environment Methomyl
US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority Cereals, fruit, legumes, cotton, carcinogenicity for humans 1): Human health and residue duboisia, hops, oilseed crops, tobacco, potatoes, vegetables, pastures, peanuts, ginger, fly bait Methyl bromide
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Review completed in 2007 Fumigant and soil sterilant for critical Listed under Montreal US EPA: Not likely to be use exemptions, quarantine and pre- Protocol, Australia carcinogenic to humans committed to a total phase out for horticultural uses by 2005 Mevinphos
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Review completed 2002 Brassicas (cabbages, cauliflower, carcinogenic to humans Restricted chemical product broccoli), Brussels sprouts Molinate
US EPA: Suggestive Under review since 2003: Toxicological, occupational Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
carcinogenicity, but not health and safety and sufficient to assess human environmental concerns carcinogenic potential Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Apples, pears, strawberries, roses and carcinogenicity for humans Omethoate
Prohibited in EU Under review since 2004: Pastures, cereals, oilseed, legumes, Toxicology, occupational lucerne, cotton, apples, bananas, health and safety, residues citrus, lupins, onions, pears, potatoes, ornamentals, fruit, vegetables (home garden) Oxadixyl
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Cucurbits, lettuce, onions, grapevines Plant regulator, Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Turf, mango, stonefruit, apple as to human carcinogenicity Paraquat
Prohibited in EU Under review since 1997: Bananas, orchards and vineyards, rice, Occupational health and pasture, seed crops, lucerne, hay safety and environment risks. freezing, peanuts, potatoes, Spray drift priority list: Human vegetables, sugar cane, health and environmental concerns Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Under review since 1996: Cotton, cruciferous forage, citrus, Worker health and safety, pome and stone fruit, grapevines, Rotterdam Convention environmental risks, including (EC at or above 19.5% high toxicity to bees. AC and dusts 1.5% Spray drift priority list: Human health and environmental concerns US EPA: Possible human Turf, various crops eg wheat, barley, peas, cotton, sunflowers, canola, vegetables, maize, onions, sugar cane Permethrin
Prohibited in EU IARC Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Household pests, dogs, horses, sheep, US EPA: Likely to be 3): Human health, seed treatment, wood preservative, carcinogenic to humans environment and residue commercial and industrial, various Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority Cotton, ornamentals, vegetables carcinogenicity for humans 2): Human health concerns (carrots, onions, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, potatoes, tomatoes) US EPA: Suggestive Nominated for review (Priority Cereals, lucerne, pasture, seed crops 4): Human health concerns carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Picloram
IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Barley, canary grass, oats, triticale, US EPA: Evidence of non- 3): Human health and wheat, linseed, non-crop areas, Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
carcinogenicity for humans environmental concerns commercial and industrial areas Piperonyl
Prohibited as plant IARC: Not classifiable Cats, dogs, household pests, butoxide
protection product US EPA: Possible human commercial stored products pests, restaurants, public service areas, offices, hotels, bottling plants Pirimicarb
US EPA: Likely to be Fruit crops tree and vine, vegetables, carcinogenic to humans ornamentals, broad acre crops Prochloraz
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Tropical fruits, pineapple, sugar cane, mushrooms, lettuce, proteas, violas, turf Profenofos
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority carcinogenicity for humans 1): Human health concerns Propachlor
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Likely to be Maize, sorghum, sweet corn, carcinogenic to humans Propanil
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not likely to be Review concluded 2009 Sheep blowfly strike dressing carcinogenic to humans Sheep Ectoparasiticide review US EPA: Possible human Nominated for review (Priority Bananas, barley, oats, peanuts, 1): Spray drift risks human perennial ryegrass, pineapples, stone heath and environmental fruit, sugar cane, oats, wheat, mushroom trays and beds Propoxur
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Probable human Prothiofos
Prohibited in EU Bananas, vegetables, table grapes, Pyraclofos
Prohibited in EU Pyridaben
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- carcinogenicity for humans Quizalofop
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Broadleaf vegetables and crops as to human carcinogenicity Rotenone
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority Vegetables, ornamentals, dogs, cats carcinogenicity for humans 2): Human health pesticide, Parasiticide Simazine
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Swimming pools, dams, tanks, US EPA: Not likely to be 2): Environmental, human troughs, commercial and industrial carcinogenic to humans areas, TT canola, faba beans, asparagus, berry fruits, citrus, almonds, hops, gladioli, apples, pears, roses, vineyards, chickpeas, Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
strawberries, pastures, lupins, US EPA: Possible human Seed dressing wheat, barley, oats, bananas, peanuts, cereal crops, beans, peas, onions, papaw, pyrethrum, ryegrass Tebuthiuron
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Tea tree, grazing land as to human carcinogenicity Terbufos
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Evidence of non- Nominated for review (Priority Bananas, maize, sorghum, sweet corn, carcinogenicity for humans 2): Environmental, human wheat, peanuts, sunflowers, barely US EPA: Likely to be carcinogenic to humans Thiacloprid
US EPA: Likely to be Apples, pome fruit, stone fruit carcinogenic to humans Thiobencarb
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority 2): Environmental, human health and residues concerns Thiodicarb
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Probable human Spray drift priority list: Human Brassica, cotton, maize, sweet corn, health and environmental pulses, tomatoes, tobacco IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Turf, bowling greens, golf greens, US EPA: Not likely to be 2): Environmental, human grapes, pome fruit, seeds, stone fruits, carcinogenic to humans health and residues concerns strawberries, vegetables, ornamentals, crops, boats Triadimefon
Prohibited in EU US EPA: Possible human Wheat, barely, peas, curcurbits, grapevines, sugar cane, azaleas Triadimenol
US EPA: Possible human Brassica vegetables, cucurbits, grapevines, papaws, sugar cane, seed dressing (wheat, barely, oats), turf Trichlorfon
Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Canola, cereal crops, grass seed US EPA: Multiple 1): Environmental, human crops, legumes, linseed, lupins, lucern, Descriptors, likely to be health and residues concerns maize, rice, pasture, safflower, carcinogenic to humans at sorghum, tobacco, avocado, high doses, not likely to be grapevines, guava, macadamia, carcinogenic to humans at pawpaw, passionfruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, fish aquariums Zeta cypermethrin
US EPA: Possible human Cabbages, cauliflowers, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, turnips, winter cereals, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lupins, maize, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers, sweet corn, tobacco, and tomatoes Prohibited in EU IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Boats, turf, beans, bananas, beets, Pesticide
Function
EU Status and
Potential carcinogen
Potential
APVMA status
Examples of registered uses in
endocrine
registered
Australia
Conventions
disruptor
products in
Australia
2): Environmental, human carrots, cauliflower, cabbages, celery, health and residues concerns cucurbits, egg plant, onions, peas, crucifers, snow peas, sugar snap peas, peppers, potatoes, ornamentals, strawberries, tobacco, tomatoes IARC: Not classifiable Nominated for review (Priority Apples, grapes, pears, stone fruit, US EPA: Suggestive 2): Environmental, human health and residues concerns carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential Table notes
reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution. Australia is not a participant. Pesticide
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Pesticide refers to the active ingredient registered by Ozone Layer
the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines The Protocol sets out a mandatory timetable for the Authority (APVMA), as listed on their Registered phase out of ozone depleting substances. This timetable has been under constant revision, with phase- www.apvma.gov.au out dates accelerated in accordance with scientific understanding and technological advances. Australia EU Status and International Conventions
has ratified all amendments to the Protocol and In 1993 the European Commission started a implements it obligations through the Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989 (agricultural products) within the European Union, which is now complete. The evaluation, marketing and use of The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides etc.) in Pollutants
plant protection in the Community are regulated under The object of Stockholm Convention is to protect human Council Directive 91/414/EEC. This Directive lays out a health and the environment from persistent organic comprehensive risk assessment and authorisation pollutants (POPs). POPs include the organochlorine pesticides: DDT, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, chlordane, containing these substances. toxaphene, heptachlor, mirex and hexachlorobenzene. Many of these pesticides were used in Australia. The The review of existing pesticides has led to the removal Convention sets out the actions to be taken by Parties from the market of pesticides which cannot be used to reduce and where feasible, eliminate releases of safely. Of some 1,000 active substances on the market byproduct POPs chemicals. Australia ratified the in at least one Member State before 1993, 26%, Convention on 20 May 2004 and became a Party on 18 corresponding to about 250 substances, have passed August 2004. The Australian Government has the harmonised EU safety assessment. The majority of developed Australia's National Implementation Plan substances (67%) have been eliminated because (NIP), which outlines the actions that Australia will take dossiers were either not submitted, incomplete or to meet its obligations. The NIP also sets out the roles withdrawn by industry. About 70 substances failed the and responsibilities of Australian governments, the review and have been removed from the market, Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC) because the evaluation carried out did not show safe and other ministerial councils in the management of use with respect to human health and the environment. In Table 1 "Prohibited in the EU" means the pesticide is not included in Directive 91/414/EEC and is therefore ternational/pop.html prohibited in the EU. WHO Classification
The EU Pesticides Database of active substances can In 2009, the World Health Organisation (WHO) released be found at http://ec.europa.eu/sanco_pesticides a document on the Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification. Rotterdam Convention
The majority of the classifications are made on the The Rotterdam Convention entered into force on 24 acute oral and dermal toxicity LD50 value to the rat. See February 2004. The Convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of a Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure. PIC is an early warning system about all bans and severe restrictions on NB. For the purposes of developing this table, only pesticides. Pesticides that have been banned by two pesticides with WHO Class 1a, Ib and II were selected. countries in two regions of the world, under criteria in Occasionally another class is included because the the Convention, are entered on a PIC List, and pesticide has been prohibited in the EU. importing countries must indicate whether they allow or Potential carcinogens
prohibit import. Exporting countries must ensure compliance. Annex III currently lists 40 chemicals International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
including 29 pesticides, four severely hazardous The WHO International Agency for Research on pesticide formulations and 11 industrial chemicals. Cancer's Monographs identify environmental factors Australia is a signatory and ratified the Convention in that can increase the risk of human cancer. These 2004. See www.pic.int include chemicals, complex mixtures, occupational exposures, physical agents, biological agents, and Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air
lifestyle factors. Since 1971, more than 900 agents have Pollution (LRTAP)
been evaluated, of which approximately 400 have been The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air identified as carcinogenic, probably carcinogenic, or Pollution of the UN Economic Commission for Europe carcinogenic covers chemicals that travel long distances. A 1998 www.monographs.iarc.fr Protocol formed the basis of the Stockholm Convention. The aim of the Convention is that Parties shall U.S Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
endeavour to limit and, as far as possible, gradually The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs provides a list* of exposure potential only and it should not be of pesticides evaluated for carcinogenicity by EPA's construed as a list of known or likely endocrine Pesticide Program through to August 2009. In evaluating and describing the potential carcinogenicity of a pesticide, EPA's Pesticide Program follows the Number of Registered Products in Australia
Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (see Formulated pesticide products are registered by the APVMA and listed on the Registered Chemicals Product Database PUBCRIS. PUBCRIS also includes the The Health Effects Division of the Pesticide Program registered ‘active ingredient' as a product. The number performs an independent review of all the available evidence to determine the carcinogenic potential of formulated products and active ingredients. See pesticides. The results of the independent review are www.apvma.gov.au peer-reviewed by the Cancer Assessment Review Committee. *The list is called the "Office of Pesticide APVMA Status
Programs List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Chemical Review Program
Potential" and can be obtained by email from The APVMA has powers to conduct reviews of registered chemicals. The Chemical Review Program can reconsider the registration of agricultural and Potential endocrine disruptors
veterinary chemicals in the marketplace if potential risks The endocrine system is a complex network of glands, to safety and performance have been identified. A hormones and receptors. It provides the key review may be initiated when new research or evidence communication and control link between the nervous has raised concerns about the use or safety of a system and bodily functions such as reproduction, particular chemical or product. Reviews may focus on immunity, metabolism and behaviour. An endocrine one or more areas of concern including environmental disrupter is a substance or mixture that alters function of safety, worker safety, public health, residues or trade, or the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse less commonly, may consider product efficacy. health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. The main evidence suggesting that Restricted Chemical Products
exposure to environmental chemicals can lead to Products declared to be restricted chemical products disruption of endocrine function comes from changes (RCPs) can only be used by an "authorised person". seen in a number of wildlife species. Effects suggested The relevant Australian State or Territory authority as being related to endocrine disruption have been determines who may be considered as an "authorised reported in molluscs, crustacea, fish, reptiles, birds and person" based on advice from the APVMA following a mammals in various parts of the world. risk assessment of the chemical product. Australian State and Territory authorities implement the RCP European Union (EU)
The European Union has a Strategy for Endocrine legislative frameworks by authorising persons to access Disruptors with a list of substances suspected of RCPs once they have successfully completed the interfering with the hormone systems of humans and relevant training, and/or other requirements. There are wildlife. In Table 1 "Category 1" indicates there is at currently 14 chemicals where all or certain uses of the least one study providing evidence of endocrine products have been declared to be restricted. See disruption in an intact organism. "Category 2" means the Priority List for Spray Drift Label Reviews
ec_2007_1635_en.pdf The APVMA has committed to assessing and updating the labels of all currently registered products subject to Our Stolen Future (OSF)
spray drift regulation to include comprehensive Our Stolen Future is a book published in 1997 by Dr instructions for managing spray drift risk. The APVMA Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski and Dr John has begun this process with pesticides listed in the Peterson Myers, which documents research into Priority List for Spray Drift Label Reviews. These initial chemicals which interfere with hormones. The authors pesticides have been selected based on their hazard have also set up a website www.ourstolenfuture.org characteristics, their amounts of use and their which is regularly updated with developments in involvement in adverse incidents. The areas of concern research and policy on endocrine disrupting chemicals that have resulted in the pesticides being placed on the (EDCs). The OSF list of EDCs is referenced and can be priority list are: human health concerns (bystander environmental concerns including damage to crops; United States Environmental Protection Authority
(US EPA) (Screen List)
The United States Environmental Protection Authority has a Final List of Initial Pesticide Active Ingredients and Pesticide Inert Ingredients to be Screened under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The Final List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program was selected on the basis Endnotes
Pesticide Action Network, Asia and the Pacific 2009, Endosulfan Monograph, ii Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee 2009, Invitation to review and provide comments on draft risk management evaluation on endosulfan and to submit additional information, iii US EPA 2010, EPA action to terminate endosulfan, iv European Commission 2005, Review report for the active substance endosulfan, SANCO/4327/2000-rev.2 EU 2001, Decision No 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001, amending Directive 2000/60/EC, Official Journal of the European Communities L331/1, December 15, http://eur- OSPAR 2006, OSPAR List of Chemicals for Priority Action (Update 2007), http://www.ospar.org vii US EPA 2010, EPA Moves to Terminate All Uses of Insecticide Endosulfan to Protect Health of Farmworkers and Wildlife, -cancl-fs.html viii US EPA 2010, EPA action to terminate endosulfan, APVMA 2005, The reconsideration of approval of the active constituent Endosulfan, registrations of products containing Endosulfan and their associated labels: Final Review report and WWF-Australia is part of the WWF International
Regulatory Decision, Review Series 2, Network, the world's largest and most experienced independent conservation organisation. It has close to five million supporters and a global network active in xi APVMA 2010, Chemicals in the News: Endosulfan, more than 100 countries. xii APVMA 2005, The reconsideration of approval of the active WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of the planet's constituent Endosulfan, registrations of products containing natural environment and to build a future in which Endosulfan and their associated labels: Final Review report and humans live in harmony with nature, by: Regulatory Decision, Review Series 2, • conserving the world's biological diversity; • ensuring that the use of renewable natural xiii APVMA 2010, Atrazine Toxicity: Analysis of Potential Modes of resources is sustainable; and • promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful xiv European Commission 2003, Review report for the active substance atrazine, SANCO/10496/2003 National Toxics Network
xv US EPA 2009, New Atrazine evaluation process, The National Toxics Network (NTN) is a community
based network working globally to ensure a toxic-free xvi APVMA 2005, The Reconsideration of Approvals of the Active future for all. NTN supports communities involved in Constituent Diuron, Registrations of Products containing Diuron hazardous waste management, pesticide pollution, and their Associated Labels: Preliminary Review Findings, Volume industrial chemical pollution and environmental health issues. NTN committee members are involved in a range of national advisory bodies including the Hazardous Waste Reference Group, the Stockholm xviii European Commission 2008, Review report for the active Stakeholders Reference Group, the National Industrial substance diuron, SANCO/2184/2008 rev 3 Community Engagement Forum and the Australian National Registration Authority 2000, NRA Review of Chlorpyrifos, Community Consultative Committee. NTN is the Australian focal point for the International POPs xxi APVMA 2009, Chlorpyrifos: Preliminary Review Findings Report Elimination Network (IPEN) and a member of the NGO on additional Residues Data, delegation to the POPs Review Committee which is the UN scientific committee assessing new POPs' xxii US EPA 2002, Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision for nominations. NTN participates in the Strategic Approach Chlorpyrifos to International Chemical Management and is part of the xxiii US EPA 2010, New Limits on Pesticide Uses Will Protect
NGO delegation to the negotiations for a global Mercury

Source: http://awsassets.wwf.org.au/downloads/fs025_a_list_of_australias_most_dangerous_pesticides_1jul10.pdf

Microsoft word - security_guards.docx

Security Guards A guide for newcomers to British Columbia Security Guards A guide for newcomers to British Columbia Contents 1. Working as a Security Guard [NOC 6541] . 2 2. Skills, Education and Experience . 7 3. Finding Jobs . 9 4. Applying for a Job . 11 5. Getting Help from Industry Sources . 12  1. Working as a Security Guard [NOC 6541]

Doi:10.1080/08910600410026355

Periodontal Disease, Matrix Metalloproteinases andChemically Modified Tetracyclines From the Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Correspondence to: Svein Steinsvoll, Sagvollveien 1, 2830 Raufoss, Norway. Tel.: / 47 61191481; Fax: /4761191481; E-mail: sebstein@online.no Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2004; 16: 1 /7