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Ethical shopping guide to tea


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been a contributor to carbon emissions which had a damaging razors & shavers effect on the environment. (ref: 3) No palm oil policy (July 2009)
estry policy (2008)
received negative the marks for climate change, impact on endangered species and habitat destruction, to which were all results of unsustainable palm oil n Palm oil is used in ECRA array of consumer products. (ref: 4) Owned by Asda Group Ltd Pollution & Toxics
Asda Group Ltd, Corporate Social Responsibility, Asda, ASDA House, Southbank, Great Wilson Street, Leeds, LS11 5AD, s clothes coated with the
eflon (May 2007)
website was visited in May 2007 and to thhold their custom. (ref: 12) ging be selling children's clothes coated with Teflon. Chemicals Asda Group Ltd is owned by Wal-Mart Stores Inc as Teflon, belonging to the "non-stick" family assessment Sale of meat not labelled as fr
Wal-Mart Stores Inc, PO Box 1039, Bentonville, Arkansas, chemicals (PFCs) had been classified as cancer-causing by as 72716-8611, USA US Environmental Protection Agency and Wal-Mart Stores Inc also owns ASDA Extra Special chocolate organic (2008)
a wide range of ECRA species including polar bears, dolphins and importance would humans worldwide. campaigners had called for PFCs to be replaced with safer alternatives especially in clothing and other consumer products. mark in this category eflon were used in many school trousers and skirts to give them that durability and are still sold frequently labelled "non-iron". (ref: 5) Middle ECRA rating for environmental report (August
No policy for reduction of harmful chemicals (2008)
can cancel at any time in the first four weeks for a full refund. Human Rights
In May/June 2009, ECRA contacted Asda and a copy of the Wal-Mart did not respond to a request made by ECRA in October Conflict Diamond S
company's environment report was requested. The company did information on its policies for dealing with harmful orst ECRA
not respond. On 8th July 2009, a search of the company website chemicals in its products. A statement naming three priority urvey Results (May 2007)
rating for
was made. Under the section "Sustainability", information chemicals of concern, identified by Wal-Mart in 2006, was not doing enough." about the company's environmental activities was found. The company's website section contained at least 2 future, dated, quantified targets. November 2008. The document stated that Wal-Mart had worked a were mentioned in t No evidence of independent verification of the section could with timeline for the eradication of be found. The website had a copyright date of 2008 and the these research concern. However, ASDA section text appeared to be current. No mention of the issue of information on further research the the business being dependent, at the time of writing, on customer identify ing other harmful i.e. chemicals. ECRA did not consider this to demonstrate any real the car use, could be found. Although the section covered several the reduction of state environmental aspects, there was no mention of pesticides and and pesticides in the A products, and as such, it received other agricultural impacts that occur as a result of producing a negative mark in this category of any jewellery trade a Shopping endorsed goods for the company, therefore the company was not deemed pollution and fine (2004)
to have a reasonable understanding of the main environmental ssociations. (r and impacts of its business. The company was given ECRA's middle rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 1) Impact,' Wal-Mart had licy According om
Norwegian pension fund (2006)
been accused of indifference to evidence Sale of factory farmed turk
Poor independent rating on CSR in supermarkets
that pesticides and fertilisers were escaping into Standard' o ‘Su gardening products stored unprotected in its car parks. It was ey (2006)
Ethical Performance November 2006 reported that Asda received announced Indonesia' 2004 by the US Environmental Protection a poor rating (rated as a ‘D') in a report by the National Consumer Agency for Clean water Act violations. (ref: 6) Council on supermarkets' progress on corporate responsibility. The also intensively reared. ( rating covered supermarkets progress on CSR factors including: Subscribe via our website (click the sign up tab below), or call us on 0161 226 2929 ajority ASDA orkers' rights".
Factory farmed chicke
Habitats & Resour of
commitment to stocking seasonal food and organics, sustainable ref: 10) ces ducks
rights abuses in
sourcing policies and attempts at cutting waste. (ref: 2) Voters say no to Wal-Mart (March 2004)
eported that v Animal oters from Inglewood in Los A Policy on stocking local produce (October 2008)
had voted in March 2003 not to let Wal-Mart build a store SweatFree Wal-Mart did not respond to a request made by ECRA neighbourhood. According to the Ecologist, Wal-Mart in 2008 for details on its policy towards stocking locally of piece of land the size of nearly 20 the factory pitches, yet didn't see the need for an environmental public hearings. The Ecologist said locals voted 61 to Products', which stated that Wal-Mart noted that cent against the project. (ref: 227) grown produce was "a hot marketplace trend". Howeveand r, no figures CIW were given for the percentage of Wal-Mart's Announcement of sustainable fishing policy (2006)
According to the March 2006 issue of ENDS Report, W for by local produce. ECRA also downloaded a were ‘fast-gto document with CIWF $24 per month. (re the title "Wal-Mart makes national commitment to buy locally announced that it was implementing p policy on sourcing Animal Rights strains. (ref:
Lawsuit over
of sustainable fish. The ckens company was a result. grown produce", but again, this contained no figures for sales and Sea Shepherd Boy
sold said to have claimed that Banglades
within three to five years all fish in North ASDA set no targets to increase sales of local produce. According h working condi
cott (5 Mar
be sourced in line with Marine Stewardship Council guidelines, consider that this constituted a real commitment accessed sales of locally produced products, and as a result the tions (2006)
that UK subsidiary ASDA would be following suit after being named the country's worst supermarket in ation.ittefaq.com, received a negative mark in this category. It themselves had been noted by Greenpeace. The society announcement was said to cover international environmental campaigners that the issue of chain ‘food miles' of distance travelled by a product from supplier to consumer Seiyu wild-caught fish but no mention was made of dolphin meat.
outside the USA the have chosen to use US alien and UK. (ref: 228) hearing in Bangladesh. (re ganisation Conduct (Monday to Friday).
and Gender
discrimination lawsuits
trial sign up
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v Bukhal Dr acheslaVy The global tea industry has a history of poor wages and working
conditions, damaging biodiversity and overusing pesticides. Jane Turner
and Heather Webb ask how we can help to make a better cup of tea.

After water, tea is the most popular life on a Fairtrade tea estate and then lucrative stages in the overall process – are drink in the world, with 70,000 life on some Rainforest Alliance ones on mainly carried out by the tea brands in the cups drunk every second. Tea is a buyer countries.2 British institution. We are second only to On page 19 we examine the The buying side of the tea supply chain Ireland in the global tea drinking league. environmental impact of tea. Monoculture is very concentrated, which gives the In this guide we look at tea from the plantations decrease biodiversity and companies involved a high level of power tea plant Camel ia sinensis, an evergreen increase the need for pesticides whilst over the prices paid to producers. Just plant that grows mainly in tropical and processing tea requires a lot of energy. four corporations dominate the global subtropical climates and which contains And on page 20 we explain how the way tea trade: Unilever (which produces caffeine. This includes black teas; like you make a cup of tea can affect its carbon Lipton and PG Tips), Tata Tea (which English Breakfast tea, Darjeeling and Earl produces Tetley), Van Rees (a tea trading Grey; and green, white, Oolong and company) and James Finlay (a tea packing Pu-erh teas. We rate over 25 brands on The global tea industry company).2
In addition, we look at non-caffeinated Although global prices for tea are at teas – rooibos and herbal and fruit historical y high levels,4 in real terms History of tea
infusions, like chamomile or peppermint. (accounting for inflation) the prices paid Tea probably originated in China as We rate 26 brands on page 18.
to producers are barely level with, or are even below, where they were 30 years ago.5 a medicinal drink. Tea in mandarin is Poor wages and conditions for tea Tea farmers and tea workers are the most called cha but in the Amoy dialect tea workers remain the vulnerable in the is te (pronounced "tay"). stand-out problem tea supply chain, Catherine of Braganza, the Portuguese for tea. In response A tea picker makes just having very little queen of Charles II, brought tea- to concerns about 1p for each £1.60 box of bargaining power drinking to the English royal court, and declining living tea bags sold in a British in a market littered set a trend for the beverage among standards, a range the aristocracy of England in the of ethical initiatives and dominated by a seventeenth century. Only when the tax on tea was slashed in 1785 did few big companies.
make the tea industry more equitable. it become a drink affordable by the But Oxfam reveals on page 10 that even According to UK charity War on Want, Fairtrade standards have not managed to the structure of the global supply chain The British introduced tea to India, in ful y address the problem of a living wage.
means that the lion's share of profits is order to compete with the then Chinese captured by these big companies. Since we last looked at tea, a majority of monopoly on the product. It was also the bigger brands are buying their tea from Tea is usual y exported after primary grown in other colonial outposts such Rainforest Alliance sources. On page 14, processing (drying and bulk packaging). as Kenya and Malawi. Today, China followed by India remain the top two we look at how that certification compares This means that blending, final packaging to Fairtrade. Plus, on page 16 we look at and marketing – which are the most Teapicking in Kenya.
Prices paid to
producers are barely
level with, or are even
below, where they
were 30 years ago.
aph Jon Spaull
In the UK, the retail market is similarly tea-producing country. Instead, whilst with an ethiscore of 6.5 followed by Marks concentrated, with the top four companies multinational corporations reap large & Spencer.6 The five other supermarkets controlling 74% of the retail market by rewards, tea workers are condemned to scored 4 or less.
value: Tetley (Tata), PG Tips (Unilever), a life of penury. A tea picker makes just All Co-op's own brand tea has been Twinings (Associated British Foods) and 1p for each £1.60 box of tea bags sold in a Fairtrade since 2008 and Marks & Yorkshire Tea (Taylors of Harrogate). PG British supermarket.2 Spencer's from 2006. They both also sell Tips and Tetley alone account for around own-brand tea that is both Fairtrade and half of the tea sold.1 As tea passes through the tea brands and retailers, (the final two stages of its Supermarket own-brands account for only journey to the consumer), they capture a 20% of the market so we have not included massive 86% of the value added, compared them in this guide. See our guide to the Who makes money from your
to 7% for the producing country.2 seven major Supermarkets in Issue 141, March/April 2013 for all their ratings.
Very little of the profits included in the retail price of a box of tea goes to the In that guide, the Co-op was the best Did you know?.
Friends of the Earth are campaigning for a Make It Better law which would ensure
that companies take responsibility for their impact on the natural world and the
rights of people in their supply chains. Go to the FoE website to sign the petition
to Vince Cable supporting the law. Here are their five facts about tea.
1. A nation of tea lovers
We drink 165 million cups of tea a day in the UK. That is over three cups for
every man, woman and child and more than twice as many as cups of coffee
drunk a day.
Source: War on Want, ‘A Bitter Cup – The exploitation 2. Luxury tea
of tea workers in India and Kenya supplying British The world's most expensive tea bag is valued at £7,500. It was created to supermarkets' July 2010 celebrate 75 years of PG Tips and it's studded with 280 diamonds.
3. Health benefits of tea
Antioxidants, found in black and green tea, are said to be beneficial to health.
References: 1 Mintel Tea and Other Hot Drinks, June
2013 2 War on Want, ‘A Bitter Cup – The exploitation
of tea workers in India and Kenya supplying British
In the UK we drink 98% of our tea with milk. supermarkets' July 2010 3 RealiTEA: The bitter
5. Tea for social change
compromise in our cup of tea, Cafedirect, 18th
June 2013 4 UN FAO (2012) ‘Firm tea prices set to
Tea shops were socially acceptable places for Victorian women to meet without men, giving the suffragettes a place to plan campaigns to win votes for women.
item/124221/icode/ 5 Fairtrade International (2013)
‘Tea'. Av
Fairtrade and Rainforest
Alliance failing to deliver
a living wage?
A report this year from Oxfam found that tea pickers'
wages are often below the poverty line, whether they are
on certified or non-certified estates. Joanna Long explains.

It was out of concern over wages become vulnerable to traffickers. They are Ethical certification also brings in the tea industry that a group of promised good jobs and exciting lives in workers a number of other financial organisations, led by Oxfam and the city but end up in domestic slavery, and non-financial benefits, which were the Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP), suffering physical and sexual abuse. Few also not looked at in Oxfam's research. commissioned an investigation into are paid and some never see their families For example, Fairtrade means better workers' pay and benefits on plantations in again.
conditions in terms of overtime, maternity, Malawi, West Java in Indonesia and Assam Low tea plantation wages feed the and written contracts. Also the Fairtrade in India.1 These areas were chosen to be supply of traffickers as well as slaves. Why premium is paid on top of the Fairtrade representative of the tea export market and work on the local tea plantation for 500 price and producers decide how to invest included a mix of ethical y certified and rupees per month when you could earn it – usual y in education, healthcare, farm non-certified estates. 4,000-10,000 rupees per girl from a Delhi improvements or processing facilities – to The report found that the tea industry ‘placement agency'? increase income. currently pays poverty wages. These are often blanket rates that hover around the What's going to
producing country's legal minimum wage or the World Bank's poverty line. Basic Regardless of whether the tea is for wages are often below the poverty line Tetley, Lipton or Twinings; or certified After seeing the results of the research, the which may be reached when productivity as Fairtrade, Ethical Tea Partnership or organisations behind the report, which payments and in-kind benefits are Rainforest Alliance, workers are paid the include Unilever, IDH (the Sustainable same poverty rate.
Trade Initiative), Fairtrade International, In Assam, India, tea pluckers earn 12p This is because, for the wages element UTZ and Rainforest Alliance now an hour or 89 rupees (£1) a day. The legal of certification, standards only require recognise the urgency of the problem and minimum daily wage for an unskilled that wages should not fall below the legal are committed to tackling the problem. worker in Assam is 158.54 rupees. How minimum. The report therefore concluded They are taking its findings very seriously wages are set means that the situation is that certification is no guarantee that and have agreed a plan of action to address the same across all Assam tea plantations workers' wages meet their households' the issues it uncovered, beginning with and across all tea brands and certifications. basic needs.
expanding the investigation to include Through interviews with workers, However, the report focused purely on other major tea-producing countries management and stakeholders on the hired labour on plantations. Smal holders and using these investigations to support estates, the research team uncovered were out of scope for this study. But, sustainable livelihoods in ways that a complex web of issues around Fairtrade International's own research are relevant to local workers and their wages. These included: poor corporate concluded that the incomes of Malawi economic and social contexts.
understanding of local wage-setting tea smal holders increased threefold The organisations also plan to mechanisms; supplementing wages with with Fairtrade, a big contrast to Oxfam's improve understanding about wage in-kind benefits (such as food, fuel, findings on plantation wages.4 Cafédirect issues among workers and improve accommodation, childcare) that may be reports that 22% of the value of a box trust and constructive dialogue. Most of questionable value to workers; and the of Cafédirect tea goes directly to the of the discussions about wage issues in disempowerment of female workers (the producer co-ops (who are all smal holder supply chains currently take place at the majority of the workforce).
tea growers with no estates involved).6 So international level, but this would bring The obvious implication of poverty it seems that some Fairtrade products may it back to the national context and local wages is that families cannot support be more beneficial than others – Fairtrade realities of the workers themselves.
themselves on their tea plantation tea from smal holders rather than from The organisations have also agreed to wages2 and children, particularly girls, change the way that wages and benefits


Fairtrade International's
are monitored and audited. The goal is to develop one approach for assessing response to the report
wages that is applied consistently across "Fairtrade alone has limited power to raise the tea sector and to create and maintain sector wages, as they are often negotiated The Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP) a repository of information to be shared at industry and country/regional level. We was formed in 1997 when a number between these organisations.
therefore seek to work with tea industry of large tea companies took the Consumers of certified products can also partners, other certifiers, NGOs, trade decision to work together to monitor be reassured that certification organisations unions, civil society and governments to and assure their own supply chains. have committed to improve the certification bridge the wage gap. Our participation in The ETP now has more than 20 process for waged workers so that it recent industry initiatives such as the Tea international members from Europe, requires plantations to gradual y increase North America and Australasia.
2030 project and the next phase of this, Tea workers' wages to the level of a living wage. Wages study, will also facilitate discussion on The ETP conducts monitoring and Fairtrade International has recently finished a new approach to setting tea industry wage certification, which consists of a public consultation on the draft of a new benchmarks and the promotion of wage audits of the tea producers who Standard for Hired Labour. That draft bargaining, so that better wages become supply the member companies. includes attempts to strengthen the ‘teeth' This program is free of charge to a commitment of everyone along the Tea the producers, and encompasses of Fairtrade certification when it comes to both issues of social concern, and getting beyond paying a minimum wage to Fairtrade contributes directly to environmental issues. Some of the paying a ‘living wage'.5 alleviating poverty through payment of social concerns include health and "This isn't a problem we are going to fix Fairtrade premiums of over US$6 million safety, freely chosen employment, overnight" said Rachel Wilshaw, Oxfam's per annum to small farmer organizations wages and benefits, working hours, Ethical Trade Manager, "but in 15 years of and plantation workers in the tea sector. and a variety of other issues such working on these issues it is the best chance Recent impact studies have shown a range as are typically handled by labour we have had to make a real difference to of tangible benefits accruing to workers, organisations. The fundamental the lives of hundreds of thousands of tea their families and communities, including in principles of the ETP standard are pickers. In two or three years from now, I those of the Ethical Trading Initiative hope women working on tea plantations (ETI) Base Code which is closely Fairtrade will thus continue to work around the globe will start to experience based on International Labour toward a Living Wage while delivering Organisation (ILO) Conventions. additional worker benefits through the Environmental issues assessed in Read the full Oxfam report at payment of Fairtrade premiums, linked to the monitoring include water and energy use, soil and ecosystem conservation, chemical use, and Tea picking in Mulanje, Southern Malawi. This kind of casual labour, known as ganyu, is hand
waste management. to mouth work. Workers are paid a day rate according to the weight of tea they manage to
There are only three companies pick. For an 11 hour day they earn roughly £3. Many of the workers are elderly women from
in this product guide which are female-headed households. They earn less because they are weaker and unable to work as
members: Betty & Taylors of Harrogate, Twinings and Tetley Group.
The ETP's certification is usually seen as less stringent and easier to obtain than Fairtrade tea certification. Unilever, the company that owns PG Tips, was one of the 11 founding members of the ETP, although it is no longer a member. Unilever, like many companies, undertook its own initiatives to promote sustainability and address ethical concerns, going above and beyond the base involvement in ETP.
References: 1 Understanding Wage Issues in the Tea
Industry, Oxfam, May 2013 2 How poverty wages
for tea pickers fuel India's trade in child slavery The
Observer, Saturday 20 July 201 3 A living wage for tea
pickers: are we there yet? Rachel Wilshaw, Ethical Trade
Manager, Oxfam, 2nd May 2013 4 Longitudinal impact
assessment study of Fairtrade certified tea producers and workers in Malawi, Fairtrade Foundation, August 2009
5 Are wages the fly in the Fairtrade ointment?, Oxfam
6 RealiTEA: The bitter compromise in our
cup of tea, Cafedirect, 18th June 2013 Black and green tea
USING THE TABLES
USING THE TABLES
Ethiscore: the higher
Positive ratings (+ve):
the score, the better the • Company Ethos:
company across the criticism categories. E = half mark.
H = bottom rating, • Product Sustainability:
h = middle rating, empty = top rating Maximum of five positive (no criticisms).
e (out of 20)
vironmental Reporting Habitats & Resour Supply Chain Management Irresponsible Marketing Arms & Military Supply Genetic Engineering Product Sustainability Hampstead Tea [F,O] Hampstead Tea & Coffee Ltd Clearspring green teas [O] Hambleden Herbs green tea [O] Tea Times Holding Ltd Steenbergs Organic Dragonfly loose leaf Tea Times Holding Ltd Steenbergs Organic Higher Living [O] Only Natural Products Ltd Punjana [F], Thompson's green [O] Yogi Tea green tea[O] Sikh Dharma International Heath & Heather [O] Apeejay Surrendra Group Ridgways [F] or [O] Apeejay Surrendra Group Royal Wessanen NV Punjana, Thompson's Apeejay Surrendra Group Fresh Brew, Glengettie * Apeejay Surrendra Group Clipper [F] or [O] Royal Wessanen NV Royal Wessanen NV Taylor's of Harrogate breakfast [F] Bettys & Taylors Group Yorkshire Tea [RA] Bettys & Taylors Group Taylor's of Harrogate Bettys & Taylors Group Teapigs breakfast tea [RA] Tetley Original [RA] Twinings breakfast tea [F,O] Wittington Investments Jacksons of Piccadilly [F] Wittington Investments Wittington Investments Jacksons of Piccadilly white tea Wittington Investments PG Tips, Lyons [RA] Wittington Investments [F] = Fairtrade Foundation [RA] = Rainforest Alliance [O] = organic * also Typhoo QT and Lift instant teas, Melrose's and Heath & Heather (non-organic) See all the research behind these rree to subscribers.
v Dmitriy gee Buying better tea
Alex Zorach, Founder and Editor of blog site RateTea.com, explains that, in
Best Buys are teas that addition to buying Fairtrade tea, there are other conscious decisions that tea are both Fairtrade and drinkers can do to influence where their money flows in the tea industry. organic – Hampstead
Tea teas (Earl Grey,
Buy direct sourced tea – avoid buying from companies that do not identify
Darjeeling, Assam, anything about the origin of their teas. Farmer-owned cooperatives with a retail English Breakfast, Chai, presence, which may or may not be Fairtrade certified, can also be a good source Oolong, white tea and green tea) of tea, like the Makaibari Estate in Darjeeling, India (see page 16).
and Pukka teas (green tea, English
Breakfast and Earl Grey).
Buy single origin tea, rather than blends – blending is a practice carried out
primarily in wealthy countries. Blended tea is a generic tea from two or more geographic areas and marked only as ‘tea', ‘green tea' or ‘Everyday tea'. ‘Earl Grey' and ‘English Breakfast' tea may also be blended tea. Single origin tea, like Assam or Darjeeling, is a tea that hails from a single geographic region, estate, garden or small country. With single origin tea, it is more likely that a greater portion of the price you pay will reach the original Hampstead Tea and Pukka are mainly available from wholefood shops or Buy loose-leaf tea rather than tea bags – the packaging of tea into tea bags,
from their websites: besides using energy and resources that are discarded, also tends to concentrate profit in wealthy countries. By buying loose-leaf tea, you not only reduce waste and resource usage, but you make it more likely that a greater portion of the price you on sale in some supermarkets.
are paying reaches the producers. Grow your own herbs for herbal tea or buy locally-grown ones.
Next best are the time both increase the caffeine in the Caffeine in tea
from Steenbergs
Teas from the Camellia sinensis plant – English Breakfast, contain caffeine. Caffeine protects the It is a widespread myth that black tea Earl Grey, Black tender young leaf buds of the tea plant contains more caffeine than green Chai, Green Chai. They are sold in from being eaten by insects. tea, and another myth that white tea contains the least caffeine of all teas. some Booths supermarkets and from Heavy caffeine use is known to have Caffeine levels generally vary more unpleasant effects and negative among individual teas than across impacts on health, including anxiety broad categories of tea such as black, and insomnia, and for this reason Fairtrade pioneers, Cafédirect and
white, green, oolong, or pu-erh. some tea drinkers seek to moderate Traidcraft, are also best buys but are
One exception to this is matcha tea their caffeine intake. which is known to contain very high The caffeine content of tea varies levels of caffeine. This is due in part Cafédirect is a Fairtrade blend and is widely from one tea to the next, and to higher caffeine levels in the leaf sold in selected supermarket stores depends on how the tea is brewed, used to produced matcha, but also and Oxfam shops. Traidcraft sel s but tends to be within the range of 15- because matcha is a powdered tea, Tanzanian, English Breakfast, Earl 70mg per cup (a typical cup of coffee and so the entire tea leaf is consumed Grey, blended and green tea from its contains 80-135 mg of caffeine). when brewing. So a cup of matcha tea Tea can be made from different parts contains 100% of the caffeine in the of the tea plant, and these parts contain different quantities of caffeine. Leaf buds (tips) and younger leaves are higher in caffeine than older, mature Aside from decaffeinated tea, the overwhelming majority of herbal and The quantity of leaf used and the fruit teas are also caffeine free. South length of time the leaves are steeped African rooibos and honeybush are both directly influence the caffeine also caffeine free. The most notable content of the final cup of tea. Using exception is Yerba Mate or Maté, a Traidcraft English more leaves and steeping for a longer herbal tea which is not caffeine free.
Breakfast [F]Hampstead Darjeeling Pukka green chai [F,O] Rainforest Alliance v Fairtrade tea
Ross Jones explores how the ethical tea labels measure up.
When it comes to purchasing tea, UK consumers have been given more opportunities than ever to shop in a more ethical y responsible way. At most supermarkets you can now opt to go Fairtrade, Organic or Rainforest Alliance, with another initiative, Utz Certified, likely to be heading our way sometime soon. The question this article asks is whether there is any difference between these ethical labels. Put plainly, which initiative is most deserving of your Varieties of both Fairtrade and Organic tea have been on the market since the 1990s. Global y, 14% of Fairtrade tea volume sold to consumers is also certified Organic,1 however in total only around 6% of tea grown on certified Fairtrade farms is actual y sold at the Fairtrade price – this is basical y due to lack of demand in the The rise of Rainforest
how products are traded, Rainforest environmental protection, labour rights Alliance certification…focuses on how and good management – are widely farms are managed".3 This approach stands accepted and hence difficult to disagree in stark contrast to Fairtrade's emphasis with in principle. Meanwhile, the While Fairtrade and Organic remain on minimum prices as a way to shift the particular standards that emerge from firmly within their niches, one initiative, terms of trade towards producers. Beyond these objectives are often hard to measure Rainforest Alliance, appears to be proving differences in opinion on the use of price accurately, or just plain vague. The key that responsibly sourced tea is actual y a mechanisms, however, can much be question that arises, therefore, is: which fast-growing industry. Since entering the distinguished between the different labels? labels are making the biggest strides market in 2006, Rainforest Alliance farms towards realising these commonly held now account for 11.5% of the global tea Muddying the waters?
supply, with certified volumes increasing by 24% in 2012 alone.1 This is largely down One of the main sources of confusion All about the
to its deal with multinational consumer for consumers is the broadly similar goods giant Unilever, owner of PG Tips claims being made by competing (the UK's most popular tea brand) and ethical labels. Even when taking a more Lipton. In 2007, Unilever, which buys detailed look at the codes of conduct A noticeable difference between the more close to 12% of the established labels such as Organic and world's black tea Fairtrade, and newer entrants such as supply, "committed Rainforest Alliance and Utz Certified, Another downside of choosing Rainforest is the rate of growth and the speed with Alliance is that as little as 30% of the product which vast areas can become certified. from sustainable The rapid roll-out of Rainforest Alliance you purchase from the supermarket is sources"2 – with across the tea sector is partly due to its guaranteed to be sourced from Rainforest Rainforest Alliance focus on scale over scope; increasingly Alliance-certified farms or estates. as their favoured there is a sense of competition between labels – a scramble to scale up as quickly as possible. In reality, however, there is a big difference between a tea-growing area of Rainforest Alliance in the tea sector for Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and becoming certified and it comprehensively represents a recent shift towards more Organic, you notice far more similarities matching up with the standards of a mainstream, arguably ‘business-friendly' than differences. This is because the particular code of conduct. A certified ethical labels: "Rather than emphasising overarching objectives – concerning


area can be enormous in scale, involving At a glance: comparing the ‘big four' ethical tea initiatives
thousands of farmers and workers. An annual audit spread over a few days simply Key attributes and objectives
cannot verify hundreds of standards comprehensively across such vast areas. Fairtrade is a strategy for poverty reduction and sustainable development, with the aim of creating opportunities for farmers and workers For Rainforest Alliance, gaps in marginalised by the conventional trading system. Key Fairtrade the implementation of their standards requirements include minimum prices, the payment of a premium dramatical y came to the fore in a that must be invested in local development, access to partial advance 2011 report by not-for-profit research payment, as well as respect for the right to freedom of association, collective bargaining and non-discrimination. Another key Fairtrade organisation SOMO, which uncovered objective is to promote the sustainable environmental management of tea widespread cases of gender and ethnic farms and estates.
discrimination, sexual harassment Organic certification is best known for its strict criteria on wildlife and and poor housing conditions on farms the environment. Its standards focus on four key areas: Health – of the supplying to Unilever in Kenya and soil, plants, animals and humans; Ecology – working with, emulating India. See page 17 for more detail on the and sustaining existing ecological systems; Fairness – equity, respect, SOMO report. In its response, Unilever justice and stewardship of the shared world through fair relationships highlighted the challenge of ensuring between humans, animals and the environment; and Care – agricultural management that is precautionary and sustainable.
compliance with Rainforest Alliance Rainforest Alliance promotes better management of tea farms and estates through a range of environmental, social and economic criteria. "Our tea plantation is more than The main environmental criteria relate to ecosystem conservation, 75km (50 miles) long and employs wildlife protection, water conservation, integrated crop management, 16,000 people, so we do not pretend that soil conservation and integrated waste management, while the core occasional issues never arise".
socio-economic themes are concerned with working conditions and community relations. This matter-of-fact recognition of Utz Certified, like Rainforest Alliance, has an overarching focus on better the reality on many certified farms management of farms and estates. This initiative focuses on three key and estates contrasts with Rainforest areas: Management – traceability of tea back to the source, efficient Alliance's response (no longer available administration and worker training; Social – complying with international online), which essential y dismissed the labour standards, occupational safety and health and local development; report's claims, refusing to co-operate and Environmental – soil and water quality, energy use and deforestation. While Utz Certified coffee is available in the UK (for example, at all IKEA with SOMO unless it revealed its sources stores), its foray into the tea market has yet to reach our shores.
– which include vulnerable workers who understandably prefer to remain Alliance. One downside of choosing of demand is also closely linked to the Rainforest Alliance is that as little as 30% rush to support more mainstream options of the product you purchase from the by the big multinationals dominating Which label is better,
supermarket is guaranteed to be sourced the tea industry. Rainforest Alliance is from Rainforest Alliance-certified farms undoubtedly working to train farmers up or estates. In addition, there are few to improve the quality of their tea, as well The main concern being raised in this Rainforest Alliance standards that you can as taking real steps in col aboration with article is that the recent entry of more easily grasp and objectively verify. Organic the Forest Stewardship Council to make business-friendly initiatives such as has the most stringent and detailed tea production more sustainable. But in Rainforest Alliance and Utz Certified environmental criteria of any ethical label. order to foster real development, farmers into the tea sector is ‘muddying the On the other hand, Fairtrade certification need a basic level of income stability and waters'; that is, masking real differences guarantees a handful of core benefits that security, and arguably only Fairtrade – or between themselves and more established anyone can understand – most notably even better, double-certified Fairtrade- labels such as Fairtrade and Organic by minimum prices, premiums, and access Organic – can bring this stability. superficial y echoing common values to credit. Rainforest Alliance, in contrast, and objectives. This is not to claim is competing for the middle market, that Fairtrade and Organic are without with laudable yet vague standards across flaws; they have both received sustained the socio-economic and environmental criticism from a number of angles. (See, for example, the article on Living Wages While some have correctly highlighted on page 10) However, from an ethical the fact that few Fairtrade farmers can point of view, there are arguably a greater sell all (or even half) of their tea at the number of questions for Rainforest Fairtrade price,1 responsibility for this lack References: 1 Fairtrade International (2012) ‘Monitoring the scope and benefits of Fairtrade'. Av
Rainforest Alliance (2012) 2012 Highlights of the Rainforest Alliance's Global Sustainability Efforts. Av Rainforest Alliance (2008) ‘It's (Sustainable) Tea Time: First Steps in Transforming the Tea Industry'. Avfiles/publication/pdf/tea_factsheet_en_hz_apr08.pdf 4 Rainforest Alliance (2013) ‘ How Does Rainforest Alliance Certified Compare to Fair Trade Certified?' Available
Unilever (2011) ‘October 2011: Unilever Response to Report by SOMO Into Our Tea Plantation in Kericho,
Kenya'. Av Rainforest Alliance (2012) ‘Annual Report'. Available from:

A permaculture tea estate
The Fairtrade Foundation profiles an Indian tea producer supplying Fairtrade-certified tea. More than 30 years ago, Rajah Rajah Banerjee on the Makaibari permaculture tea estate where the tea bush is part of a multi-
Banerjee finished his studies tier system of trees and plants typical of a sub-tropical rainforest, as opposed to a monoculture.
in London and returned Makaibari retains 70% of its entire area under forest cover.
to the family tea estate in Darjeeling. Located at 1,200 metres (5,000 feet) on Banerjee. "All over this region, nature was seven of the twelve are women. The estate the Himalayan foothil s of West Bengal, destroyed, trees were cut down, we had has initiated many social projects and the Fairtrade premium is used to support Makaibari Tea Estate was one of dozens a huge problem with erosion and many these or start new ones. Electricity has producing Darjeeling tea, the prized animals died due to the insecticides. We been brought to the estate's seven vil ages, ‘champagne of teas'.
were forced to change something." Rajah Banerjee's pioneering life's their 430 households and 1,560 residents. As Rajah Banerjee reacquainted work has been to convert the estate to Six women workers have been trained in himself with the area, he had the sudden permaculture. Tea bushes have been basic midwifery and health education. realisation that the dense tea monoculture integrated into the six tiers of plants Interest-free educational and medical loans was neither environmental y, economical y that form a biodynamic ecosystem that are available.
or social y sustainable. Today, his enriches the health of the soil, checks The Joint Body operates a low- prediction has been borne out. Tea erosion and encourages a wealth of birds, interest revolving loan fund for workers production in Darjeeling has declined butterflies and insects. The different levels to install flushing toilets, extend their in the last decade as plantations have of tree cover help shade delicate tea leaves distinctive four-room houses or set up closed or been abandoned because of low from the scorching sun as well as retaining small businesses. Some workers have auction prices. In the battle to cut costs, moisture; some of the grasses and herbs taken out loans to purchase chickens, the fertility of the natural y thin soil has also have medicinal or insect-repellent goats or cattle for eggs, meat and milk been reduced by overuse of chemicals properties; leguminous plants increase the - organic cow's milk fetches high prices in or the soil has been washed away by soil's nitrogen content; and organic matter nearby Kurseong town. But the cattle also landslides. Gaping scars have appeared on from dead leaves and forest litter improves provide other benefits. Many workers have the upper slopes, gradual y denuded of its fertility. Tea is only grown on a quarter installed LPG cookers that are fuelled by the native forests that absorbed the worst of Makaibari's 1,000 hectares. More than methane produced in biogas plants from effects of the monsoon rains, the trees cut half remains subtropical forest, home to cow dung. Excess manure is added to the for firewood or logged, often illegal y, for two Bengal tigers, leopards, barking deer compost heap which all families maintain short-term profit.
and hornbil s.
and which the estate purchases as organic fertiliser for the tea bushes.
A new vision for
Fairtrade supports
"Fairtrade affects many people here", says Rajah Banerjee. "Makaibari and Fairtrade share a common vision." But Makaibari tel s a different story This integrated philosophy encompasses – living proof that sustainable agriculture all aspects of estate life. Most of the office The future is positive
can succeed commercial y and benefit the staff are members of families who work environment and local communities. Gone on the estate and seven of the 25 field The tea workers are full of ambitious are the regimented lines of tea bushes, supervisors are female – unheard of in ideas to improve their community – a instead the tea grows amid fruit and this part of the world. Tea sold to the computer centre for their children, more bamboo, herbs and clover, the soil is dark Fairtrade market includes a premium scholarships, eco-tourism, an expensive and soft, fed with the organic compost for social development projects that is pump that will ensure year-round piped prepared on the estate. administered by the Joint Body. This water. If Makaibari can increase the 15% of "Our decision for organic growth was committee comprises management and production it sel s to the Fairtrade market, made out of desperation", says Mr elected worker representatives of which these dreams could become reality. Poor wages and conditions on
PG Tips tea estates
Joanna Long looks at
freedom of association and the right to bargain collectively were being hampered. reports of labour rights On Unilever's own Kenya plantation, violations in Rainforest the researchers also heard allegations of sexual harassment, and gender and ethnic Alliance certified tea These issues violate national labour production for Unilever in legislation and International Labour India and Kenya. Organisation standards, as well as Unilever's own code of business principles. They also violate RA standards and should n the global tea industry, certification have led to the removal of RA certification. is big business. Between 2004 and The fact that it didn't, in SOMO's view, 2009 the share of world tea exports raises questions about the effectiveness certified by global standards systems grew and credibility of the RA standard.
to prove that such behaviour has taken by 2000%. In 2011, the proportion of place."2 They also said that an independent worldwide tea exports that were certified Are Rainforest Alliance audit of their Kenyan plantation, carried
was estimated to be 15%.1 out in November 2010 by the Sustainable More than half of this share is certified Agriculture Network, "found no evidence" by Rainforest Alliance (RA) alone. The to substantiate the claims made in the rapid expansion of RA was enabled In particular, the report questioned the SOMO report.
largely by being selected by Unilever as its robustness of the RA's social auditing Regarding the Indian plantations, preferred ethical tea label.
systems, which it says were superficial and Unilever reiterated that these are operated open to manipulation and bias. They also Given the commercial power of through third party suppliers, which must accused the RA of not enforcing their own certification and the high industry comply with Unilever's Supplier Code standards by failing to insist that issues of standing of the Rainforest Alliance mark, or face "serious action." Unilever also health and safety, discrimination, wages SOMO in col aboration with the India defended the RA certification, which it and casual worker status be corrected.
Committee of the Netherlands (ICN), felt described as "an important tool in working it worth investigating the actual reliability While the report acknowledged that towards sustainability" and asserted the of RA certification.
"no standard system could possibly independence and freedom of RA auditors guarantee a complete absence of workplace during their visits.
Violations of labour
related problems" and that incidental violations or accidents do happen, it also Rainforest Alliance
rights found
pointed out that "most of the problematic working conditions in this study are not SOMO is an independent research incidental but systemic in nature." organisation that examines the activities of "Based on this study's findings we Following SOMO's report, the RA carried multinational corporations. Its researchers cannot but conclude that the RA does out their own research audit but says it was interviewed one hundred tea workers not seem capable of delivering any real "unable to confirm the non-conformance on a total of eight tea plantations, all guarantees on decent working conditions with standards reported by SOMO." A supplying tea to Unilever. Seven of these and that therefore they are not equipped to spokesman for the RA said that they have plantations are in India and the eighth, make such claims [that products have been "continual y learned from independent which is directly owned by Unilever, is produced ethical y and with respect for the assessments" and are "strengthening and in Kenya. All of the plantations have RA environment]; at least not about the tea improving" their work to ensure that they plantations sampled for this research." are "truly advancing human rights."2 The study, which was published in October 2011, claimed to have uncovered Read the full SOMO report a issues around the payment of wages, discrimination against female workers Following publication of the report, and health and safety. It also said that Unilever denied knowledge of workforces in both India and Kenya "inappropriate behaviour" on their References: 1 Certified Unilever Tea: Small cup, big
were "permanently casual" and that Kenya plantation but promised to "take difference? SOMO, October 2011 2 Senior Manager
External Communications, Rainforest Alliance, 8
the workplace-related human rights of immediate action if there is evidence Herbal, fruit & rooibos
USING THE TABLES
USING THE TABLES
Ethiscore: the higher
Positive ratings (+ve):
the score, the better the • Company Ethos:
company across the criticism categories. E = half mark.
H = bottom rating, • Product Sustainability:
h = middle rating, empty = top rating Maximum of five positive (no criticisms).
e (out of 20)
vironmental Reporting Habitats & Resour Supply Chain Management Irresponsible Marketing Arms & Military Supply Genetic Engineering Product Sustainability Equal Exchange rooibos [F,O] Equal Exchange Trading Ltd Hampstead Tea [F,O] Hampstead Tea & Coffee Ltd Essential Trading Ltd Dragonfly Organic Rooibos [F,O] Tea Times Holding Ltd Hambleden Herbs [O] Clearspring Mu tea Tea Times Holding Ltd Eleven O'Clock rooibos [O] Tea Times Holding Ltd Tick Tock rooibos [O] Tea Times Holding Ltd Dragonfly Rooibos Breakfast Tea Times Holding Ltd Steenbergs Organic Tick Tock rooibos Tea Times Holding Ltd Higher Living [O] Only Natural Products Ltd Thompson's apple & mint [O] Sikh Dharma International Floradix/Salus [O] Heath & Heather [O] Apeejay Surrendra Group Clipper mint/chamomile [F,O] Royal Wessanen NV Only Natural Products Apeejay Surrendra Group London Fruit & Herb Apeejay Surrendra Group Apeejay Surrendra Group Royal Wessanen NV Taylor's of Harrogate [O] Bettys & Taylors Group Taylor's of Harrogate Bettys & Taylors Group Tetley Redbush [RA] Jacksons of Piccadilly [F] Wittington Investments Wittington Investments [F] = Fairtrade Foundation [RA] = Rainforest Alliance [O] = Organic See all the research behind these ratings together on ree to subscribers.
The environmental
Best buys are
teas that are both
Fairtrade and organic.
impact of a cup of tea e BE
Best are Equal
S T BUY Exchange rooibos,
Hampstead Tea herbal and
Friends of the Earth's Make It Better campaign is calling
fruit teas and Pukka Morningtime
for a strong EU law to make sure companies come rooibos and vanil a Chai teas. clean about the true costs of production. This extract from their Tea Briefing looks at how the tea industry is damaging biodiversity and overusing pesticides. Naseer / www All Essential's teas (except Fennel)
are also Fairtrade and organic as is Dragonfly's Organic Rooibos.
eidt macaque – N. The Lion Tailed Macaque is an endangered species because of tea farming in India.
Loss of wildlife and
increased use of toxic pesticides. Pesticides have a lasting effect upon soil quality, habitats
as well as devastating impacts on local wildlife and the workers applying the In order to meet the world's demand for tea, huge expanses of farmland and forest are converted to growing only tea. For In 2011 four elephants died in example, in 2011 large swathes of East India's Kaziranga National Park after African rainforest were sold to create eating pesticide-coated grass from a tea Dragonfly rooibos a tea estate, despite opposition from plantation, which prompted forestry Equal Exchange rooibos the Ethiopian President and national officials to call for a pesticide ban around Twinings redbush (not environmental authorities. the park.1 ILO studies have revealed that two categories of illnesses – respiratory These monoculture plantations and water-borne diseases – account for 60 drastical y decrease biodiversity through to 70 percent of the diseases affecting tea loss of plants and animals. Habitat loss plantation workers.3 associated with tea farming has decreased Pukka vanilla chai numbers of two official y endangered In 2012, Greenpeace bought 18 species – the Lion Tailed Macaque in India tea products at random from nine tea and the Horton Plains Slender Loris in Sri companies in China which exported to References: 1 Friends of the Earth, Tea Briefing,
Europe and, after sending the samples 30 September 2013 2 How bad are bananas? The
to be tested, discovered that 12 of the 18 And monocultures provide the perfect carbon footprint of everything, Mike Berners-Lee, samples contained at least one pesticide environment for pests, resulting in an 2010 3 19 factors driving the future of the tea
banned for use on tea.3 industry, Forum for the Future (2013) 12 of the 18 samples
of Chinese tea tested
by Greenpeace
contained at
least one banned
Clipper was founded 1984 in Beaminster,
Dorset and was the first tea to be awarded organic tea farming Fairtrade status, in 1994. Dutch company Wessanen bought Clipper in March 2012. Wessanen also owns Kallo Foods and Whole Earth. All Clipper teas, bar one, wildlife, safeguard are either organic or Fairtrade or both. the productivity orum or the F Clipper is now one of the biggest sellers of the land, and of tea in the UK.
reduce the need for Tata Global Beverages Limited (owner
of the UK's Tetley Tea) is an Indian
Exhausted land
Some brands are already selling multinational non-alcoholic beverages tea certified rainforest-free, working company headquartered in Kolkata, India Intensive farming of tea also reduces the with suppliers to ensure they use and a subsidiary of the Tata Group. The productivity of the soil, as the land is environmental y-friendly production salt-to-steel conglomerate encompasses rarely given a chance to rest and replenish, methods. Major tea buyers could use their seven business sectors: communications leading to nutrient-sparse soils that are influence to support tea estates and small- and information technology, engineering, easily degraded and washed or blown scale farmers to help them improve their materials, services, energy, consumer away. As well as reducing the productivity products and chemicals.
of the tea sector and driving it to clear A Make It Better law would see them In 2007 it brought Corus Steel which forests for new plantations, soil washed taking responsibility for what's happening was renamed Tata Steel in 2010. In 2013 from fields into surrounding habitats like at the far end of their supply chains Tata Chemicals UK was fined for three wetlands and rivers can also cloud the and help end problems like rainforest separate injuries which occurred to water and drive away wildlife. destruction and elephant deaths. workers at its factory in Cheshire. Jaguar and Land Rover are owned by Tata Motors.
The carbon footprint of a mug of tea
Tata Global Beverages is one of India's Growing tea
largest tea growers and marketers, selling its coffee and tea in India, as The process by which tea is dried and processed requires a lot of energy. UNEP well as in more than 40 other countries. calculates that it takes 8 kW h of energy to process one kilogram of finished The company is involved in many tea, compared with 6.3 kW h for the same amount of processed steel. This high partnerships including ones with energy use means that in India for example, the use of firewood in the drying Starbucks, Tesco and Pepsi. process – the most energy-intensive part – has led to severe deforestation. In parts of East Africa, where power is expensive and unreliable, many tea factories have had to install polluting standby diesel generators to meet their needs.1 The tea industry could support tea producers to switch to renewable energy. Tea estates' hilly locations – often in areas with high annual rainfall and all-season river flows – can make them suitable sites for hydropower projects, if achieved without negative impact on local ecosystems and water supplies.1 Drinking tea
When you're making a cup of tea, tea without milk or ‘black' tea's footprint is
21g CO equivalent. Add cow's milk and you more than double the footprint to
53g of CO e. That's because dairy milk itself is a high-carbon product with nearly half of its carbon footprint coming from the methane emissions of cows.2So if you drink four mugs of tea with milk a day, that's the same as a 60 mile drive in an average car.2We don't have any figures for tea with non-dairy milk such as soya but it will of course be higher than black tea because of the extra carbon footprint from agriculture. So, for a lower impact cup of tea, drink it black.
If you boil twice as much water as you need, which is what most people do, you'll add 20g CO e to your drink, so only boil the water that you need.2 In 2013 a complaint was made about Tata's Tetley tea plantations in northeast India – Amalgamated Plantations Private Ltd (APPL) – which is 20% owned by the World Bank. According to the complaint, workers had called on the World Bank to ensure the end of inhumane working and living conditions and coercion on the plantations.2 It was not the first time the tea plantation had had complaints about its treatment of workers. In 2009 management of APPL imposed two lockouts on its workforce, the second of which lasted three months. Workers had been protesting about the abusive treatment of a pregnant tea Tea pickers on one of the Fairtrade estates which supply Cafédirect.
worker, Ms Arti Oraon, by the plantation's
doctor. According to the IUF (international Associated British Foods (ABF)
back to1979 when three voluntary federation of trade unions) the goal of introduced sliced bread to the UK during workers returned to Edinburgh after the lockouts was to "starve the workers the 1930s. Its grocery products, which working on aid projects in various parts into renouncing their elementary human account for some one-third of sales, of Africa. All their teas are Fairtrade and rights, including their right to protest include Kingsmill bread, Silver Spoon against extreme abuse and exploitation". sugar, and Twinings tea. Other divisions A settlement was finally reached in 2011 churn out, pharmaceutical ingredients, for the repayment of wages of employees specialty oils, and animal feed. Beyond during the lockouts and compensation to food, ABF owns clothes shop Primark and Rooibos teas are Fortnum & Mason which still sells foie ‘Grown by women' which are sourced From soup to soap and shampoo, exclusively from Unilever has a vast portfolio of consumer
ABF was ranked last out of ten companies women farmers. brands. Its best sellers worldwide are soap in Oxfam's Behind the Brands scorecard and shampoo (Dove, Lux, Sunsilk, Alberto scoring worst for its polices on land, that, where women Culver) followed by food brands such as women and climate change. In October control household Equal Exchange's
2013 Oxfam released a report called ‘Grown by women'
tea, grown by Anna
39% of all of its tea was sourced from ‘Sugar Rush' which urged Associated family's health, Schalkwyk and
Rainforest Alliance Certified farms British Foods, along with Pepsico and daughter in Wuppertal,
including all its PG Tips tea. See page Coca-Cola, to adopt a zero-tolerance education improves South Africa.
17 for details of working conditions on policy on land grabs. It stated that sugar, at a faster rate Unilever's Rainforest Alliance certified tea along with soy and palm oil, were driving because less money is spent outside the plantations in India and Kenya.
large-scale land acquisitions and land conflicts at the expense of small-scale Unilever was named by the BUAV in June food producers and their families. Coca- Cafédirect was founded in 1991 by
2013 for experiments in which piglets Cola has recently agreed to such a policy.
Oxfam, Traidcraft, Equal Exchange, were given an extract of Lipton's tea to see and Twin Trading as a Fairtrade pioneer if it could counter diarrhoea caused by the Earlier in the year, Action Aid criticised in response to the collapse of the E.coli stomach bug. Eight of the month- ABF for avoiding paying millions of International Coffee Agreement which old animals died, with severe diarrhoea to pounds of tax in Zambia over five years.4 sent coffee prices plunging. The last three blame in at least seven of the cases.
companies have since sold their shares ABF was founded in 1935 by W. Garfield in Cafedirect when the company was It had operations in 34 of the 38 Weston. His great-grandson, George floated in 2011. Cafedirect is now the oppressive regimes on our list including Weston, and the Weston family own UK's largest 100% Fairtrade hot drinks Israel although it did withdraw its snack approximately 55% of ABF through company. It was the first coffee brand in and pretzel company from the Israeli Wittington Investments. the UK to carry the Fairtrade mark. settlement Ariël in the occupied West Equal Exchange and Essential Trading are Cafédirect doesn't buy through traders. both workers' co-operatives. It buys directly from growers to give The iconic British tea brand, Typhoo, Essential Trading is a wholefoods
them the full price for their crop. It was bought by family-owned Indian wholesaler of over 5,000 vegetarian, currently works directly with 38 small- conglomerate Apeejay Surrendra Group
Fairtrade, sustainable, recycled, organic scale coffee, cocoa and tea producer in 2005. The group has interests in tea, and eco friendly products. Its history can organisations across Latin America, hospitality, shipping, real estate and retail.
be traced back to 1971. On principle Africa and Asia, representing more than 280,000 smallholder farmers. It has two Family-owned company Bettys & Taylors
they do not sell to supermarkets and growers on their board of directors and of Harrogate also serves up afternoon tea
choose to trade with ethical producers 75% of growers are also shareholders in at its Bettys Café Tea Rooms. The six-chain and co-operatives.
Cafédirect. In addition to a fair price, it teashop opened its first location in 1919.
The origins of Equal Exchange stretch
also gives growers a share of the profits:


over 50% to date. Cafedirect reports that Oxfordshire countryside. In 1985 its dried 22% of the value of a box of its tea goes herb range was launched and at the time directly to the producer co-ops (who are was the only certified organic range of all smallholder tea growers, no estates dried herbs in the UK. Organic herbal tea was launched four years later. It only sells Soil Association certified herbs, spices Pukka Herbs was set up in 2002 by a
herbalist and a qualified practitioner in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian art of living Hampstead Tea and Coffee only sell
wisely. All their herbs and products are teas that are Fairtrade and organic. It certified organic by the Soil Association came to life in Hampstead, London in and the USDA (United States Department 1995 when its director Kiran became of Agriculture) and can all be traced back friends with Rajah Banerjee, owner of the to the field in which they were grown. Makaibari tea estate in India's Darjeeling province (see profile on page 16). Much Axel and Sophie Steenberg started of Hampstead Tea's blends come from Steenbergs Organic in 2003 to build
this estate, and some of the herbal blends an organic spice and teas business with come from small growers in Egypt. All green credentials which has grown from Kiran's teas are grown according to fair an Internet shop into one of the leading trade principles.
organic and Fairtrade spice businesses in the UK. It is based in an eco-factory in Ripon in North Yorkshire. 80% of its tea is organic and some is Fairtrade. It receives an Animal Rights mark because References: 1 BUAV – BUAV condemns cruel animal
experiments by major food companies to prove ‘health it sells organic meat-based dog food on benefits', 21st June 2013 2 Accountability Counsel
its website.
– Tea Plantation Workers Call on Tata and Tetley to Stop Human Rights Abuses, 5th July 2013 3 ‘Ethical?
Life for Hambleden Herbs began back
Tetley's Tata Tea Starving Indian Tea Workers into in 1982 on an organic herb farm in Submission', IUF, November 2009 4 ‘Sweet nothings
the small village of Hambleden in the – the human cost of a British sugar giant avoiding taxes in southern Africa, ActionAid, February 2013.
Yogi Tea's dark side
The Yogi brand produces a range Although Yogi Bhajan's followers identify unsolved murder of ayurvedic and organic teas themselves as Sikh, Bhajan's religion which are ultimately owned by apparently embraces tantric yoga and that is still under Sikh Dharma International (SDI). SDI is astrology in addition to traditional Sikh investigation, and a US non-profit religious organisation, practices. It has consequently been called which owns a wide number of for-profit a ‘cult' by many Sikh forums and former and non-profit corporations, including members. Accounts of Yogi Bhajan are Akal Security.1 Akal Security is one of the highly varied depending on what you Bhajan's death in largest contract security companies in the read. From being described as wise, United States and specialises in providing compassionate and a man of peace, he has security for critical federal government also been accused of running a corrupt International was put into the control facilities, state and local government business empire by former members, of a few men and women under the agencies and military instal ations. and his personal secretary accused him authority of Bhajan's adviser and lawyer Yogi tea was initial y founded by of rape, torture and fraud and forcing Roy Lambert, who stated that they were Harbhajan Singh Khalsa Yogiji, commonly her into servitude.2 Cult expert, Steven the Yogi's last wishes. This distribution known as Yogi Bhajan, who introduced Hassan, stated that "over the past thirty of wealth and power was claimed to be a Americans to Kudalini yoga in the 1970s. years he has helped former members who fraudulent by Yogi Bhajan's widow, Inderjit From initial y teaching Kudalini Yoga allege sexual and psychological abuse by Kaur Puri, who was excluded from the classes, he ended up recruiting thousands and under Yogi Bhajan. Several former arrangement, along with her children. In of seekers into a new religious movement students of Yogi Bhajan claim that when 2011 Inderjit Kaur Puri won a court case – Sikh Dharma – which has now become attempting to leave the group, they were that made her the owner of the trademarks a multi million pound religious empire. threatened with violence. There is an ‘Yogi' and ‘Yogi Tea'.5 Background of Yogi T The Disturbing Mainstream Connections of Yogi Bhajan, Steven Hassan, August 2010, Death of a Yogi, The battle for a corporate empire, hundreds of millions of dollars and the meaning of a faith, J Tea – The stories behind the company ratings Cafédirect tea [F]
Clearspring green teas [O]
Owned by Cafédirect Owned by Clearspring Ltd Cafédirect, City Cloisters, Suite B2, 196 Old Street, London, Clearspring Ltd, Unit 19A , Acton Park Industrial Estate, The EC1V 9FR, England Vale, London, W3 7QE Cafédirect is owned by Okiocredit (20%) Cafédirect is also owned by Oxfam Activities Limited (11%) owned by Oxfam (11%) Best Ethical Consumer rating for environmental reporting
Oxfam, 2700 John Smith Drive, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX4 2JY In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Clearspring Ltd asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Clearspring Ltd website, Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting (2013)
s environmental report. According to Cafedirect's Annual Review 2012, there was a Under a section titled Food, Safety and Environmental Standards, packaging target of of at least a 15% reduction in the overall it said that all of its foods met vegan standards, as certified by material used to package products by 2015. There had been a the Vegan Society. The company was also an affiliate member 3% reduction since 2009. However, this was the only dated and of IFOAM, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture quantified target that could be found.
Movements. The Clearspring goal was to get organic food back on It measured the carbon emissions from manufacturing tea and the dining table and it sold a number of products certified organic. coffee but there were no targets for reduction.
Due to the fact the company had a turnover of less than £8m and In addition, the policy was not subject to independent verification. was providing an environmental alternative it received Ethical ECRA did not consider the document to show reasonable Consumer's best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 4) understanding of the company's main impacts and therefore the company received ECRA's worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 1) Supply Chain Management
Best ECRA rating for supply chain management

Supply Chain Management
In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Clearspring Ltd Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Clearspring Ltd website, In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Cafedirect's for the company's supply chain policy. No the company's supply chain supply chain policy was found. Clearspring sold Japanese and organic food products and was certified by the Soil Association. policy. The company's website stated that it was a 100% Fairtrade The Soil Association's organic certfication included some company. The Fairtrade mark ensured that an independently verified code of conduct for workers existed, at the time of provisions for workers. Given that Clearsping had a turnover of writing. The company also went beyond Fairtrade commitments less than £8 million and had an effective if not explicit policy by cultivating direct, long-term relationships with producer towards addressing workers rights issues within its supply chain groups that it brought from. Due to the fact the company only it received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain sold Fairtrade products it received Ethical Consumer's best rating management. (ref: 4) for supply chain management. (ref: 2) Company Ethos (+ve)
Company Ethos (+ve)
Vegan company (November 2013)
All products carried Fairtrade mark (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Clearspring's According to the website viewed by it stated that all of its products vegan standards, as certified by the Vegan Society. (ref: 4) ECRA on 17th November 2013, all the company's products were certified Fairtrade by the Fairtrade Foundation. The Fairtrade mark ensured that an independently verified code of conduct for Product sustainability (+ve)
workers existed. (ref: 3)
Organic Product (+ve)
All products are certified organic (November 2013)
Product sustainability (+ve)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Clearspring's Fairtrade Product (+ve)
website, which stated that its teas were all certified organic. (ref: 4) Fairtrade (November 2013)
According to the Cafedirect website viewed in November 2013, its tea is Fairtrade Foundation certified. (ref: 2) Clipper Fairtrade & organic tea
Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Royal Wessanen website, for the company's policy on genetically modified organisms. We found a Non-GMO Policy Owned by Clipper Teas Ltd dated April 2013 on Clipper Teas Ltd, Beaminster Business Park, Broadwindsor Road, Beaminster, Dorset, DT8 3PR, England Clipper Teas Ltd is owned by Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA "This policy applies to Wessanen EU own branded products, Royal Wessanen) organic and conventional. Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen), Communications Our products do not contain any GMOs, GMO ingredients or Manager, Beneluxlaan 9, 3500 HS Utrecht, The Netherlands ingredients derived from GMOs." Clipper Teas Ltd is also owned by Delta Partners (28%) The company sold products in outside the European Union and Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen) also owns therefore it was assumed that they may contain GMOs. (ref: 6) Clipper Fairtrade tea [F] and Clipper organic tea [O] and Clipper tea Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)

Fairtrade & Organic (November 2013)
According to the company website Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
viewed by ECRA in November 2013, Clipper produced Fairtrade and organic teas which were certified by the Fairtrade Foundation A written request by ECRA for the company's environmental and the Soil Association. (ref: 7) report in November 2013 received no response. A search was made Fairtrade Product (+ve)
by ECRA on the website November (See also ‘Fairtrade & Organic' in Organic Product (+ve)
2013 for a copy of the company's environmental report. No such document could be found. At the time of writing, the company had a turnover of over £8 million, and therefore was not exempted from being rated on this category. As a result, it received ECRA's Dragonfly loose leaf teas
worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 5) Owned by Tea Times Holding Ltd Tea Times Holding Ltd, PO Box 5927, Newbury, Berkshire, Palm oil policy (November 2013)
RG20 9FY, UK According to the CSR section of the Wessanen website viewed in November 2013, "We are committed to switching our palm oil to RSPO certified sustainable palm oil (RSPO certified Environmental Reporting
segregated palm oil for organic and GREEN PALM certificates Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
for conventional) during 2012-14."
However Ethical Consumer did not take into account future On 12 November 2013, Ethical Consumer made a search of Tea Times Holding Ltd brands websites; commitments to source sustainable palm oil as a result of the fact the negative effects of palm oil production had been apparent and for information on the company's since 2005. Royal Wessanen therefore lost half marks in Ethical environmental reporting. No such document could be found. Some products were organic and Dragonfly sold Fairtrade tea Consumer's rating system in the categories of climate change, habitats and resources and human rights. (ref: 6) through its brand. Due to the fact the company was a small company providing social Habitats & Resources
and environmental alternatives, it received Ethical Consumer's (See also ‘Palm oil policy' in Climate Change above.)
best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 8) Human Rights
(See also ‘Palm oil policy' in Climate Change above.)

Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
(November 2013)

Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
On 12 November 2013, Ethical Consumer made a search of Tea Times Holding Ltd brands websites: The Clipper Teas website viewed on and for information on the company's 4 November 2013, had a number of tea products which carried supply chain management. No such document could be found. the Fairtrade Mark. However there were a number of products, notably teas that did not have Fairtrade certification. Clipper did Some products were organic and Dragonfly sold Fairtrade tea through its brand. not respond to a request by Ethical Consumer for a copy of its supply chain policy, nor could any indication of a supply chain Due to the fact the company was a small company with an policy in regard to these products be found on the company's effective if not explicit practice to ensure workers' rights within website. As a result, Ethical Consumer gave the company a worst its supply chain, it received Ethical Consumer's best rating in rating for supply chain management. (ref: 7) this category. (ref: 9) Politics
Genetic Engineering
Sold products containing GMOs (November 2013)

In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Royal Wessanen asking for its policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO). Fresh Brew
certified by Rainforest Alliance as well as a few of its tea estates being certified by Fairtrade Foundation. Typhoo Tea Limited (a Owned by Typhoo Tea Ltd subsidairy of Apeejay) was also a member of the Ethical Tea Typhoo Tea Ltd is owned by Apeejay Tea Group Partnership (ETP). There was no mention of an independent owned by Apeejay Surrendra Group complaints process for employees to feedback on working Apeejay Surrendra Group, Apeejay House, 15 Park St, Kolkata 700016, India Apeejay Tea Group also owns Glengettie Tea and Heath & Heather Auditing and Reporting (poor) organic tea [O] and Heath & Heather teas and Lift Instant Tea There was no information on Apeejay's website about audits and Melrose's Tea and Ridgways organic tea [O] and Ridgways of its supply chains.
tea (F) and Typhoo QT instant and Typhoo tea [S] Difficult issues (poor) There was no information on Apeejay's website about training Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
for buying agents, audit fraud, illegal freedom of association or payment of living wage. Ethical Consumer searched Apeejay Surrendra Group's website, for an environmental policy in November Overall the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating 2013. The ‘corporate citizen' section of the group's website for supply chain management. (ref: 11) discussed recycling and waste across its supply chain, in addition to its carbon emissions, which focused on shipping tea and IT. The group reported changing its UK tea ports as an attempt to Hambleden Herbs green tea [O]
reduce its carbon emissions, and it discussed how it was reducing Owned by Hambleden Herbs its carbon footprint in relation to IT and servers. According to Typhoo's website, Typhoo had achieved zero tea waste and nine Hambleden Herbs, Unit 6, South Park Business Centre, Park of the group's tea estates were Rainforest Alliance Certified and Street,, Cambs, PE16 6AE Sustainable Farm Certified. However, in regard to discussing environmental issues relating to Appejay Surrendra Group's other businesses, no information could be found. Further discussion about the company's carbon Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
footprint, climate change, water use and issues associated with sustainable agriculture would be expected. It was therefore felt that In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden the company did not fully understand its environmental impacts. Herb's website, and found the No future, quantified environmental reduction targets were found, company's environmental policy. It stated that the company did and no independently verified environmental report was provided. not use aeroplanes to fly spices or teas around the world instead The company therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating prefering to use ships. It was also committed to recycling its for environmental performance. (ref: 10) waste paper and cardboard, often using second hand boxes to post its products in. The company also made efforts to reduce its use of packaging. Human Rights
Hambleden Herbs was also an organic company. Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
Ethical Consumer considered Hambleden Herbs to be providing According to Apeejay Surrendra Group's website, an environmental alternative and it therefore received a best rating which was viewed by Ethical Consumer in this category. (ref: 12) in November 2013, Apeejay Surrenda had operations in the following countries: India, Russia, Iran, Nigeria and Pakistan. Ethical Consumer Supply Chain Management
considered these countries to be oppressive regimes at the time Best ECRA rating for supply chain management (October
of writing. (ref: 10) Supply Chain Management
In October 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herb's website, and found the company's Worst ECRA rating for Supply Chain Management
environmental policy which stated: In October 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Apeejay Surrendra "The social impacts of our business are also very important Group asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer to us, and along with the clear environmental benefits, are part received no reply. A search was made of Apeejay Surrendra of the reason for buying and supplying organic materials. For Group website, for the company's farmers to switch to organic farming methods they must grow supply chain policy. using organic methods for 3 years before they are allowed to sell a crop as organic. This requires significant investment by them and they need the assurance that they will have customers at the Supply chain policy (poor) end of that 3 year process. That is why we prefer to have long There was no supply chain policy which listed the International term agreements with our suppliers, enabling farmers to securely Labour Organisation's core conventions. Therefore Apeejay was invest for the future and continue to provide jobs for their local considered to have no supply chain policy.
Hambleden Herbs had a turnover of less than £8 million and Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) was considered to have an effective if not explicit practice at addressing workers rights within its supply chain and therefore Apeejay's website stated that 9 of its tea estates had been received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain Fairtrade Product (+ve)
management. (ref: 12) (See also ‘Fairtrade and Organic' in Organic Product (+ve)
above.)

Politics
Company Ethos (+ve)

Higher Living Tea [O]
Organic company (October 2013)
Owned by Only Natural Products Ltd In October 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herbs Only Natural Products Ltd, Kithurst Barns, Storrington, West and found that the company Sussex, RH20 4HT, UK only sold 100% organic products. (ref: 12) Product sustainability (+ve)
Fairtrade Product (+ve)
Organic Certified (November 2013)
Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
(November 2013)

In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herbs A search was made of Only Natural Products brands websites, found that the company sold green teas which were organic certified. (ref: 12) Higher Living Tea and Dr Stuarts website, in November 2013, for the company's environmental report. No information could be Hampstead Tea [F,O]
found on either website regarding any policy on the environment. Some of Higher Living Teas were ceritifed organic. Although Owned by Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Only Natural Products had a turnover of less than £8m it was not Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd, PO Box 2448, London, NW11 considered to be providing a social or environmental alternatives and therefore Only Natural Products received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 14) Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
Supply Chain Management
Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
In a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee confirmed A search was made of Only Natural Products brands websites, that the company's turnover was less than £8 million. This, along Higher Living Tea and Dr with the fact that the company only sold organic and Fairtrade Stuarts in November 2013 for the products, meant that it received Ethical Consumer's best rating companies supply chain management policies. No information for environmental reporting. (ref: 13) could be found on either website regarding any policy on supply chain management. Due to the fact the company did not have an effective if not explicit policy regarding workers' rights Only Supply Chain Management
Natural Products received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
suplly chain management. (ref: 14) During a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 Product sustainability (+ve)
November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee Organic Product (+ve)
confirmed that all the company's products were certified Fairtrade. Organic certified (November 2013)
The Fairtrade mark guarantees that an externally regulated code In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewe Higher Living Tea of conduct for workers exists.
website, it stated that some of its As the company's turnover was less than £8 million and it teas were certified organic (ref: 14) was offering environmental and social alternatives, Hampstead was awarded Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 13) Taylors of Harrogate breakfast tea
Owned by Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Company Ethos (+ve)
All company products were certified organic & Fairtrade
Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd, 1, Parliament St, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, HG2 7NX, England During a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co confirmed that all its products were certified Fairtrade by Environmental Reporting
the Fairtrade Labelling Organisation and approved to carry the
Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
Demeter biodynamic agriculture logo. (ref: 13) Bettys and Taylors Group's website, Product sustainability (+ve)
co.uk, was searched for an environmental policy in November Organic Product (+ve)
2013, and the group's environmental policy was downloaded. The policy discussed packaging, waste, emissions, noise Fairtrade and Organic (November 2013)
pollution, resource use, reforestation efforts, recycling and the A conversation with a representative from Hampstead Tea on 12 company said that they audited all suppliers to ensure that they November 2013 stated that all its teas were organic and Faritrade certified. (ref: 13) were environmentally aware and complied with environmental legislation.
The company was a signatory to the Food and Drink Federation's monitored social and environmental conditions on tea estates in Five-Fold Environmental Ambition, and consequently measured all major tea producing regions. It also said it brought tea from and targeted reductions in energy, water, waste, packing and food Faritrade, Rainforest Alliance and Utz Certified. There was no miles, and reported on the company's progress annually. In the mention of a process whereby workers could feedback to the 2011 report the company said it recorded a 17% reduction in company about workplace conditions therefore Bettys and Taylors energy used per tonne of production at its tea and coffee factory, a received a rudimentary stakeholder engagement rating.
saving of 100,000 road miles per year, by importing commodities through Teesport in the North East, and a decrease in food waste Auditing and reporting (poor) due to partnerships with charities and local farms. Taylors of Harrogate stated that suppliers not covered by an However, this report could not be found.
international certification scheme would be required to have Although the company seemed to understand it key environmental a diagnostic visit from a certifying body of their choice. For impacts, it did not present environmental performance data and first time diagnostic visits costs could be covered by Taylors did not provide future dated and quantified environmental targets. of Harrogate. However producers would be expected to cover Bettys and Taylors Group therefore received Ethical Consumer's the costs of certification. The company's ultimate aim was to worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 1) have 100% suppliers covered by certification schemes by 2013. However there was no disclosure of results from audits, there was No palm oil policy found (November 2013)
no schedule for continued audits until producers were certified Bettys and Taylors Group's website, and it was unclear what the company did in instances of non- co.uk, was searched for a palm oil policy in Novermber 2013. compliance. Taylor of Harrogates received a poor auditing and No information could be found. Due to the fact the company sold reporting rating. biscuits and chocolates under the Betty brand the company lost half marks in Ethical Consumer's rating system in the categories of Difficult issues (poor) climate change, habitats & resources and human rights. (ref: 2) No discussions about purchasing training, audit fraud, illegal Habitats & Resources
freedom of association and living wage could be found on the (See also ‘No palm oil policy found' in Climate Change
company's website.
Overall the company received a worst Ethical Consumer rating for supply chain management. (ref: 3) Sells meat in Cafes (November 2013)
A search of Bettys and Taylors co.uk, by Ethical Consumer in November 2013, found that the company sold meat and fish in its cafe which were labelled as Products potentially contain GMOs (November 2013)
being free-range. (ref: 2)
Bettys and Taylors Group's website, co.uk, was searched for a GMO policy in November 2013. The group's environmental policy was downloaded. The environmental Human Rights
policy had a small GMO section which stated ‘wherever possible we try to work with the very best suppliers. We do not actively (See also ‘No palm oil policy found' in Climate Change
source any genetically modified ingredients for our food and beverage products. However, we acknowledge that the Supply Chain Management
increasingly widespread use of GM soya and corn – particularly Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
in animal feed– means that we can no longer expect our extended supply chain to be GM free. No further information could be In October 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Bettys & Taylors found. The company sold meat through its cafés.
Group Ltd asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer As the company did not commit to business-wide GMO free received no reply. A search was made of Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd products, Bettys and Taylor received a negative mark for potentially for the company's supply supplying products containing GMOs. (ref: 1) chain policy and downloaded the "Taylors of Harrogate Ethical Trading Policy for Tea & Coffee" dated September 2011. Product sustainability (+ve)
Fairtrade Product (+ve)

Supply chain policy (inadequate) Fairtrade product (November 2013)
The company's Trading Policy stated that it adhered to the The Taylors of Harrogate website was viewed in November following principles, which included right to freedom of 2013 and listed the company's Fairtrade breakfast tea as being association, employment free from discrimination and payment certified by the Fairtrade Foundation. (ref: 4) of living wages. There was also clauses on hours and child labour however these were not defined and therefore were not considered adequate. There was no provision on the use of forced labour and no statement which stated it applied to the entire breadth of the supply chain. Therefore Battys and Taylors was considered to have an inadequate supply chain policy.
Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) Taylors of Harrogate stated that it worked with the Ethical Trading Intiative which was a multi-stakeholder process as well as the Ethical Tea Partnership - a not-for-profit organisation that Tetley Original tea [S]
widespread use of toxic pesticides. Recently four elephants were Owned by The Tetley Group found dead in Kaziranga National Park, India, after they wandered into a tea plantation and ate grass which had been sprayed with The Tetley Group is owned by Tata Global Beverages pesticides." (ref: 9) owned by Tata Group (35%) Shares in Vedanta (2009)
Tata Group, Bombay House, 24 Homi Mody St, Fort,, Mumbai, The Ecologist published an article on its website 400 001, India on 19 June 2009 in which it listed several UK companies who owned shares in Vedanta Resources plc. Vedanta was behind the controversial mine in India's Orissa state which was situated on a mountain sacred to local people. The company was given the go- Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
ahead to begin mining for bauxite in May 2009. Campaign groups had warned that the 600-hectare mine would result in ecological In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Tata Global degradation that would threaten the livelihoods of tribal people. Beverages (TGB) asking for its environmental report. Ethical They said that several villages had been razed to make way for Consumer received a reply. Which included a link to TGB's the construction of a refinery, with up to 100 indigenous families sustainability report dated 2008-09 which included a chapter evicted from their land and relocated to ‘rehabilitation colonies' on environmental performance. The chapter included details where locals claimed they felt as though they were living ‘in a jail' about how much the company had used in materials, green with little access to land for farming. A nearby bauxite refinery house gas emissions, water use, biodiversity and environmental which was already in existence had been blamed for causing health problems, damaging crops and killing livestock. In the questionnaire response from TGB it stated that its global Jaguar Cars Pension Plan (a subsidairy of Tata Motors) was Green House Gas (GHG) emissions had been independently listed in the Ecologist as having shares in Vedanta. verified by British Standards Institution (BSI) as per ISO 14064 Land Rover Pension Trustees Ltd (a subsidairy of Tata Motors) and that it had been rated as Climate Disclosure Leadership Index was listed in the Ecologist as having shares in Vedanta. (ref: in India covering over 65 sites, globally, including factories and plantations. Its climate change strategy included, sustainable Habitats & Resources
agricultural practices towards climate change adaptation; (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
sustainable forestry, afforest ration and sequestration towards climate change mitigation; use of renewable sources - wind energy, (See also ‘Oil and gas exploration' in Climate Change
bio gas, Tata Solar, etc. and energy efficiency programs & ISO above.)
50001 in all the production units. TGB was considered to have
demonstrated a good understanding of its main environmental
impacts however it did have two quantified dated targets nor was its Animal Testing
data or information independently verified. TGB received a worst Involved in animal testing (November 2013)
Ethical Consumer rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 5)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Advinus Therapeutics website, a subsidairy of Tata Group and found that it had been "only one of the 5 labs world- Oil and gas exploration (November 2013)
wide to successfully complete a Transgenic mice carcinogenicity In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Petrodyne studies". The company also offered in vivo services. (ref: 11) website, It stated that the company was involved in the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas. (ref: 6) Manufactures and markets leather (November 2013)
Climate change impact sector (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Internationals In November 2013 Financial Times website,found that the company com reported that the competition comission was looking into the was involved in the manufacturing and selling of leather proposed joint venture between Tata Sons and Singapore Airlines products. Leather was considered by Ethical Consumer to be a which will run Tata-SIA Airlines. The new airline was due to slaughterhouse by product. (ref: 12) launch in June-July 2014 according to the report. (ref: 7) High climate impact sector (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Motors 68th Human Rights
Annual Report 2012-2013 which stated "Tata Motors Limited is Supplier to Israeli military (June 2013)
India's largest automobile company. It is the leader in commercial In June 2013 it was reported on the Who Profits? website that vehicles and among the leaders in passenger vehicles in India with Land Rover (a subsidariy of Tata Motors) supplied armoured winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle vehicles to the Israeli ministry of defence through its sole Israeli segments. It is also the world's fourth largest bus and fifth largest distributor, Eastern Automobile Marketing, which also supplied truck manufacturer". (ref: 8) maintenance services for the vehicles. The Israeli army was also said to have developed the ‘David' armoured vehicle, which was Pollution & Toxics
built on top of a Land Rover Defender chassis. According to the Death of worker and protestors (2010)
article, "David Vehicles are used by the Israeli army to protect According to the 2011 Ecologist report ‘Whats really in your illegal settlements and military bases along the West Bank, to cuppa' in 2010, on an estate owned by Tata Group, a worker who prevent Palestinian shepherds from herding on their lands and collapsed while spraying pesticides was reportedly refused medical to oppress Palestinian demonstrators. David Vehicles carrying treatment and later died. Protests in response to the death were tear Gas launchers on their roofs were used during non violence quelled by local police, resulting in the deaths of two protesters demonstrations in the village of Nabi Saleh." (ref: 13) and a further 15 injuries.
Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
The report also stated: "Grown in monoculture, tea plants In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Global provide ideal conditions for a number of pests, resulting in the Beverages website, and found when his foot entered the sump below, which was used to collect that it had operations in Russia and China. It also had offices overflowing chemicals.
in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The company was The second incident occurred six months later, on 25 July 2010, headquartered in India. At the time of writing Ethical Consumer when a dangerous gas was released, resulting in high levels of considered each of these countries to be governed by oppressive carbon monoxide being present in the area of the plant where regimes. (ref: 5) employees were working. An investigation into the incident (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
found employees had not been given sufficient practical training for the work activity that caused the gas leak, and the emergency (See also ‘Death of worker and protestors' in Pollution &
procedures at the plant were inadequate.
The final incident took place on 21 November 2010 when part Labour abuses on Indian tea plantations (July 2013)
of the gantry a worker was walking along gave way as the metal A press release from the Accountability Counsel on July 5th 2013 grating under his feet had become badly corroded. He escaped alleged that workers on Tata's Tetley tea plantations in northeast with minor injuries after landing on a scaffolding board on the India, who made less than $2 a day, demanded the company walkway below.
respect their human rights on World Bank-financed plantations. When a HSE inspector visited the factory, she discovered the A workers' complaint to the World Bank calls on the Bank to company had failed to report another part of the grating on the ensure the end of inhumane working and living conditions, and same walkway collapsing two days before the incident on 21 coercion and pressure of workers on the plantations.
On Wednesday 3rd July 2013, in the presence of the World Tata Chemicals Europe Ltd pleaded guilty to four breaches Bank's accountability office, Tata met with worker representatives of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 due to failing to to discuss intimidation and retaliation by plantation management ensure the safety of workers.
against workers participating in the complaint process.
The company also admitted two breaches of the Reporting "While Tata and Tetley market themselves globally as socially of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations responsible leaders, they are fooling their customers and 1995 after it failed to report the two walkway collapses in making large profits from the mistreatment and exploitation November 2010 as soon as possible, despite this being a legal of marginalized indigenous communities," said Stephen Ekka, Director of PAJHRA, one of three community organisations that filed the complaint to the World Bank's accountability office.
Tata Chemicals was fined a total of £100,750 for all six offences and ordered to pay £71,082 in prosecution costs. (ref: 15) Workers had been interrogated, intimidated, and in some cases, retaliated against by plantation management for voicing their Supply Chain Management
complaints. One worker, who did not wish to be named for fear Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
of losing her job said, "I worked a heavy workload even when nine months pregnant. I live in a broken home without clean In January 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Tata Global water. Tata refuses to respect us as human beings." Beverages (TGB) asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received a reply which stated that all of its tea was "The World Bank Group must ensure that workers receive covered under the Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP) and that it had the basic protections that it claims to value and is responsible a target to source 100% of Tetley tea from Rainforest Alliance for upholding," says Komala Ramachandra of Accountability Counsel, a non-profit organization supporting workers in their certified farms by 2016. Overall TGB received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for supply chain management.
complaint. Jayshree Satpute of Nazdeek, a legal empowerment organisation working closely with workers, said, "Tata is not only in violation of its contract with the World Bank, but is also Supply chain policy (inadequate) denying the basic human rights guaranteed to the workers under TGB stated that the company was a signatory of the UN Global the Indian Constitution and domestic laws." Compact and adhered to the principles contained within the code Wilfred Topno, Secretary of People's Action for Development, which included freedom of association, forced labour, child labour stated, "A colonial attitude and feudal structure persist in the and employment free from discrimination. Ethical Consumer plantations, with the same subhuman living and working conditions searched the UN Global Compact website for the company's for the last 150 years. Our community demands change." Communication of Progress - a document which was sent to update Tata Global Beverages, and their brand Tetley Tea, is the second the initiative on the company's progress - however TGB could largest player in global tea industry. The World Bank Group, not be located on the website. The only workers right provision through an investment in Tata, owns a nearly 20 percent stake in that could be located was in the company's Code of Conduct the tea plantations involved in the complaint to the World Bank's policy 2008 which included a provision for employment free accountability office. (ref: 14) from discrimination. No commitment could be found to ensure Health and Safety Executive fines (2013)
workers rights provisions were adhered to throughout its supply chain. TGB received a inadequate rating in this category. In April 2013 it was reported on the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) website, that Tata Chemicals Europe Ltd, which is part of the global Tata group, had been fined more Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) than £100,000 after workers were put in danger in three separate TGB stated that its tea brand Tetly was a member of ETP, a incidents at its Cheshire factory. Tata Chemicals was prosecuted business led initiative bringing together tea companies which by the HSE following an investigation into the incidents at the worked towards (among other things) improving workers Winnington Lane site, all of which occurred during 2010.
and farmers livelihood. The company was also involved with Chester Crown Court was told on the 10th of April 2013 that another buisness led initiative trustea. While it was clear TGB the first incident happened on 29 January 2010 when a worker was engaging with other tea companies to try and improve was trying to reach a pump to restart it when his right foot went workers and farmers livelihood within the tea sector, they were through a missing part of the grating. He was exposed to a toxic not considered by Ethical Consumer to be a multi-stake holder liquid at a temperature of approximately 95 degrees Celsius initiative which were led by non-governmental organisations. In Sri Lanka, TGB stated that it worked with local staff from CARE Homeland Security on the Plantation Community Empowerment Project that focused TASL was also involved in developing a family of Mini on labour standards and wider empowerment issues, particularly Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for various defence and civil for women. TGB also stated that it worked with local staff from applications. These Mini UAVs would be fully equipped with a WUSC and the Sri Lankan Centre for Poverty Analysis. TGB wide variety of mission-specific payload, appreciated operational stated in the questionnaire that it worked with indirectly or capabilities and a user-friendly man-machine interface. (ref: directly a range of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Christian Aid, SOMO and Solidaridad. Listed as military contractor (2011)
TGB stated that under the Rainforest Alliance and ETP standards In the International Defence Directory 2011, Tata International there were grievance procedures which allowed employees to Singapore Pte. Ltd was listed as a military supplier involved in feedback anonymously about working conditions. There was the manufacture and distribution of steel and aluminium products no mention of TGB's own grievance procedure for workers for the Air Force. The company was also provided supply chain not covered under these schemes. Due to its involvement in management services. (ref: 17) trade unions and NGOs, TGB received a rudimentary rating for Listed as military contractor (2011)
stakeholder engagement In the International Defence Directory 2011, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd was listed as a military supplier involved in the Auditing and Reporting (poor) provision of consultancy service for information technology and TGB stated in the questionnaire returned that its audits were business process outsourcing. (ref: 17) always performed by independent, third party audit firms. The company only stated Tetley's current situation with regards to auditing which it said 50% had been certified by Rainforest Anti-Social Finance
Alliance (RA), 14% were working towards RA certification, Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
another 20% were audited by ETP and 16% had not been audited.
strategies (November 2013)
TGB received a poor rating for auditing and reporting because In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Tata Sons there was no commitment to audit its whole supply chain which family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed included other drinks brands, there was no remediation strategy a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at from those suppliers covered under ETP or RA, and no schedule high risk of being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the for auditing suppliers. Of the 16% that had not been audited company type and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions TGB stated they were "low priority" sites in Sri Lanka and considered by Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
India which the company may exit in the future. There was no These included holding companies based in Switzerland, mention of costs.
Hong Kong and Singapore and an investment company based in Switzerland.
Difficult issues Given that the company had two or more subsidaries which were TGB stated in its questionnaire that in November 2013 some considered to be likely to be used for tax avoidance strategies and of its senior managers of the buying team underwent University were based in tax havens it received Ethical Consumer's worst of Cambridge Sustainability Leadership Programme, it also said rating in this category. (ref: 18) that internal training occurred on sustainability issues. With its Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
Tetley brand the group had long term purchasing agreements strategies (November 2013)
with former companies such as Kanan Devan Hill Plantation In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Tata Steel and APPL. TGB stated that it had recently entered into a joint family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed partnership in China and stated that it had the support of ETP a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at whose standard required Chinese suppliers to have "parallel high risk of being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the means" in place and recommends that factories establish worker company type and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions committees. TGB was considered to be addressing one difficult considered by Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
issue within its supply chain. It therefore received a rudimentary These included several holding companies based in Singapore. rating for this category. (ref: 5) Tata Steel receieved Ethical Consumer's worst rating for likely Arms & Military Supply
use of tax avoidance strategies due to the fact it had two or more Manufactures products for defence industry (November
high risk subsidaries based in tax havens. (ref: 18) Human rights abuses in India (May 2010)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Advanced On 10th May 2010 the website Systems (TASL) website,which an article that reported conflict between local Indian people stated it was addressing the business areas of Defence, Aerospace, and mining companies. Tata Steel was named as a company Aero-Structures and Homeland Security. acquiring thousands of acres of land, and was reported to have The company was establishing critical manufacturing capabilities met with resistance from local people. The following instances through strategic alliances and collaborations with Global were reported: police breaking up gatherings of as few as five Technology Majors in the following areas: people; people who refused to sell their land being repeatedly arrested; police violence during arrests; suspected Tata officials RF Systems and ICT Networks (SDRs, Ruggedized Switches trying to persuade arrestees whilst they were detained; forgery of & Interoperability Gateways) records that stated people had sold their land when they hadn't, Maritime Systems – Maritime Command & Control (IPMS and prisoners being released when their families agreed to sell. & IBS), Sonars & Simulators The company was said to have denied the allegations. (ref: 19) Mini and Micro UAVs NVDs (Monoculars, Binoculars, Weapon Sights) Aerospace & Aero-Structures Product sustainability (+ve)
worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 22) Other Sustainability Features (+ve)
Rainforest Alliance (November 2013)
Use of unsustainable palm oil (November 2013)
According to the website on 15th In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Associated November 2013, Tetley tea sold Rainforest Alliance certified British Food's website, for a palm oil policy. tea but not all its tea was yet. Only its Original brand (except for The company's 2013 CSR report was downloaded. The report Decaf) and its Redbush.
contained a CSR overview table which discussed the use of palm "All of Tetley's branded black, green and red tea, including oil. It stated that Associated British Foods was committed to our flavoured and decaffeinated varieties, will be part of the all businesses using Certified Sustainable or Identity Preserved Rainforest Alliance certification programme, which is scheduled palm oil by 2015.
for completion by 2016." (ref: 20) Some of the company's businesses, for example AB Agri, engaged with the Round table for Sustainable Palm Oil to source palm oil sustainably by purchasing Green Palm Certificates.
Twinings Fairtrade Breakfast tea
As a business wide commitment to sourcing sustainable palm oil was not yet implemented, and considering the fact that the Owned by R Twining & Co Ltd negative effects of palm oil have been known since 2005, ABF lost half marks in Ethical Consumer's rating system in the R Twining & Co Ltd is owned by Associated British Foods Plc categories of climate change, habitats & resources and human owned by Wittington Investments Ltd (55%) rights. (ref: 21) Wittington Investments Ltd, Weston Centre, Bowater House, 68 Rated "poor" by Oxfams behind the brand scorecard
Knightsbridge, London, SW1X 7QT R Twining & Co Ltd is also owned by Garfield Weston Foundation In September 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the most recent "Behind the brand" scorecard produced by Oxfam part of its GROW campaign which sought to evaluate the world's top 10 most powerful food and beverage companies. The campaign aimed to challenge the companies to begin a "race to the top" to improve their social and environmental performance. Worst ECRA rating for environmental report (November
2013)

Associated British Foods (ABF) was ranked last out of ten In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Associated companies in the scorecard. The company was rated in seven British Food's (ABF) website, for an areas based on information publically available and marked out environmental policy. The company's 2013 CSR report was of ten for each area. downloaded. The report contained a CSR overview table which According to the report Associated British Foods was bad for discussed environment management, climate change, water assessing the impact it has on producers, communities and the use and availability, disposal of waste and effluent, use of palm planet. The company scored even worse on supporting women oil, cocoa, soya and GMOs. The report went on to identify the and land rights and came bottom of the pile for climate change. company's key environmental impacts: energy use and green The company scored house gas emissions, abstraction of water and discharge and the 1/10 for its land policies: generation and disposal of waste. Some performance data was provided, the majority of which related to sugar production. 1/10 for policies on women: 2/10 for policies on farmers: Although the company had a recent environment policy and 2/10 for policies regarding workers: showed reasonable understanding of its key environmental 1/10 for policies on climate change: impacts, the company did not provide any company wide dated environmental targets nor was the report independently verified. 3/10 for transparency: ABF therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 21) Due to the fact Associated British Foods had not received best in Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
any of the categories it lost marks in Ethical Consumer's climate change, human rights and workers rights categories.
In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Twining's In October 2013 Oxfam released a report called ‘Sugar Rush' website for an environmental policy or report. The ‘our which urged Associated British Foods along with two other food environmental commitments' section of the website stated that and beverages giants to adopt a zero-tolerance policy on land grabs. It stated that sugar, along with soy and palm oil, were driving large-scale land acquisitions and land conflicts at the expense of ‘committed to protecting its environment and wherever possible reducing its impact on the planet. It stated that the company small-scale food producers and their families. Oxfam's report assessed the environmental risks of its operations and put in exposed the lack of transparency by food and beverage giants, making it difficult for the public to hold companies accountable. place improvement programmes so it could reduce its impacts. It also stated that ‘every year all of its sites set tough targets for reducing environmental impacts'. No further information could Pollution & Toxics
Pollution fine (2010)
The EIRIS Corporate Ethics Overview published in Autumn 2010 stated that Associated British Foods subsidiary George Weston As the company did not not discuss in detail any of its Foods had been fined Aus 67,000 (USD 63,000; EUR 49,000; environmental impacts, did not present environmental performance data, and did not provide future, quantified environment reduction GBP 67,000) by the Australian Land and Environment Court for polluting a the Peel River in September 2008. The prosecution was targets, R Twinning and Co Ltd received Ethical Consumer's brought by the Australian Department of Environment, Climate use of pesticides in cotton production worldwide it also lost half Change and Water in response to a leak of animal fat and oil into the a mark in the and pollution and toxics category.
Peel River. The leak left more than 2 kilometre slick that persisted According to the International Service for the Acquisition of for 9 days. The presiding judge ordered George Weston Foods to Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), a non-profit pro biotech pay a penalty of AUD 67,000 to Tamworth Regional Council to organisation, genetically modified cotton accounted for almost use for an environmental project. He also ordered the company half of the 33 million hectares of global cotton planted in 2009. to pay prosecution costs of AUD 30,000 and publish notices in Due to the prevalence of GM cotton in cotton supply chains and the press outlining details of the offence. George Weston Foods the lack of any evidence that the company avoided it, it was had already paid out AUD 38,217 in clean up costs. assumed that the company's cotton products contained some The story had originated from the NSW Environment, Climate GM material. (ref: 26) Change and Water Dept press release 09/07/10 (ref: 24) Habitats & Resources
No cotton sourcing policy (2011)
Retail of non-FSC products (March 2011)
Primark (which was a subsidairy of Associated British Foods) In February 2011 Ethical Consumer emailed Heal & Son Ltd (a stated that it was unable to respond to Ethical Consumer's written subsidairy of Wittington Investments) and attached a questionnaire request in June 2011 for its cotton sourcing policy. Ethical that included questions regarding the company's wood sourcing Consumer searched the company's websites, policy. The company did not respond. Its co.uk and in July 2011 for this co.uk, displayed some products made from wood marketed as information, but none could be found, nor any mention of the being from sustainable sources, but also sold many that were issues surrounding cotton.
not. Purchasing Forest Stewardship Council certified wood was According to the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) not mentioned. According the the Environmental Investigation website, viewed by Ethical Consumer Agency report "Putting the Brakes on Drivers of Forest in February 2011, Uzbekistan was the third largest exporter of Destruction", published in December 2009, timber, pulp and paper cotton in the world, and Europe was its major buyer (EJF quoted were one of four top commodity markets associated with tropical UN data which stated that Europe received almost a third of all deforestation and degradation. Heal & Son Ltd consequently lost cotton sold by Uzbekistan). The website stated that forced child a mark in the habitats and resources category. (ref: 26) labour, human rights violations and excessive pesticide use were (See also ‘Use of unsustainable palm oil' in Climate Change
"rife" in Uzbek cotton production. It was also said to have caused an "environmental catastrophe of astonishing proportions" as a Sale of reindeer meat - impact on wild predators and stress
result of its impact on the Aral Sea, reported to be 15% of its to reindeer through herding methods (January 2013)
According to the Viva! website, viewed Due to the high proportion of cotton on the British market likely January 15th 2013, ‘The shocking secrets behind the trade in to have come from Uzbekistan and the prevalence of child labour ‘novelty' reindeer meat' Fortnum & Mason (a subsidairy of in its production, Primark lost half a mark in the workers' rights Wittington Investments) was selling the ‘Edible' brand of reindeer category. Due to the impacts of the widespread use of pesticides pate from Sweden. Viva! had uncovered concerns that the growing in cotton production worldwide it also lost half a mark in the popularity of reindeer meat in Britain was causing the destruction pollution and toxics category.
of large wild predators including wolves, wolverines, lynxes, According to the International Service for the Acquisition of foxes and bears with cubs.
Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), a non-profit pro biotech It also reported that reindeer suffer from modern herding methods. organisation, genetically modified cotton accounted for almost In Nordic countries, they are often herded with snowmobiles, half of the 33 million hectares of global cotton planted in 2009. motorcycles and even helicopters, causing a huge amount of Due to the prevalence of GM cotton in cotton supply chains and the lack of any evidence that the company avoided it, it was Fortnum & Mason, said Viva!, was selling reindeer meat as a assumed that the company's cotton products contained some ‘novelty', in itself popularising the consumption of meat from GM material. (ref: 25) wild animals, and in-turn exerting potentially disastrous pressure No cotton sourcing policy (March 2011)
on populations already suffering from the threats of climate In February 2011 Ethical Consumer emailed Heal & Son Ltd (a change, urban encroachment, pollution and poaching - as well subsidairy of Wittington Investments) and attached a questionnaire as their natural predators. that included a question regarding the company's cotton sourcing Viva! was calling on its supporters to contact the company policy. The company did not respond. Its website, telling them to stop stocking the product. (ref: 27) co.uk, displayed a number of products made from cotton and no mention was made of whether the company had any policies relating to its cotton sourcing.
According to the Environmental Justice Foundation website, Uses animals for research (November 2013)
viewed by Ethical Consumer in February In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Associated 2011, Uzbekistan was the third largest exporter of cotton in the British Food's website for an animal testing policy. The ‘ethical world, and Europe was its major buyer. The website stated statement' section of the website stated that ‘ABF avoided the that forced child labour, human rights violations and excessive use of animal testing wherever possible. In each of the markets pesticide use were "rife" in Uzbek cotton production. It was also where it was active, it complied with all relevant laws and only said to have caused an "environmental catastrophe of astonishing used animals for research where it was a legal requirement. proportions" as a result of its impact on the Aral Sea, reported to be 15% of its former volume. The company therefore received negative marks for conducting Due to the high proportion of cotton on the British market or commissioning testing on animals. (ref: 28) likely to have come from Uzbekistan and the prevalence of child labour in its production, Heal & Son Ltd lost half a mark in the No animal testing policy (January 2009)
workers rights category. Due to the impacts of the widespread British Sugar did not respond to a request by Ethical Consumer in December 2009 for a copy of its animal testing policy, neither was one apparent on the company's Human Rights
co.uk, when viewed by Ethical Consumer in January 2009. As a large player in the UK sugar market, without a policy to confirm (See also ‘Rated "poor" by Oxfams behind the brand
scorecard' in Climate Change above.)
otherwise, Ethical Consumer assumed that the company was (See also ‘Use of unsustainable palm oil' in Climate Change
involved with funding research into sugar some of which was likely to involve testing on animals. The company also retailed artificial sweeteners, which were routinely tested on animals. Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
According to Associated British Food's 2013 Annual Report, the company has subsidiaries in the following five countries Worst ECRA rating for animal testing policy (2011)
which Ethical Consumer considered to be oppressive regimes A search of the Primark website, in July at the time of writing: Philippines, Thailand, China. India, and 2011 revealed that the company had received awards in Ireland Vietnam. (ref: 32) for its own brand sun lotion and a concealer. No animal testing policy could be found on the company's website. The company responded to this rating in August 2011 with the following Factory collapse (April 2013)
statement: ‘Primark is against animal testing. Primark and our In April 2013 a building in Bangladesh that housed several own label manufacturers do not commission animal testing on garment factories used by multinational corporations collapsed any Primark own brand products or ingredients. Our own brand killing at least 300 people and injuring over 800.
cosmetics and toiletry product range have not been tested on The eight-story Rana Plaza building in Savar, on the outskirts animals by us, or by our own brand manufacturers." However, in of the capital Dhaka contained three factories and a shopping the absence of a fixed cut-off date for the testing of ingredients, mall.
the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this A press release from the Clean Clothes Campaign stated that category. (ref: 25) workers' rights activists had managed to enter the ruins of ‘Rana Plaza' and found labels and documentation linking the factories Sale of non-organic, non free range meat (August 2011)
with major retailers including Primark which in the same week had announced record profits.
According to the George Weston Foods company (a subsidairy of Associated British Foods) website, "It's unbelievable that brands still refuse to sign a binding au, it sold meat under the brand KR Castlemaine®. No mention agreement with unions and labour groups to stop these unsafe was made of whether any of the meat it sold was organic or free working conditions from existing. Tragedy after tragedy shows range, therefore it was assumed that the company was involved that corporate-controlled monitoring is completely inadequate," in selling factory farmed meat. (ref: 30) said Tessel Pauli from Clean Clothes Campaign.
Sale of foie gras (2013)
Workers had complained about cracks appearing in the walls According to the PETA UK website viewed in September 2013, days before the accident but managers ordered them back to Fortnum & Mason was continuing to sell goose foie gras in its work. The Clean Clothes Campaign have alleged that the floors store and its restaurants, despite stating in 2008 that it would no where "illegally built." longer sell duck foie gras. PETA was urging supporters to email Campaigners were now calling on brands sourcing from the company to protest. All major supermarkets in the UK have Bangladesh to sign up to the Bangladesh Fire and Building refused to stock foie gras. Safety Agreement. The CCC, together with local and global Peta was calling for the company to be stripped of its Royal unions and labour rights organisations had developed a sector- wide programme for action that includes independent building Deprived of everything that is natural to them, ducks and geese inspections, worker rights training, public disclosure and a who are used in foie gras production suffer from frustration and long-overdue review of safety standards. It is transparent as well stress. They are crammed into tiny pens or individual cages fouled as practical, and unique in being supported by all key labour with faeces and blood and often develop skeletal disorders and stakeholders in Bangladesh and internationally.
respiratory problems as a result of forcefeeding. Pipes are shoved The labour signatories were calling on all major brands sourcing down their throats several times a day to force approximately in the industry to sign on to the initiative in order to ensure its two kilograms of grain, maize and fat into their stomachs. In rapid implementation. The programme has the potential to save human terms, that is the equivalent of roughly 20 kilograms of the lives of hundreds of thousands of workers currently at risk pasta per day.
in unsafe and illegally built factories. (ref: 33) The pipes sometimes puncture the birds' throats, causing them (See also ‘No cotton sourcing policy' in Pollution & Toxics
unbearable pain and making it impossible to drink. Pumps used to force food into the birds' stomachs can cause severe tissue Criticised for use of ‘workfare' labour (August 2011)
damage and internal bleeding. This painful overfeeding process According to an article on the Corporate Watch can even cause the birds' internal organs to rupture. Those who ‘Unemployed people ‘bullied' into unpaid survive the forced-feedings suffer intensely as their livers swell work at Tesco, Primark and other multinationals', dated August to up to 10 times their normal size. After several weeks of this 12th 2011, unemployed people were being sent to work without torture, the birds are hung upside down and slaughtered, and their pay in multinational corporations, one of which was Primark, by livers are sold as foie gras. (ref: 31) Job centres and companies administering the government's welfare reforms. Some were working for up to six months while receiving unemployment benefit of £67.50 a week or less. The article said (See also ‘Sale of non-organic, non free range meat' in
that people were sent to Primark by contracted employment Factory farming above.)
companies through the previous government's Flexible New (See also ‘Sale of reindeer meat - impact on wild predators
Deal for up to six months and that this would be continued in the and stress to reindeer through herding methods' in
recently started Work Programme. Primark did not comment. In Habitats & Resources above.)
an interview a woman who was given a placement in Primark for (See also ‘Sale of foie gras' in Factory farming above.)
six months, under the previous government's welfare programme, says her work was the same as that of other paid staff and that she Middle ECRA rating for supply chain management
was not given a job at the end of it. She also says she was told her benefits would be stopped if she did not attend. Campaigners In October 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Twinings asking argue that such work placements provide companies with free for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no reply. labour, undercut existing jobs and that people are "bullied" into A search was made of Twining website, them. A spokesperson for the Boycott workfare campaign said: for the company's supply chain policy. The company's code of "These placements are not designed to help people into full-time conduct was downloaded.
paid work but they serve to increase organisations' profits. They provide a constant stream of free labour and suppress wages by Supply chain policy (reasonable) replacing paid workers with unpaid workers. People are coerced, bullied and sanctioned into taking the placements. Placements Twinings Ovaltine code of conduct was downloaded from the in the public sector and charities are no better and are making company's website. It listed adeqaute provisions for freedom volunteering compulsory. This is taking away the right of a person of association, child labour, forced labour, working hours and to sell their own labour and their free will to choose who they employment free from discrimination. However there was no volunteer their time for." (ref: 34) clause to pay living wage. The code of conduct did not include a provision that it applied to the entire breadth of the supply chain. Supply Chain Management
It stated that it set out to be the core principles that suppliers and Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
production sites should be prepared to meet to ensure products were made in good working conditions. Overall Twinings was In January 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Associated British considered to have a reasonable supply chain policy.
Foods (ABF) asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of ABF co.uk, for the company's supply chain policy. Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) Twinings was a member of the Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP) - a not-for-profit organisation that monitors social and environmental Supply chain policy (poor) conditions on tea estates in all major tea producing regions. ABF website included a section on responsibility on people The company brought teas which were certified by either the and suppliers. However there was no information relating to the Fairtrade Foundation or Rainforest Alliance. There was no International Labour Organisation (ILO) core conventions apart mention of an independent compliants process for employees to from a statement which said that managers must take account feedback on working conditions. Twinnings was considered to of the core ILO labour conventions and strive to observe the have rudimentary stakeholder engagement. UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by respecting the dignity and human rights of its employees. There was no statement which stated this applied to the entire supply chain. Auditing and reporting (poor) A search was made for ABF's supplier code of conduct but no A search of the Twinnings website found no commitment from document could be found.
the company to audit its whole supply chain, nor was there any schedule of audits. There was no informaiton on audits already carried out. Twinings stated that its monitoring and improvement Stakeholder engagement (poor) programme was designed to monitor conformance with its Code ABF website included a section on suppliers, which included of Conduct and to address any issues that may be identified. Its improving supply chains. However the information related soley to website did state that where issues within its supply chains were Primark and Twinnings which both had stakeholder engagement. found, it continued to engage with suppliers as long as they were There was no information on stakeholder engagement for ABF committed to make the required corrective action within an agreed subsidaries, other than Primark who was involved with the Ethical period and that it would provide support to suppliers to facilitate Trading Initiative (ETI) and Twinning who was involved with improvement. There was no mention of who paid for the cost of Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP). audits. The company was also a member of the Supplier Ethical Data Exchange (Sedex), a labour standards sharing database Auditing and reporting (poor) which helps brands to track and analyse ethical audit data from suppliers. Twinings was considered to have a poor auditing and The website contained no information on auditing and reporting of the company's supply chains. Difficult issues (poor) Difficult issues (rudimentary)Twinings stated on its website that it ran a global internal ABF website contained no information on audit fraud, illegal Ethical Sourcing Training on ethical trade issues and responsible freedom of association, outworkers or payment of a living wage. purchasing. This training was compulsory for everyone involved However the company was a signatory to the Prompt Payment in the procurements of goods and ingredients. There was no Code which commited the company to paying its bills on time, mention of payment of living wage, audit fraud or illegal freedom but stated that group companies were responsible for negotiating of association. Twinings was considered to have a rudimentary payment terms with their own suppliers. approach to difficult issues. (ref: 36) Ethical Consumer would expect a company of the size of ABF and range of industries it is involved in to at least have a supply chain policy which covered its entire business. Due to the lack of GM policy (November 2013)
policies the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating Ethical Consumer searched Associated British Food's website for supply chain management. (ref: 35) for a policy on genetically modified organisms. An undated Policy on Genetically Modified (GM) Ingredients was downloaded. The company recognised the differing views on GMOs within different countries and stated it strove to meet consumer expectations as Labour Euro-Safeguards Campaign, all of which were claimed they varied, country by country, as well as complying with local to have political links. regulations on the use and labelling of GM ingredients. The Commission was said to have found that shareholders of It stated that the majority of the food products sold to consumers the GWF, and thus the charity, had not been consulted on the in Europe, Australia and New donations "due to an oversight". According to the article, the Zealand did not contain GM ingredients. In a handful of the Commission found that "prior to 2006 the trustees of the charity thousands of products it sold, GM oils were present in the wider who were also directors of WIL had breached their duties by supply chain, but the company had not been able to establish failing to raise the issue with their fellow trustees". In 2006 the trustees were said to have passed a resolution allowing WIL to make political donations without the charity's consideration. certain that the oils it sourced were non-GM.
The Commission was said to have found this to be in breach of In regard to GM crops for animal feed, ABF stated that as GM their duties. (ref: 39) crops had been cleared by UK and EU regulatory bodies as safe for both animal and human consumption, these formed part of the company's offerings. It also sourced assured non-GM crops Tax avoidance in Zambia (February 2013)
where demanded by consumers.
It was reported in February 2013 that Associated British Foods, one of Britain's biggest multinationals, was avoiding paying The company's enzymes business used GM microorganisms in millions of pounds of tax in Zambia.
the manufacturing process, but no GM material was said to be present in the final product.
New research from campaign group ActionAid released showed that a subsidiary of ABF contributed virtually no corporation tax The company therefore received negative marks for for use to the state's exchequer between 2007 and 2012, and none at all of GM ingredients in animal feed and in human grade food for two of those years.
prdoucts. It also received a mark in animal rights for supplying The firm, Zambia Sugar, posted record pre-tax profits and its animal feed. (ref: 37) huge plantation was increasing its capacity to produce more (See also ‘No cotton sourcing policy' in Pollution & Toxics
sugar for markets in Europe and Africa. Yet it paid less than 0.5% of its $123m pre-tax profits in corporation tax between 2007 and 2012.
Member of "independent" food information charity (22
According to an article in the Guardian newspaper the company March 2010)
benefited from generous capital allowance and tax-relief schemes An article on the Spin Watch website, spinwatch.org.uk, dated in Zambia, but the investigation also found that it funneled around 22 March 2010 and credited to the British Medical Journal, a third of its pre-tax profits to sister companies in tax havens, outlined criticisms made against the British Nutrition Foundation, including Ireland, Mauritius and the Netherlands. Tax treaties of which British Sugar (a subsidairy of Associated British Foods) between Zambia and some of those countries meant the state's was said to be a member. In the article a representative of the revenue authorities were unable to charge their normal tax on International Association for the Study of Obesity was quoted money leaving their shores.
as saying that the Foundation "did a big piece of work for the Food Standards Agency reviewing ‘influences on consumer food ActionAid estimated that the tax haven transactions of this one choices' which conveniently left out any review of the influence British headquartered multinational deprived Zambia of a sum 14 of marketing and advertising techniques". A representative of times larger than the UK aid provided to the country to combat the Campaign Against Trans Fats in Food commented on two hunger and food insecurity.
documents published by the Foundation on his area of expertise Chris Jordan, a tax specialist at ActionAid and co-author of the "The first is a briefing sheet and is very balanced.The other is a report, said: "This is a really shocking case where the Associated submission to the Scottish parliament on a bill to limit trans fats, British Foods group has gone to great lengths to ensure it pays and essentially it says to do nothing", which coincides with the virtually no corporation tax in a very poor country. Tax avoidance industry view, according to the representative. is not victimless financial engineering. In Zambia 45% of children The Foundation was said to be open about its involvment are malnourished and two-thirds of the population live on less in lobbying, stating that it aimed to "help shape and support than $2 a day." (ref: 40) Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
The article stated that "many of the Foundation's staff move strategies (November 2013)
between the organisation and the food industry" and that food In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Wittington companies often direct people to the Foundations work, claiming Investments Ltd family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.
that it is an independent source of information. com. This listed a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at high risk of being used for tax avoidance The article detailed the involvement with the Foundation of purposes due to the company type and the fact that they were several other large, named, food companies. (ref: 38) located in jurisdictions considered by Ethical Consumer to be Charity Commission ruling for political donations (April
These included three holding companies in Luxembourg, According to an article on the website Civil Society, investment companies in Luxembourg and Jersey and several published in April 2010, the Charity Commission had ruled against trustees of the Garfield Weston business service subsidairies in Jersey and Guernsey. Wittington Investments receieved Ethical Consumer's worst rating for likely Foundation (GWF) following an investigation regarding political use of tax avoidance strategies due to the fact it had two or more donations by Wittington Investments Limited (WIL), a company high risk subsidaries based in tax havens. (ref: 18) 79.2% owned by the Foundation. It was said to have made donations to the Conservative Party totalling £800,000 between Excessive directors' pay (November 2013)
1993 and 1999 and another of £100,000 in 2004. Between 2001 Associated British Food's 2013 Annual Report was downloaded and 2007 it was said to have also made five and six-figure donations from the company's website, The reported to the European Foundation, the Centre for Policy Studies and the stated that executive director George Weston received a total of £2,181,000 in remuneration in 2013, and John Bason £1,441,000 in 2013. Ethical Consumer considered remuneration above one where women were most vulnerable within its supply chain. million pounds to be excessive. (ref: 32) 7/10 for policies on farmers: Unilever needed to treat farmers Product sustainability (+ve)
more fairly.
7/10 for policies regarding workers: Unilever needed to ensure Organic Product (+ve)
suppliers were implementing key labour rights.
Fairtrade and Organic certified (November 2013)
6/10 for policies on climate change: Unilver needed to help According to Twining's website, farmers respond to climate change.
viewed by Ethical Consumer in November 2013, Twinings produced a Fairtrade and Organic certified tea, - Fairtrade 6/10 for transparency: Unilever needed to be more transparent Breakfast Tea. (ref: 41) about its suppliers. 6/10 on water: Unilever needed to set a target for reduction of Fairtrade Product (+ve)
(See also ‘Fairtrade and Organic certified' in Organic
water use through its supply chain. Product (+ve) above.)
Due to the fact Unilever had not received best in any of the categories it lost marks in Ethical Consumer's climate change, Lyons tea [S]
human rights and workers rights categories. (ref: 17) Pollution & Toxics
Owned by Unilever Fined for Polluting California Air With Deodorant Spray
Unilever, Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London, EC4Y 0DY, United Kingdom According to an article posted on the Environmental News Unilever is owned by Unilever PLC (50%) Service website,a fragrant personal care spray, sold by Conopco (a subsidairy of Unilever) and designed Unilever PLC, Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, to make men appear to be free of unpleasant body odour, polluted London, EC4Y 0DY, UK California air to the degree that the state fined the company Unilever is also owned by Unilever N.V. (50%) more than $1 million. The California Air Resources Board owned by Stichting Administratiekantoor Unilever penalised the company $1.3 million for illegal consumer sales of AXE Deodorant Bodyspray for Men. An Air Resources Board Stichting Administratiekantoor Unilever N.V., Claude Debussylaan spokesman said that the deodorant spray contaminated California 24, Amsterdam, 1082 MD, The Netherlands air with the volatile organic compounds used as a propellant and went on to say deodorant sprays sold in California had a very Unilever PLC also owns PG Tips tea [S] small specific level of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) that they were permitted to emit and this product exceeded that level. Between 2006 and 2008, Conopco, sold, supplied and offered for sale in California more than 2.8 million units of deodorant body Best ECRA rating for environmental report (2013)
spray that failed to meet the state's clean air standards for aerosol The Unilever Sustainable Living Plan 2012 was downloaded from deodorants. According to the Air Resources Board Enforcement the company's websiteovember 2013. The Chief James Ryden, "Consumer products, because of their report discussed the following of the company's environmental pervasive use, contribute a growing portion of VOC emissions impacts: greenhouse gases, water, waste, sustainable sourcing of throughout California. Therefore, it's important that every can raw materials. The company had set targets to train small holder and bottle of product be compliant with ARB's standards." The farmers in sustainable practices and had set targets for each raw violations resulted in what the Board called "significant excess material it sourced such as sugar or tea.
emissions" from volatile organic compounds which contribute to The report contained several quantified targets for 2020 including ground-level ozone, or smog. Exposure to ozone can cause lung to source 100% of agricultural raw materials sustainably by inflammation, impaired breathing, coughing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and worsening of asthma symptoms. Over Selected performance data was independently assured by 90 percent of Californians were said to still breathe unhealthy air at some time during the year. (ref: 35) Unilever received Ethical Consumer's best rating for Shares in Vedanta (2009)
environmental reporting. (ref: 34) The Ecologist published an article on its website, org, on 19 June 2009 in which it listed several UK companies which owned shares in Vedanta Resources plc. Vedanta was behind the Rated "fair" by Oxfams Behind the Brands scorecard
controversial mine in India's Orissa state which was situated on a mountain sacred to local people. The company was given the go- In September 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the most recent ahead to begin mining for bauxite in May 2009. Campaign groups "Behind the brand" scorecard produced by Oxfam as part of its had warned that the 600-hectare mine would result in ecological GROW campaign which sought to evaluate the world's top 10 degradation that would threaten the livelihoods of tribal people. most powerful food and beverage companies. The campaign They said that several villages had been razed to make way for aimed to challenge the companies to begin a "race to the top" to the construction of a refinery, with up to 100 indigenous families improve their social and environmental performance. evicted from their land and relocated to ‘rehabilitation colonies' Unilever was ranked 2nd out of 10 companies in the scorecard. where locals claimed they felt as though they were living ‘in a jail' The company was rated in seven areas and marked out of ten with little access to land for farming. A nearby bauxite refinery which was already in existence had been blamed for causing According to the report Unilever scored: health problems, damaging crops and killing livestock. 3/10 for its land policies - Unilever needed to explicitly commit to addressing land disputes within its supply chain.
Unilever Pension Fund was listed in the Ecologist as having 4/10 for policies on women - Unilever needed to understand shares in Vedanta. (ref: 36) Products contain triclosan (July 2012)
According to the ‘What's in our products' section of Sale of intensively farmed meat (2013)
viewed in July 2012, Mentadent P and The US website of Unilever brand Mentadent Sensitive toothpastes both contained triclosan.
listed several frozen meals on sale when viewed in November Several studies have shown that triclosan disrupts the thyroid 2013. Some of these contained meat, and this was not stated to hormone in frogs and rats, while others have shown that triclosan be free range.
alters the sex hormones of laboratory animals. Others studies have Unilever UK also owns Peperoni, a spicy pork salami and Bovril shown that triclosan can cause some bacteria to become resistant beef and chicken extracts plus Knorr stocks. None of these were to antibiotics. (ref: 37) listed as containing free range or organic meat. (ref: 40) Habitats & Resources
Use of non free range eggs (2012)
(See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
According to its Sustainable Living Plan 2012, Unilever stated "We aim to move to 100% cage-free eggs for all our products, where allowed by local legislation. In Western Europe our Hellmann's, Amora and Calvé brands have been 100% cage-free since 2009 Worst ECRA rating for animal testing policy (November
and by the end of 2011, 99% of all eggs used in Ben & Jerry's ice cream mix worldwide were cage-free. Around one-third of Unilever's website, was viewed in November our mayonnaise portfolio in North America becoming cage-free 2013 by Ethical Consumer for its animal testing policy.
We found a statement from Unilever: This suggested that not all its brands were cage free in Western Europe, not to mention all its products outside of Western Europe "Unilever is committed to the elimination of animal testing. including non-mayonnaise products in North America. (ref: 34) We are equally committed to consumer health and safety, and to the safety of our workforce and the environment. We do not test Use of battery farmed eggs (2011)
finished products on animals unless demanded by the regulatory According to a press release by the Humane Society of the authorities in the few countries where this is the law. In such United States, dated 23rd August 2006, a campaign had been cases, we try to convince the local authorities to change the law. launched to ask Ben & Jerry's to stop using eggs sourced from Where some testing of ingredients is required by law or currently battery chicken farms in its ice-cream. The company was said unavoidable, we aim to minimise the number of animals used." to have given assurances over the space of a year that it would switch to free range eggs, but had failed to do so.
Due to its use of animal testing and the lack of clarity about when it was used, for example for medical or cosmetic purposes, In September 2011 the parent company's website, the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this com, was searched and the following information on their eggs category. (ref: 37) sourcing policy was found: Involved in animal testing not required by law (November
"All Ben & Jerry's ice cream sold in Europe has used only cage-free eggs since 2004, and globally, 88.3% of all eggs used According to the PETA website viewed in November 2013, in Ben & Jerry's production in 2009 were cage-free. In the US Unilever was listed in a pdf called ‘Companies that test on in 2010, all Ben & Jerry's ice cream sold in pint containers was animals' produced by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals made with certified cage-free eggs." and updated 11/11/13. The companies were on the list because However, this left some areas of the company's business which they have not eliminated tests on animals for their entire line of still used eggs from caged hens. (ref: 41) cosmetics and household products. (ref: 38) Animal testing of food for health benefits (June 2013)
Product containing slaughterhouse by-products (2013)
The BUAV released findings in June 2013 of research showing An Ethical Consumer shop survey, conducted on the 11th cruel and unnecessary animal tests carried out by some of November 2013, found that the product Flora Lighter than Light, the world's leading food giants, Yakult, Danone, Nestlé and contained pork gelatine, a slaughterhouse by-product. (ref: 42) (See also ‘Sale of intensively farmed meat' in Factory
Animal experiments have been carried out in an attempt to identify the ‘health benefits' of certain foods to feed the growing infatuation with ‘super foods'. The animals subjected to the experiments uncovered included mice, rats, rabbits and pigs. The Human Rights
research is recent, having been published in the past two years.
Human rights abuses by palm oil supplier (23 August 2011)
Unilever was named by the BUAV for experiments involving On 23rd August 2011 it was reported on the Rainforest Rescue Hoodia gordonii, a spiny African shrub (which is already used as website, that the small village of a weight management supplement for the treatment of obesity), Sungai Beruang on the Indonesian island of Sumatra had been rabbits and mice were subjected to a reproductive toxicity test. stormed by 700 armed soldiers from the notorious special forces Pregnant rabbits and mice were force fed extracts of the plant unit Brimob, and the Wilmar Group's security forces. Wilmar throughout their pregnancy for 25 days. The day before the International was reported to be one of the world's biggest palm animals were due to give birth, they and their unborn foetuses oil companies and one of the major suppliers to Unilever, one of were killed and examined.
the world's biggest palm oil processors, which used palm oil it Unilever was also named in an experiment in which piglets in almost all of it's products. The raid on Sungai Beruang was were given an extract of Lipton's tea to see if it could counter reported to result in hundreds of people fleeing "to escape the diarrhoea caused by the Ecoli stomach bug. Eight of the month- guns and bulldozers" and much of the village being destroyed. 40 old animals died, with severe diarrhoea to blame in at least seven people from the ethnic group of the Suku Anak Dalam, which had of the cases. (ref: 39) lived in the area for generations, were reported to be missing. Rainforest Rescue was calling on supporters to contact Unilever and request that they reconsider their collaboration with Wilmar and replace the palm oil in its products with native fats. (ref: Among suppliers outside the factory, 20 of the 48 interviewed said Unilever's supplier code (which required at a bare minimum (See also ‘Rated "fair" by Oxfams Behind the Brands
an adherence to local laws) had never been mentioned. At one scorecard' in Climate Change above.)
supplier, employees worked four hours' overtime a day, six days (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
a week, for 10 months: well in excess of a legal national limit of 200 hours a year. Another said that offering excessive overtime gave it a competitive advantage.
Workers rights issues at factory in Vietnam (January 2013)
A report by Oxfam in January 2013 revealed evidence of poor Unilever said it was disappointed by the outcome of the Oxfam labour practices in Unilever's operations in Vietnam between report and the problems stemmed from the assumption that regional operations would follow its global CSR standards. It stated that it would work with its factory in Vietnam to change The in-depth review by Oxfam of one of Unilever's Vietnam the way it works. Factories showed that: • Wages were insufficient to make savings or support dependants, However, it was pointed out that Vietnam was just one case study and that the company had a presence in over 100 countries, with instances of workers unable to eat adequate diets or afford directly employing 171,000 employees. Nearly 55% of its business to keep children in school.
was in emerging markets. • Suppliers and managers unclear about Unilever's codes of Unilever stated that it would welcome Oxfam back to the factory conduct, in some cases only accessible in English.
in two years time to assess improvements made. (ref: 44) • Workers were too scared to voice grievances or engage in Child labour likely in vanilla supply chain (May 2011)
freedom of association.
In May 2011 Dutch sustainable development NGO SOMO • Factory workers employed by a third party were on much published an overview of Unilever's controversial business poorer terms and conditions.
practices that occurred in 2010. It focussed on Unilever's use of • Suppliers with employees working illegal overtime hours.
vanilla from Madagascar in its ice cream. Vanilla production is Oxfam researchers were given access to the factory at Cu Chi, plagued by child labour and unsustainable farm gate prices. Two near Ho Chi Minh city, where 700 workers were directly employed thirds of EU vanilla imports come from Madagascar.
by Unilever and 800 more were employed by Thang Loi, a third There were 80,000 smallholder, family-run vanilla farms in party labour provider. Managers and workers were interviewed Madagascar. In 2008, growers were getting 6.6% of the export on site and off site; 48 suppliers were also interviewed, with price. In 2010 it was reported that growers were earning a dollar three selected for in-depth research. The results, published with a day. 97,000 children aged 5-17 were economically active in the approval of Unilever, showed the company fell short of the Sava, a region of Madagascar responsible for the vast majority standards it set for itself.
of vanilla production. Although the study found that wages paid by Unilever were in On the subject of child labour, Unilever responded by saying excess of the national minimum wage (approximately £45 per that it was satisfied that its suppliers were not sourcing from month in 2011) and the international poverty line of $2 (£1.20) producers that resort to child labour. It made no comment on low per day, wages still did not meet the basic needs of employees farm income despite the fact that it sourced 8% of Madagascar's and their families.
vanilla. Low farm income was related to child labour because The minimum wage itself, said the report, "lags behind a vanilla prices had plummeted, so growers were forced to rely on their children for unpaid work in the fields.
rapidly-rising cost of living . meeting only 40% to 46% of workers' minimum expenses per month." Of workers in the Cu However, the report stated that the ethical standards of Unilever's Chi factory, 80% said they needed another source of income to (first tier) suppliers were not effective because they could monitor feed their families. One worker recounted having to take two the work of farmers further down the chain. 6,000 individual of her three children out of school to work as a consequence of farmers might be indirectly supplying Unilever.
inadequate pay.
SOMO concludes that Unilever was not taking enough Any such labour issues could be dealt with by a grievance responsibility for addressing both these issues, despite Unilever's hotline or the trade union. However, neither were used nor trusted. awareness of the problems in its vanilla supply chain and its There was only one state-run trade union in Vietnam, and it was influence as a major client. It was noted that it had committed too dominated by senior managers. Similarly, the workers feared that sourcing Fairtrade vanilla for the minority share of its ice cream the grievance hotline would simply go straight to the management (Ben & Jerry's) by 2013 whilst failing to address responsible and put their job at risk. "We dare not raise our voice through the sourcing for the majority of its ice cream. (ref: 45) union leaders because they are paid by the company, they are the Sexual Harassment at Kericho tea plantation (August
company's people," said one worker.
Conditions for those employed temporarily, by a third party, or In February 2012 the School of International and Public Affairs, by suppliers, were even worse. Globally, the number of people Columbia University, published a report entitled "Allegations of directly employed by Unilever decreased by nearly a half (45%) sexual harassment and abuse in Unilever's Kericho plantation, from 295,000 employees to 164,000 between 2000 and 2009. Kenya: A case study of due diligence and certification processes". However, the report states: "The work of 131,000 people did not Unilever was criticized for not showing due diligence in its disappear. According to Unilever, in 2009 this work was being response to allegations of sexual harassment and abuse of female done instead by 86,000 people that were outsourced and/or under workers by their male supervisors at its Kericho tea plantation in temporary contracts." Kenya. The report claimed that "sexual harassment and coercive In the Cu Chi factory, 748 of the 1,539 workers (53%) were sex [are] absolutely standard for all women under forty". The employed by a third party, Thang Loi – mostly migrants living paper concludes that "on many dimensions the company took a in rented accommodation, paid just above minimum wage (only defensive rather than proactive approach to the allegations, thereby with cash benefits and overtime did this rise above the local falling short of its own commitments to due diligence." average urban income). The report also criticized Unilever for forcing female employees to take pregnancy tests, which Ethical Consumer considered to be a discriminatory practice.
Difficult issues (poor) Unilever published a response to the study, dated 17 April 2012, No discussion was found on Unilevers website about working written by Rachel Cowburn-Walden. This response argued that towards payment of a living wage, homeworkers, and freedom the claims of sexual harassment had not been proven. However, of association or problems with audit fraud or training for buying it also highlighted that Unilever had rolled out a human rights agents on labour standards therefore the company received a poor training programme and appointed a welfare manager at the rating in this category. Kericho plantation. (ref: 46) Supply Chain Management
Overall Unilever received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
supply chain management. (ref: 47) Unilever was sent a questionnaire in October 2013 requesting information on its supply chain management. No response was received. Ethical Consumer searched Unilever's Pro GM policy statement (November 2013)
and found Unilever's Supplier Code and set of In November 2013 Ethical Consumer searched the Unilever website for the company's policy on the use of GM ingredients. The following position statement was found on its website; "We Supply chain policy (poor) support the responsible use of biotechnology within the framework of effective regulatory control and provision of information about The Supplier Code had adequate provisions for child and its use. The use of this technology to improve food crops can forced labour. It stated that freedom of association, hours and bring important benefits to mankind and individual applications wages should in be accordance with local laws, it did not state should be judged on their merits.
an upper limit on hours work. Ethical Consumer considered these provisions inadequate. There was no statement defining "We acknowledge that the public's view of biotechnology, such the width and depth the code applied to within its supply chain as the use of GM ingredients in foods, is still evolving and that and there was no provisions relating to employment being free the debate and public acceptance is at different stages in different from discrimination. Therefore Unilever was considered to have regions of the world.
a poor supply chain policy. "Our companies are free to use ingredients derived from modified crops, which have been approved by the regulatory authorities and which meet our own standards for quality and acceptability.
Stakeholder engagement (poor) "The decision whether or not such ingredients will be used is made A search of Unilever's website found no evidence of its at local or regional level, taking into account public perception, involvement in multi-stakeholder initiatives or NGOs / NFPs national legislation, availability and costs of alternatives and in working to improve workers rights within its supply chain. attitudes of our customers, including the retail trade." (ref: 40) The company appeared to be members of several business-led initiatives working on improving workers rights within supply chains including the Global Social Compliance Programme Member of WEF (July 2013)
(GSCP) and AIM-PROGRESS. Unilever was listed as a strategic partner of the World Economic There was a confidential ethics hotline but this appeared to be Forum, on its website by Ethical for reporting non-compliance with Business Code Principles. Consumer in July 2013. The World Economic Forum was a lobby Due to the lack of stakeholder engagement the company received group which campaigned for greater economic liberalisation a poor rating.
and deregulation. ECRA defined the World Economic Forum as a corporate lobby group which lobbied for free trade at the expense of the environment, animal welfare, human rights or Auditing and reporting (poor) health protection. (ref: 48) A search of Unilever's website found there was no evidence of Member of four lobby groups (2011)
a schedule of audits for its whole supply chain or disclosure of According to the Unilever viewed results of any audits completed. There was no commitment to in 2011, the company was a member of the follwing lobby groups; audit its whole supply chain. the European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT), the International Its website stated "Based on our assessment of supplier risk, Chamber of Commerce (ICC), TransAtlantic Business Dialogue we may request further verification from suppliers in the form (TABD), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development of self-assessments and audits to verify that their operational (WBCSD) and the World Economic Forum (WEF). (ref: 40) practices meet our Supplier Code requirements". It continued by stating that if practices did not meet its requirements then Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
suppliers would need to take action to achieve compliance. strategies (November 2013)
Unilever said it was a continuous process but said in cases of non-cooperation or final non-compliance, it would cease doing In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Unilever family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed a number business with that supplier.
of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at high risk of It said that it engaged with other industry peers to "deploy a being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the company type common approach to supplier assessments that is recognised and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions considered by across our industry.This facilitates a process where suppliers Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
can confidentially share their audit reports on the principle that These included a management, a holding and security brokers ‘an audit for one is an audit for all'. This reduces unnecessary and dealers subsidiaries based in Switzerland plus an advertising duplication and complexity and accelerates the process of assessing company based in the Channel Islands.
suppliers". There was no mention of costs. Unilever was considered to have a poor rating for auditing and reporting. Based on this evidence Unilever was considered likely to be using tax avoidance strategies and received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this category. (ref: 33) Excessive directors' pay (2012)
certified organic by the Soil Association and the USDA. As the According to Unilever's 2012 Annual Report, in 2012 the CEO company had a turnover of less than £8m and was providing an was paid £6,030,000 and the CFO was paid £3,878,000. environmental alternative it received Ethical Consumer's best Ethical Consumer regarded payments of over £1 million as rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 51) excessive. (ref: 49) Criticised by ActionAid for having subsidiaries in tax
havens (October 2011)

Supply Chain Management
ActionAid published a FTSE 100 Tax Haven Tracker in October Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
2011 which tracked how many of the subsidiaries of the FTSE 100 companies were in tax havens. It uncovered that Unilever In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Pukka Herbs had 696 subsidiaries, 34% of which were in developing countries asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received and 26% of which were in tax havens.
no reply. A search was made of Pukka Herbs website, for the company's supply chain policy. No According to ActionAid corporate tax avoidance, one of the supply chain policy was found. The company sold products main reasons companies use tax havens, was having a massive ranging from skincare creams to tea. Most of the products had impact on rich and poor countries alike. Developing countries, been certified organic by the Soil Association, it also sold some it said currently lose three times more to tax havens than they Fairtrade certified teas. The Soil Association certification scheme receive in aid each year. Chris Jordan, ActionAid's tax justice included some provisions for workers rights.
expert said: "ActionAid's research showing the use of tax havens by Britain's biggest companies raises serious questions they Pukka Herbs received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply need to answer. Tax havens have a damaging impact on the UK chain policy due to the fact it had an effective if not explicit exchequer, the stability of the international financial system, practice and a turnover of less than £8m. (ref: 51)and vitally on the ability of developing countries to raise tax revenues which would lift them out of poverty and make them less dependent on aid." Company Ethos (+ve)
The use of tax havens facilitates tax avoidance and evasion, All organic products (November 2013)
which undermines the revenue bases of both developing and In November 2013, Ethical Consumer viewed Pukka Herbs developed countries. Additional revenues are urgently needed which stated that "all our herbs both to invest in the fight against poverty and to tackle the deficits and products are certified organic by the Soil Association and the incurred during the financial crisis in rich countries. Chris Jordan USDA". (ref: 51)continued: "When multinationals use tax havens to avoid paying their fair share, ordinary people in both poor and rich countries Product sustainability (+ve)
are left to pick up the bill. Spending on doctors, nurses and other Organic Product (+ve)
essential services gets cut for those who need it most. Tax havens Organic and Fairtrade (November 2013)
might provide the lure of financial secrecy and low tax rates for Ethical Consumer viewed Pukka herbs website in November big companies, but at a time when all countries are desperate for 2013 and found that it sold teas certified by the Soil Association revenues, the UK government can't afford to turn a blind eye." and Fairtrade Foundation - black teas, green teas, chai and ActionAid was calling on the government to urgently rethink its Morning Time. (ref: 51) current proposals to relax UK anti tax haven rules. The Treasury Fairtrade Product (+ve)
itself estimated these changes would result in an £840 million (See also ‘Organic and Fairtrade' in Organic Product (+ve)
tax break for multinational companies that used tax havens. With both developing and developed countries bearing the brunt of debilitating losses, ActionAid said the UK must ensure the G20 takes the decisive action it promised on tax havens at the London Punjana tea (including loose)
summit in 2009. (ref: 50) Owned by Punjana Ltd Product sustainability (+ve)
Other Sustainability Features (+ve)
Rainforest Alliance (November 2013)
Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
According to the Unilever website viewed in November 2013, its Lyons tea was all to be Rainforest certified by the end of In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Punjana Ltd asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Punjana Ltd Pukka Herbs teas [O,F]
com, for the company's environmental report. No environmental report was found. Punjana Ltd received Ethical Consumer's Owned by Pukka Herbs worst rating for environmental reporting due to the fact it had a turnover of over £8 million and had no environmental report or information available on its website. (ref: 52) Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
2013)

Supply Chain Management
In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Pukka Herbs Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Pukka Herbs website, In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Punjana Ltd for the company's environmental report. The asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no company's website stated that all of its herbs and porducts were reply. A search was made of Punjana's website, com, for the company's supply chain policy. pet food. While organic pet food addressed factory farming issues, A statement was found which stated "As always, great care is it was still a product containing animal which Ethical Consumer taken to source these teas and herbs from the finest producers considered to be an animal rights issues. The company therefore in the world, and from growers who share our ideals in treating lost a whole mark in this category. (ref: 54) workers fairly, and giving regard to proper wages, healthcare and education". There was also a paged called "Ethical Sourcing" which explained that health care, education and housing was Supply Chain Management
provided on its estates. It also stated that its tea pickers were "paid Best ECRA rating for Supply Chain Management
more for their tea leaves than most other leading tea brands".
As a company with a turnover of more than £8million Ethical In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Steenbergs Consumer expected Punjana Ltd to have a more rigorous supply Organic asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer chain policy and there received a worst rating in this category. received no reply. A search was made of Steenbergs Organic two co.uk, for the company's supply chain policy. An ethical policy was located which included adequate clauses on prohibiting Steenbergs organic and FT tea
forced labour, freedom of association, and employment free from discrimination. The clause on child labour was considered inadequate due to the fact "child" was not defined in accordance Owned by Steenbergs Organic with International Labour Organisation's (ILO) definition. The Steenbergs Organic, Steenbergs Limited, 6 Hallikeld Close, Barker clauses on working hours and living wages were also considered Business Park, Melmerby, Ripon, HG4 5GZ, United Kingdom inadequate due to the fact they were only required to meet local or national laws. However since its establishment in 2003 the company was registered with FLO-Cert GmbH and The Fairtrade Foundation to trade in and sell Fairtrade tea products, it was also one of the few businesses to be registered to trade in and sell Best ECRA rating for Environmental Reporting
Fairtrade spices and herbs. According to its website over 80% of its raw material purchased were organic and much of it Fairtrade In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Steenbergs as well. Due to the fact the company was considered to be a Organic asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer small company with a turnover of less than £8million and had received no reply. A search was made of Steenbergs Organic an effective if not explicit policy it received Ethical Consumer's website, for the company's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 53) environmental report. An environmental policy was found which included four aims: Product sustainability (+ve)
1. To strive for zero environmental impact from our business Organic Product (+ve)
Sustainability features (November 2013)
2. To be organic in all we do In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Steenbergs 3. To think about the environmental impact of the ways in and found that the company sold which we work, then to strive for the best practical environmental Fairtrade and Organic tea - green tea, Darjeeling, Assam, Earl Grey, Peace Tea. (ref: 54) 4. Good packaging Fairtrade Product (+ve)
The company also had information on sourcing, transport & (See also ‘Sustainability features' in Organic Product (+ve)
travel, packaging & waste, energy & IT, building, and carbon costs. Steenbergs demonstrated excellent understanding of its main environmental impacts. It stated: "Our environmental principles are deeply held, so Traidcraft tea [F]
the factory incorporates many eco-features, including low water usage toilets, 100% green energy, solar tubes, natural linoleum, Owned by Traidcraft plc carbon neutral carpet tiles and phone services from an ethical Traidcraft plc, Media Officer, Kingsway, Gateshead, Tyne and phone co-operative.
Wear, NE11 0NE, UK Steenbergs offsets its excess carbon footprint, including all Traidcraft plc is owned by Traidcraft Foundation (51%) transport in, staff travel (to and from work) and transport outwards through Climatecare. We believe that we are one of the only UK food businesses that already has a zero carbon footprint, and we have been so since 2006. There's still more to be done, but we're Middle ECRA rating for environmental reporting
working on this - more recycling, better packaging and solar heating are all being addressed." In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Traidcraft Plc's Due to the fact the company had a turnover of less than £8 million Annual Impact and Performance Report 2013 which included a and was providing an environmental alternative it received Ethical segment on environmental performance. It stated that Traidcraft's Consumer's best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 53) "respects all people and the environment", and promoting environmental responsibility had long been a dimension of its work. It stated that it recognised the challenges faced with development work and environmental impacts of its activites. Sells pet food (November 2013)
The report included dated and quantified targets on carbon, In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Steenbergs website, airfrieght, gas / electricity usage, packaging, waste, sales materials, and found that the company sold organic office paper, staff travel and climate change. The report also included some discussions around each of the targets and stated and largely the reason why we are asked to explain our policy. how targets were being met.
Small holders in West Africa, for example, often grow, process This was all seen as very positive by Ethical Consumer. However and supply palm oil in a sustainable manner and we would prefer the report did not appear to have been independently verified to focus on these supply chains, actively seeking to develop and which Ethical Consumer would expect for a company to receive switch to Fair Trade supply chains over time." a best rating.
Ethical Consumer considered this a positive and well thought Traidcraft had a turnover of £13m which was above the out position on palm oil and Traidcraft did not lose marks for the level for which an exemption is applied in the environmental climate change, habitats and resources and human rights impacts reporting category for companies engaged in providing social associated with palm oil production as a result. (ref: 75) and environmental alternatives as Traidcraft is.
Supply Chain Management
Traidcraft was awarded Ethical Consumer's middle rating for Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
its environmental reporting. (ref: 73) A search was made of the Traidcraft website, traidcraft.co.uk, in November 2013. As all the company's products were Fairtrade certified, the company received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 76) Sale of leather (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Traidcrafts shop online and found that it sold some products made from leather. Ethical Consumer downloaded the company's Purchasing Policy Company Ethos (+ve)
2012 which stated: Fairtrade company (November 2013)
"Traidcraft believes in the desirability of good welfare practices A search was made of the Traidcraft website, traidcraft.co.uk, in in the production of raw materials of animal origin (e.g. leather, November 2013. As all the company's products were Fairtrade, bone, hair, silk, honey). In partnership with suppliers, Traidcraft the company received a positive mark in Ethical Consumer's will seek to use materials from sources that achieve good practice Company Ethos category. (ref: 76) in animal welfare. " Product sustainability (+ve)
Whilst the desirability for good welfare practices was seen as positive, the fact that the company was engaged in the sale of Fairtrade Product (+ve)
slaughterhouse by-products such as leather was seen as an animal Fairtrade certification (November 2013)
rights issue. (ref: 74) In November 2013, Ethical Consumer viewed Traidcraft's website which sold tea that was certified by the Fairtrade Foundation. (ref: 76) Human Rights
Fairtrade company operating in oppressive regimes

Yogi Tea green tea [O]
Owned by Yogi Tea GmbH In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Traidcrafts Development Reveiw 2013. It stated that the company worked in Yogi Tea GmbH, Burchardstraße 24, D-20059 Hamburg, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, India, Thailand and Bangladesh. Each country was on Ethical Consumer's oppressive regimes list at the time of Yogi Tea GmbH is owned by Kit Holding BV writing. However as the company only produced fair trade products owned by Siri Singh Sahib Corp it was considered to have a positive impact on communities and owned by Sikh Dharma International did not receive any marks against it. (ref: 74) Sikh Dharma International, 2545 Praire Road, Eugene, Oregon, Palm oil policy (February 2013)
97402-970, USA Traidcraft responded to an information request from Ethical Consumer for its palm oil policy in February 2013 with the following information: "Traidcraft understand and share the concerns regarding the use of palm oil in food products both from a health perspective and Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
also from a wider environmental perspective .
Yogi Tea's website, was searched From the perspective of health - Historically, palm oil by ECRA for an environmental policy in November 2013. The was introduced into many food products as an alternative to website stated that "YOGI TEA® was committed to providing hydrogenated fats when this became a big health issue several years the highest quality ingredients while also protecting the earth's ago. It is a functional ingredient and it is not always possible to find an alternative. We are replacing or reducing palm oil in our natural resources. The herbs and spices used in their teas were grown in controlled organic environments wherever possible. The products as far as we can. An example of this is the 2012 re-launch website discussed the broader environmental benefits of organic of Geobar where palm oil was replaced by sunflower oil.
farming. Yogi tea was packaged in 100% recycled paperboard From the perspective of environmental concerns - We use and was shipped in cases made of 100% recycled cardboard. Yogi certified sustainable palm oil in our products acknowledging that Tea printed all of its packaging with environmentally-friendly, for small quantities and derivative palm oil products the purchase vegetable-based inks. of Green Palm certificates is often the only option, being bound by the policies and constraints of our manufacturers. We also acknowledge that often the reputation of palm oil is unfairly However, no further information regarding an environmental tarnished by the actions of large multi nationals in the far east policy, the organisation's key environmental impacts and future reduction targets could be found. Yogi Tea therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 77) Jacksons of Piccadilly teas [F]
Supply Chain Management
See Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited above Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
(November 2013)

Yogi Tea's website, was searched Lift Instant Tea
by ECRA for a supply chain management policy in November See Typhoo Tea Ltd above 2013. No information could be found. Yogi Tea therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for its supply chain management. (ref: 77) Arms & Military Supply
See Typhoo Tea Ltd above Own US contract security firm (November 2013)
According to an article on viewed PG Tips tea [S]
by ECRA in November 2013, Akal Security was owned by Sikh Dharma International. According to Akal Security's website, See Unilever above Akal Security was one of the largest contract security companies in the United States and specialised Punjana tea [FT]
in providing security for critical federal government facilities, state and local government agencies and military installations. See Punjana Ltd above Akal's capabilities included the design, installation, and integration of electronic security, surveillance and access control systems. (ref: 78) Ridgways organic tea [O]
See Typhoo Tea Ltd above Politics
Company Ethos (+ve)

Ridgways tea (F)
All products are organic (November 2013)
Yogi Tea's website, was viewed by See Typhoo Tea Ltd above ECRA in November 2013. It stated that all 70 of the company's herbs and spices were 100% organically grown. (ref: 77) Steenbergs organic tea [O]
Product sustainability (+ve)
See Steenbergs Organic above Organic Product (+ve)
Organic (2013)

Taylors of Harrogate Teas
According to the company website viewed by ECRA in November 2013, Yogi Teas were certified organic. See Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd above(ref: 79) Teapigs tea
Clipper Fairtrade tea [F]
See Teapigs Ltd above See Clipper Teas Ltd above Tetley Original tea [S]
Clipper organic tea [O]
See Teapigs Ltd above See Clipper Teas Ltd above Tetley tea
Clipper tea
See Teapigs Ltd above See Clipper Teas Ltd above Thompson's organic green tea [O]
Dragonfly organic teas [O]
See Punjana Ltd above See Tea Times Holding Ltd above See Punjana Ltd above See Typhoo Tea Ltd above Twinings Fairtrade Breakfast tea
Heath & Heather organic tea [O]
See Typhoo Tea Ltd above See Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited above Heath & Heather teas
Twinings organic tea [O]
See Typhoo Tea Ltd above See Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited above Twinings tea
See Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited above StopFortnumAndMasonFoieGrasCruelty.com (7 September 2011) (561553) Typhoo QT instant
26 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Communications:2013 Annual Report (11 November 2013) See Typhoo Tea Ltd above 27 - Clean Clothes Campaign press release:building collapse (29 April 2013) (1330252) Typhoo tea [S]
28 - Labour Behind the Label:Killer Jeans: A Report on Sandblasted Demin (April 2011) (555902) See Typhoo Tea Ltd above 29 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Communications: Policy on Genetically Modified (GM) Ingredients (11 November 2013) (1335394) 30 - Spinwatch:Independence of nutritional information? The See Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd above British Nutrition Foundation (22 March 2010) (557049) eston Foundation censured for links to political donations (1 April 2010) (552920) 1 - Cafédirect Corporate Communications:Annual Report (2012) 33 - Hoovers 2013:online commerce page (26 June 2013) co.uk (5 November 2013) (1335196) 34 - Unilever Corporate Communications:Sustainable Living Plan 2012 (2012) (1335299) (8 January 2008) (518993) Unilever Fined for Polluting California Air With Deodorant co.uk (5 November 2013) (1335225) Spray (12 February 2010) (539931) 36 - Ecologist, The (online):UK companies linked to devastating Indian mine (19 June 2009) (553085) 6 - Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen) Corporate July 2012) (1321527) 38 - PETA - Companies that test on animals:CompaniesDoTest.
pdf (22 November 2007) (517163) clipper-teas.com (5 November 2013) (1335195) 39 - BUAV :BUAV condemns cruel animal experiments by major food companies to prove ‘health benefits' (21 June 2 9 - Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Corporate Communications: September 2011) (562071) 41 - Humane Society of the United States:Tell Ben & Jerry's to help animals (23 August 2006) (301321) 42 - ECRA shop survey:ECRA shop survey (25 November 2008) 43 - Rettet den Regenwald eV:The bloody products from the house of Unilever (23 August 2011) (922979) 44 - Oxfam:Labour Rights in Unilever's Supply Chain: From 13 - Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Corporate compliance to good practice. An Oxfam study of labour Communications:Hampstead representative (12 November 45 - SOMO Reports:Unilever - overview of controversial 14 - Higher Living T business practices 2010 (May 2011) (564222) 46 - Allegations of sexual harassment and abuse in Unilever's 15 - Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited Corporate Communications: Kericho plantation, Kenya:A case study of d:2 August 2012 16 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate October 2013) (1335164) Communications:2013 CSR Report (11 November 2013) 2013 members list (8 July 2013) (1332303) 17 - Oxfam International:Behind the Brands (September 2013) 49 - Unilever Corporate Communications:Annual Report 2012 18 - EIRIS News Release:Corporate Ethics Overview 50 - Actionaid:FTSE 100 tax haven tracker (October 2011) (September 2010) (1327420) July 2011) (558979) pukkaherbs.com (5 November 2013) (1335229) co.uk (7 March 2011) (552411) (5 November 2013) (1335240) behind the trade in ‘novelty' reindeer meat (15 January steenbergsorganic.net/ (5 November 2013) (1335232) 22 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Communications: steenbergs.co.uk (11 November 2013) (1335350) Ethical Standards for Products (11 November 2013) 55 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: Environmental Policy (11 November 2013) (1335421) 56 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: 1 November 2013) August 2011) (561132) 57 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: Bettys and Taylors Ethical Trading Policy (September 2011) (1335171) April 2011) (554279) 59 - Tata Global Beverages Corporate Communications: tatapetrodyne.in (15 November 2013) (1335721) 61 - Financial Express (India):Will look into Tata Group's JVs with Singapore Airlines, AirAsia, if required: CCI (16 November 2013 (1335760) 62 - Tata Motors Corporate Communications:68th Annual Report 2012-2013 (2013) (1335715) 63 - Ecologist, The (online):report - Whats in your cuppa (22 June 2011) (556339) tatainternational.com (15 November 2013) (1335708) 66 - Who Profits?:Land Rover (25 June 2013) (1331738)67 - accountabilitycounsel.org:Tea Plantation Workers Call on Tata and Tetley to Stop Human Rights Abuses (5 July 2013) (1332931) 68 - Health & Safety Exec:International chemical firm prosecuted over multiple incidents (10 April 2013) (1335676) 70 - International Defence Directory:IDD (2011) (1331630)71 - forbes.com:India's Dirty War (10 May 2010) (543979)72 - T (15 November 2013) (1335742) 73 - Traidcraft plc Corporate Communications:Traidcraft Impact Report (2013) (1335969) 74 - Traidcraft plc Corporate Communications:Development Review (2013) (1335972) 75 - Traidcraft plc Corporate Communications:Palm oil policy (8 February 2013) (1328458) co.uk (5 November 2013) (1335204) 78 - Sikh Dharma International Corporate Communications: Ownership ref (October 2012) (1336104) eu (18 November 2013) (1335809) Herbal, fruit and rooibos tea – The stories behind the company ratings Clearspring Mu tea
Clipper Fairtrade & organic tea
Owned by Clearspring Ltd Clearspring Ltd, Unit 19A , Acton Park Industrial Estate, The Owned by Clipper Teas Ltd Vale, London, W3 7QE Clipper Teas Ltd, Beaminster Business Park, Broadwindsor Road, Beaminster, Dorset, DT8 3PR, England Clipper Teas Ltd is owned by Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen) Best Ethical Consumer rating for environmental reporting
(November 2013)

Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen), Communications In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Clearspring Ltd Manager, Beneluxlaan 9, 3500 HS Utrecht, The Netherlands asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received Clipper Teas Ltd is also owned by Delta Partners (28%) no reply. A search was made of Clearspring Ltd website, Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen) also owns s environmental report. Clipper organic herbal tea [O] Under a section titled Food, Safety and Environmental Standards, it said that all of its foods met vegan standards, as certified by Environment
the Vegan Society. The company was also an affiliate member Environmental Reporting
of IFOAM, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
Movements. The Clearspring goal was to get organic food back on the dining table and it sold a number of products certified organic. A written request by ECRA for the company's environmental Due to the fact the company had a turnover of less than £8m and report in November 2013 received no response. A search was made was providing an environmental alternative it received Ethical by ECRA on the website November Consumer's best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 1) 2013 for a copy of the company's environmental report. No such document could be found. At the time of writing, the company had a turnover of over £8 million, and therefore was not exempted Supply Chain Management
from being rated on this category. As a result, it received ECRA's Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 2) In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Clearspring Ltd Palm oil policy (November 2013)
asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received According to the CSR section of the Wessanen website viewed no reply. A search was made of Clearspring Ltd website, in November 2013, "We are committed to switching our palm for the company's supply chain policy. No oil to RSPO certified sustainable palm oil (RSPO certified supply chain policy was found. Clearspring sold Japanese and organic food products and was certified by the Soil Association. segregated palm oil for organic and GREEN PALM certificates The Soil Association's organic certfication included some for conventional) during 2012-14."provisions for workers. Given that Clearsping had a turnover of However Ethical Consumer did not take into account future less than £8 million and had an effective if not explicit policy commitments to source sustainable palm oil as a result of the towards addressing workers rights issues within its supply chain fact the negative effects of palm oil production had been apparent it received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain since 2005. Royal Wessanen therefore lost half marks in Ethical management. (ref: 1) Consumer's rating system in the categories of climate change, habitats and resources and human rights. (ref: 3) Habitats & Resources
Company Ethos (+ve)
(See also ‘Palm oil policy' in Climate Change above.)
Vegan company (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Clearspring's it stated that all of its products Human Rights
vegan standards, as certified by the Vegan Society. (ref: 1) (See also ‘Palm oil policy' in Climate Change above.)
Supply Chain Management
Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
(November 2013)

The Clipper Teas website viewed on 4 November 2013, had a number of tea products which carried the Fairtrade Mark. However there were a number of products, notably teas that did not have Fairtrade certification. Clipper did not respond to a request by Ethical Consumer for a copy of its supply chain policy, nor could any indication of a supply chain policy in regard to these products be found on the company's website. As a result, Ethical Consumer gave the company a worst rating for supply chain management. (ref: 4) Dragonfly organic herb & rooibos
Owned by Tea Times Holding Ltd Sold products containing GMOs (November 2013)
Tea Times Holding Ltd, PO Box 5927, Newbury, Berkshire, In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Royal Wessanen RG20 9FY, UK asking for its policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO). Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Royal Wessanen website,for the company's policy on genetically modified organisms. We found a Non-GMO Policy Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
dated April 2013 on
On 12 November 2013, Ethical Consumer made a search of Tea Times Holding Ltd brands websites; "This policy applies to Wessanen EU own branded products, and for information on the company's organic and conventional. environmental reporting. No such document could be found. Some products were organic and Dragonfly sold Fairtrade tea Our products do not contain any GMOs, GMO ingredients or through its brand. ingredients derived from GMOs." Due to the fact the company was a small company providing social The company sold products in outside the European Union and and environmental alternatives, it received Ethical Consumer's therefore it was assumed that they may contain GMOs. (ref: 3) best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 6) Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)
Supply Chain Management
Fairtrade & Organic (November 2013)
Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
According to the company website viewed by ECRA in November 2013, Clipper produced Fairtrade and organic teas which were certified by the Fairtrade Foundation On 12 November 2013, Ethical Consumer made a search of Tea Times Holding Ltd brands websites: and the Soil Association. (ref: 4) and for information on the company's Fairtrade Product (+ve)
supply chain management. No such document could be found. (See also ‘Fairtrade & Organic' in Organic Product (+ve)
Some products were organic and Dragonfly sold Fairtrade tea through its brand. Due to the fact the company was a small company with an Dr Stuart's herbal teas
effective if not explicit practice to ensure workers' rights within its supply chain, it received Ethical Consumer's best rating in Owned by Only Natural Products Ltd this category. (ref: 7) Only Natural Products Ltd, Kithurst Barns, Storrington, West Sussex, RH20 4HT, UK Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)
Organic certified product (November 2013)
According to the viewed by Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
Ethical Consumer on 12th November 2013, the company produced organic teas which were certified organic by the Organic Food A search was made of Only Natural Products brands websites, Federation. (ref: 8) Higher Living Tea and Dr Stuarts website, in November 2013, for the company's environmental report. No information could be Equal Exchange Organic Rooibos
found on either website regarding any policy on the environment. Some of Higher Living Teas were ceritifed organic. Although Only Natural Products had a turnover of less than £8m it was not Owned by Equal Exchange Trading Ltd considered to be providing a social or environmental alternatives Equal Exchange Trading Ltd, 2 Commercial Street, Edinburgh, and therefore Only Natural Products received Ethical Consumer's EH6 6JA, Scotland worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 5) Supply Chain Management
Best ECRA rating for environment reporting (November
Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Equal Exchanges A search was made of Only Natural Products brands websites, website, for the company's Higher Living Tea and Dr environmental report. No report could be found however the Stuarts in November 2013 for the company's website did state that it believed organic was better companies supply chain management policies. No information and that its farmers only used traditional methods of growing, could be found on either website regarding any policy on supply reducing the need for expensive farm inputs and exposure to chain management. Due to the fact the company did not have an harmful pesticides. Due to the fact it also only sold Fairtrade effective if not explicit policy regarding workers' rights Only and organic products and had a turnover of less than £8m it Natural Products received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for was considered to be providing an environmental and social suplly chain management. (ref: 5) alternative and therefore received Ethcial Consumer's best rating alternative to the mainstream, it received Ethical Consumer's for environmental reporting. (ref: 9) best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 11) Supply Chain Management
Human Rights
Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
Palm oil policy (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer asked Essential Trading In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Equal Exchange's for a copy of their palm oil policy. The policy stated that Essential website, for the company's supply sourced palm oil certified by Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil chain policy. The company's website stated that it only sold organic (RSPO). In light of recent information it was removing palm oil and Fairtrade certified products. The Fairtrade mark ensured that from its Essential brand products where possible and had recently an independently verified code of conduct for workers existed, sourced palm fat free vegan crunchy which formed the basis of at the time of writing. Given that Equal Exchange was a small many of its muselis. Essential's supplier of palm fruit oil, Aarhus company with an effective if not explicit practice it received Ethical United UK (formerly Anglia Oils Ltd), was a founder member of Consumer's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 9) the RSPO which was working closely with the World Wide Fund for Nature to ensure sustainability of palm oil production. The RSPO had established ‘Principles & Criteria for Sustainable Palm Company Ethos (+ve)
Oil Production' which included preserving threatened species and Worker's Co-operative (November 2013)
high conservation value habitats.
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Equal Exchange's Its supplies were sourced via a plantation management company website and found that it was a workers co-operative. (ref: 9) that had a zero burning policy.
All products fairtrade (November 2013)
Although Ethical Consumer would not ordinarily accept RSPO In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Equal Exchange's certification of suppliers as an adequate measure to mitigate the and found that it only sold human and environmental risks of palm oil production, due to Fairtrade and organic products. (ref: 9) the fact that in addition to this the company provided ethical alternatives and named its supplies, it did not lose marks for the Product sustainability (+ve)
use of palm oil. (ref: 12) Organic Product (+ve)
Supply Chain Management
Organic and Fairtrade product (November 2013)
Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
According to the Equal Exchange website viewed in November 2013, their Organic Rooibos tea was Fairtrade certified and In November 2013 Ethical Consumer sent Essential Trading organic. (ref: 10) Co-operative Ltd a questionnaire about its supply chain. Fairtrade Product (+ve)
The company responded by stating that it "actively sources (See also ‘Organic and Fairtrade product' in Organic
products from organic co-operatives, Fairtrade initiatives and Product (+ve) above.)
ethical supplier companies who specialise in creating education and schemes for the quality of life of their worker members and Essential herbal teas [F,O]
families. Some like Zaytoun or Café Rebelde offer political stability to communities and access to international trade. Some Owned by Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd brands offer triple the market price for products, some offer Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd, Marketing Co-ordinator, kindergartens, drought and flood projects, or simply a guaranteed Unit 3, Lodge Causeway Trading Estate, Fishponds, Bristol, market for their produce. Many are involved in groundbreaking environmental schemes".The company also stated that its supply chain involved hand picked ethical co-operatives – chosen for their human rights initiatives and that it developed long term relationships with ethical suppliers and trade with co-operatives Best ECRA rating for environment report (November
and independents.
Given that the company had a turnover of less than £8m and In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Essential Trading had a effective if not explicit policy addressing workers rights Co-operative Ltd asking for its environmental report. Ethical issues within its supply chain, it received Ethical Consumer's Consumer received a reply which stated the company did not best rating in this category. (ref: 11) have an environmental report. Ethical Consumer viewed Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd website, and found that Company Ethos (+ve)
the company's mission was to operate a sustainable buisness Company is a workers' co-operative (November 2013)
providing ethically sourced products within a workers co-operative According to its company website, environment and its objective was to protect the environment. which was viewed by Ethical Consumer in November 2013, The company's ethos also included environmental commitments the Essential Trading Co-op Ltd was a workers' co-operative, such as 100% vegetarian and vegan; GM Free; Fairtrade, collectively owned by its members, which operated on a non- sustainable, recycled, organic and eco friendly products; palm hierarchical and egalitarian basis. (ref: 11) fat, where used was sustainably sourced; power was provided by Ecotricity at its retail outlets Harvest; packaging was made using Product sustainability (+ve)
sustainable materials; all products were freighted by either land or Organic Product (+ve)
sea - never by air; and the warehouse was fitted with solar PV.
Organic and Fairtrade product (2013)
Due to the fact the company had a turnover of less than £8m According to the company website and was considered to be providing an environmental and social viewed by ECRA in November 2013, all Essential products were 100% vegetarian, and its range of herbal teas was organic and received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for supply chain biodynamic certified and Fairtrade Foundation certified (except management. (ref: 14) for Fennel which was just organic certified). (ref: 13) Product sustainability (+ve)
Fairtrade Product (+ve)
(See also ‘Organic and Fairtrade product' in Organic

Organic Product (+ve)
Product (+ve) above.)
Certified organic (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Salus Haus UK Floradix/Salus Organic Herbal
website, it stated that its herbal teas were certified organic. (ref: 15) Owned by Salus-Haus GmbH & Co KG Hambleden Herbs Herbal teas [O]
Salus-Haus GmbH & Co KG, Postfach 1180, D-83044, Bruckmuhl, Owned by Hambleden Herbs Hambleden Herbs, Unit 6, South Park Business Centre, Park Street,, Cambs, PE16 6AE Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
(November 2013)

In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Salus-Haus Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
GmbH & Co KG asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Salus-Haus In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden GmbH & Co KG website,for the company's Herb's website, and found the environmental report. An environmental report was found dated company's environmental policy. It stated that the company did 2009-2011. The environmental report stated that the company not use aeroplanes to fly spices or teas around the world instead used organic products where it could stating that for organic prefering to use ships. It was also committed to recycling its goods it generally followed the BNN guidelines ( Bundesverbände waste paper and cardboard, often using second hand boxes to Naturkost Naturwaren – the Association of Specialized Organic post its products in. The company also made efforts to reduce Processors, Wholesalers and Retailers). According to the report its use of packaging. the percentage of organic herbs used stood at around 82%. The Hambleden Herbs was also an organic company. company did not use any genetically modified ingredients. The Ethical Consumer considered Hambleden Herbs to be providing report also talked about how it mitigated against its impacts an environmental alternative and it therefore received a best rating regarding electricity, heat, water and waste materials. in this category. (ref: 16) The report also included environmental guidelines which it expected employees to follow. While the company was considered to show reasonable Supply Chain Management
understanding of its main impacts, the company did not have any Best ECRA rating for supply chain management (October
quantified future targets nor did it have a report dated in the last 2013)
two years, therefore it received Ethical Consumer's worst rating
In October 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herb's for environmental reporting. (ref: 14) website, and found the company's environmental policy which stated: "The social impacts of our business are also very important Human Rights
to us, and along with the clear environmental benefits, are part Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
of the reason for buying and supplying organic materials. For In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Salus-Haus farmers to switch to organic farming methods they must grow and found that the company had using organic methods for 3 years before they are allowed to sell offices based in Russia and Nigeria. At the time of writing both a crop as organic. This requires significant investment by them countries were on Ethical Consumer's oppressive regimes list. and they need the assurance that they will have customers at the end of that 3 year process. That is why we prefer to have long Supply Chain Management
term agreements with our suppliers, enabling farmers to securely invest for the future and continue to provide jobs for their local Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Salus-Haus Hambleden Herbs had a turnover of less than £8 million and website, for the company's supply chain was considered to have an effective if not explicit practice at management policy. No policy could be found. On the UK version addressing workers rights within its supply chain and therefore of its it stated that "Salus co-operates received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain with farmers by subsidising their work in the cultivation of organic management. (ref: 16) crops and with the local people who gain valuable employment". It ran its farms in accordance to strict biological cultivation guidelines in which no pesticides or fertilizers were used. "In Company Ethos (+ve)
turn this contributes to the environmental preservation of local Organic company (October 2013)
eco-systems and ensures the well-being of local communities". In October 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herbs There was no certification scheme in place and no mention of and found that the company workers rights. Given that the company had a turnover of more only sold 100% organic products. (ref: 16) than £8m it would be expected to have a policy guaranteeing workers rights within its supply chain. Therefore the company Product sustainability (+ve)
Heath & Heather organic tea [O]
Fairtrade Product (+ve)
Owned by Typhoo Tea Ltd Organic certified (November 2013)
Typhoo Tea Ltd is owned by Apeejay Tea Group In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Hambleden Herbs owned by Apeejay Surrendra Group found that the company sold herbal teas which were organic certified. (ref: 16) Apeejay Surrendra Group, Apeejay House, 15 Park St, Kolkata 700016, India Apeejay Tea Group also owns Heath & Heather teas and London Hampstead Tea herbal tea [F,O]
Fruit & Herb and Ridgways tea Owned by Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd, PO Box 2448, London, NW11 7DR Environmental Reporting
Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting

Ethical Consumer searched Apeejay Surrendra Group's website, for an environmental policy in November Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
2013. The ‘corporate citizen' section of the group's website discussed recycling and waste across its supply chain, in addition In a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee confirmed to its carbon emissions, which focused on shipping tea and IT. The group reported changing its UK tea ports as an attempt to that the company's turnover was less than £8 million. This, along reduce its carbon emissions, and it discussed how it was reducing with the fact that the company only sold organic and Fairtrade its carbon footprint in relation to IT and servers. According to products, meant that it received Ethical Consumer's best rating Typhoo's website, Typhoo had achieved zero tea waste and nine for environmental reporting. (ref: 17) of the group's tea estates were Rainforest Alliance Certified and Sustainable Farm Certified. Supply Chain Management
However, in regard to discussing environmental issues relating to Appejay Surrendra Group's other businesses, no information Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
could be found. Further discussion about the company's carbon footprint, climate change, water use and issues associated with During a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 sustainable agriculture would be expected. It was therefore felt that November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee confirmed that all the company's products were certified Fairtrade. the company did not fully understand its environmental impacts. No future, quantified environmental reduction targets were found, The Fairtrade mark guarantees that an externally regulated code and no independently verified environmental report was provided. of conduct for workers exists.
The company therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating As the company's turnover was less than £8 million and it for environmental performance. (ref: 18) was offering environmental and social alternatives, Hampstead was awarded Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 17) Human Rights
Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
According to Apeejay Surrendra Group's website, Company Ethos (+ve)
which was viewed by Ethical Consumer All company products were certified organic & Fairtrade
in November 2013, Apeejay Surrenda had operations in the following countries: During a phone conversation with Ethical Consumer on 12 India, Russia, Iran, Nigeria and Pakistan. Ethical Consumer November 2013, a representative of Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co confirmed that all its products were certified Fairtrade by considered these countries to be oppressive regimes at the time of writing. (ref: 18) the Fairtrade Labelling Organisation and approved to carry the Demeter biodynamic agriculture logo. (ref: 17) Supply Chain Management
Worst ECRA rating for Supply Chain Management

Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)
In October 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Apeejay Surrendra Fairtrade and Organic (November 2013)
Group asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer A conversation with a representative from Hampstead Tea on 12 received no reply. A search was made of Apeejay Surrendra November 2013 stated that all its teas were organic and Faritrade Group website, for the company's certified. (ref: 17) supply chain policy. Fairtrade Product (+ve)
(See also ‘Fairtrade and Organic' in Organic Product (+ve)

Supply chain policy (poor) There was no supply chain policy which listed the International Labour Organisation's core conventions. Therefore Apeejay was considered to have no supply chain policy.
Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) Apeejay's website stated that 9 of its tea estates had been certified by Rainforest Alliance as well as a few of its tea estates being certified by Fairtrade Foundation. Typhoo Tea Limited (a subsidairy of Apeejay) was also a member of the Ethical Tea Some of the company's businesses, for example AB Agri, Partnership (ETP). There was no mention of an independent engaged with the Round table for Sustainable Palm Oil to source complaints process for employees to feedback on working palm oil sustainably by purchasing Green Palm Certificates.
As a business wide commitment to sourcing sustainable palm oil was not yet implemented, and considering the fact that the Auditing and Reporting (poor) negative effects of palm oil have been known since 2005, ABF lost half marks in Ethical Consumer's rating system in the There was no information on Apeejay's website about audits categories of climate change, habitats & resources and human of its supply chains.
rights. (ref: 22) Rated "poor" by Oxfams behind the brand scorecard
Difficult issues (poor) There was no information on Apeejay's website about training In September 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the most recent for buying agents, audit fraud, illegal freedom of association or "Behind the brand" scorecard produced by Oxfam part of its payment of living wage. GROW campaign which sought to evaluate the world's top 10 most powerful food and beverage companies. The campaign aimed to challenge the companies to begin a "race to the top" to Overall the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating improve their social and environmental performance. for supply chain management. (ref: 19) Associated British Foods (ABF) was ranked last out of ten Product sustainability (+ve)
companies in the scorecard. The company was rated in seven areas based on information publically available and marked out Organic Product (+ve)
of ten for each area. Organic (November 2013)
According to the report Associated British Foods was bad for The Heath & Heather website was viewed in November 2013 and there were five Soil Association organic teas listed: peppermint, assessing the impact it has on producers, communities and the planet. The company scored even worse on supporting women echinacea, green tea, camomile, nettle. (ref: 20) and land rights and came bottom of the pile for climate change. The company scored Jacksons of Piccadilly teas [F]
1/10 for its land policies: Owned by Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited 1/10 for policies on women: Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited is owned by Associated British 2/10 for policies on farmers: 2/10 for policies regarding workers: owned by Wittington Investments Ltd (55%) 1/10 for policies on climate change: Wittington Investments Ltd, Weston Centre, Bowater House, 68 3/10 for transparency: Knightsbridge, London, SW1X 7QTJacksons of Piccadilly Limited is also owned by Garfield Weston Due to the fact Associated British Foods had not received best in any of the categories it lost marks in Ethical Consumer's climate Associated British Foods Plc also owns Twinings herb teas change, human rights and workers rights categories.
In October 2013 Oxfam released a report called ‘Sugar Rush' which urged Associated British Foods along with two other food and beverages giants to adopt a zero-tolerance policy on land grabs. Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
It stated that sugar, along with soy and palm oil, were driving large-scale land acquisitions and land conflicts at the expense of In November 2013 Ethical Consumer searched Jackson's of small-scale food producers and their families. Oxfam's report Piccadilly's website, for the exposed the lack of transparency by food and beverage giants, company's environmental policy. All of the company's products were certified Fairtrade with the exception of its ‘White Tea' making it difficult for the public to hold companies accountable. product. The Fairtrade mark provided some provisions for the environment and ‘more' sustainable agriculture. However, it would Pollution & Toxics
be expected that the company addressed environmental issues Pollution fine (2010)
associated with agriculture further, in addition to addressing the The EIRIS Corporate Ethics Overview published in Autumn 2010 company's environmental impacts as a whole. As the company stated that Associated British Foods subsidiary George Weston did not provide an externally verified environmental policy, did Foods had been fined Aus 67,000 (USD 63,000; EUR 49,000; not discuss its key environmental impacts, and did not provide GBP 67,000) by the Australian Land and Environment Court for future reduction targets, Jackson's of Piccadilly received Ethical polluting a the Peel River in September 2008. The prosecution was Consumer's worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 21) brought by the Australian Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water in response to a leak of animal fat and oil into the Peel River. The leak left more than 2 kilometre slick that persisted Use of unsustainable palm oil (November 2013)
for 9 days. The presiding judge ordered George Weston Foods to In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Associated pay a penalty of AUD 67,000 to Tamworth Regional Council to British Food's website, for a palm oil policy. use for an environmental project. He also ordered the company The company's 2013 CSR report was downloaded. The report to pay prosecution costs of AUD 30,000 and publish notices in contained a CSR overview table which discussed the use of palm the press outlining details of the offence. George Weston Foods oil. It stated that Associated British Foods was committed to all businesses using Certified Sustainable or Identity Preserved had already paid out AUD 38,217 in clean up costs. palm oil by 2015.
The story had originated from the NSW Environment, Climate Change and Water Dept press release 09/07/10 (ref: 24) Habitats & Resources
No cotton sourcing policy (2011)
Retail of non-FSC products (March 2011)
Primark (which was a subsidairy of Associated British Foods) In February 2011 Ethical Consumer emailed Heal & Son Ltd (a stated that it was unable to respond to Ethical Consumer's written subsidairy of Wittington Investments) and attached a questionnaire request in June 2011 for its cotton sourcing policy. Ethical that included questions regarding the company's wood sourcing Consumer searched the company's websites, policy. The company did not respond. Its co.uk and in July 2011 for this co.uk, displayed some products made from wood marketed as information, but none could be found, nor any mention of the being from sustainable sources, but also sold many that were issues surrounding cotton.
not. Purchasing Forest Stewardship Council certified wood was not mentioned. According the the Environmental Investigation According to the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) Agency report "Putting the Brakes on Drivers of Forest website, viewed by Ethical Consumer Destruction", published in December 2009, timber, pulp and paper in February 2011, Uzbekistan was the third largest exporter of were one of four top commodity markets associated with tropical cotton in the world, and Europe was its major buyer (EJF quoted deforestation and degradation. Heal & Son Ltd consequently lost UN data which stated that Europe received almost a third of all a mark in the habitats and resources category. (ref: 26) cotton sold by Uzbekistan). The website stated that forced child labour, human rights violations and excessive pesticide use were (See also ‘Use of unsustainable palm oil' in Climate Change
"rife" in Uzbek cotton production. It was also said to have caused an "environmental catastrophe of astonishing proportions" as a Sale of reindeer meat - impact on wild predators and stress
result of its impact on the Aral Sea, reported to be 15% of its to reindeer through herding methods (January 2013)
According to the Viva! website, viewed January 15th 2013, ‘The shocking secrets behind the trade in Due to the high proportion of cotton on the British market likely ‘novelty' reindeer meat' Fortnum & Mason (a subsidairy of to have come from Uzbekistan and the prevalence of child labour Wittington Investments) was selling the ‘Edible' brand of reindeer in its production, Primark lost half a mark in the workers' rights pate from Sweden. Viva! had uncovered concerns that the growing category. Due to the impacts of the widespread use of pesticides popularity of reindeer meat in Britain was causing the destruction in cotton production worldwide it also lost half a mark in the of large wild predators including wolves, wolverines, lynxes, pollution and toxics category.
foxes and bears with cubs.
According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), a non-profit pro biotech It also reported that reindeer suffer from modern herding methods. organisation, genetically modified cotton accounted for almost In Nordic countries, they are often herded with snowmobiles, motorcycles and even helicopters, causing a huge amount of half of the 33 million hectares of global cotton planted in 2009. Due to the prevalence of GM cotton in cotton supply chains and the lack of any evidence that the company avoided it, it was Fortnum & Mason, said Viva!, was selling reindeer meat as a assumed that the company's cotton products contained some ‘novelty', in itself popularising the consumption of meat from GM material. (ref: 25) wild animals, and in-turn exerting potentially disastrous pressure on populations already suffering from the threats of climate No cotton sourcing policy (March 2011)
change, urban encroachment, pollution and poaching - as well In February 2011 Ethical Consumer emailed Heal & Son Ltd (a as their natural predators. subsidairy of Wittington Investments) and attached a questionnaire that included a question regarding the company's cotton sourcing Viva! was calling on its supporters to contact the company policy. The company did not respond. Its website, telling them to stop stocking the product. (ref: 27) co.uk, displayed a number of products made from cotton and no mention was made of whether the company had any policies relating to its cotton sourcing.
According to the Environmental Justice Foundation website, Uses animals for research (November 2013)
viewed by Ethical Consumer in February In November 2013, Ethical Consumer searched Associated 2011, Uzbekistan was the third largest exporter of cotton in the British Food's website for an animal testing policy. The ‘ethical world, and Europe was its major buyer. The website stated statement' section of the website stated that ‘ABF avoided the that forced child labour, human rights violations and excessive use of animal testing wherever possible. In each of the markets pesticide use were "rife" in Uzbek cotton production. It was also where it was active, it complied with all relevant laws and only said to have caused an "environmental catastrophe of astonishing used animals for research where it was a legal requirement. proportions" as a result of its impact on the Aral Sea, reported to be 15% of its former volume. The company therefore received negative marks for conducting Due to the high proportion of cotton on the British market or commissioning testing on animals. (ref: 28) likely to have come from Uzbekistan and the prevalence of child No animal testing policy (January 2009)
labour in its production, Heal & Son Ltd lost half a mark in the British Sugar did not respond to a request by Ethical Consumer workers rights category. Due to the impacts of the widespread in December 2009 for a copy of its animal testing policy, neither use of pesticides in cotton production worldwide it also lost half was one apparent on the company's website, a mark in the and pollution and toxics category.
co.uk, when viewed by Ethical Consumer in January 2009. As a According to the International Service for the Acquisition of large player in the UK sugar market, without a policy to confirm Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), a non-profit pro biotech otherwise, Ethical Consumer assumed that the company was organisation, genetically modified cotton accounted for almost involved with funding research into sugar some of which was half of the 33 million hectares of global cotton planted in 2009. likely to involve testing on animals. The company also retailed Due to the prevalence of GM cotton in cotton supply chains and artificial sweeteners, which were routinely tested on animals. the lack of any evidence that the company avoided it, it was assumed that the company's cotton products contained some Worst ECRA rating for animal testing policy (2011)
GM material. (ref: 26) A search of the Primark website, in July 2011 revealed that the company had received awards in Ireland the company has subsidiaries in the following five countries for its own brand sun lotion and a concealer. No animal testing which Ethical Consumer considered to be oppressive regimes policy could be found on the company's website. The company at the time of writing: Philippines, Thailand, China. India, and responded to this rating in August 2011 with the following Vietnam. (ref: 32) statement: ‘Primark is against animal testing. Primark and our own label manufacturers do not commission animal testing on Factory collapse (April 2013)
any Primark own brand products or ingredients. Our own brand In April 2013 a building in Bangladesh that housed several cosmetics and toiletry product range have not been tested on garment factories used by multinational corporations collapsed animals by us, or by our own brand manufacturers." However, in the absence of a fixed cut-off date for the testing of ingredients, killing at least 300 people and injuring over 800.
the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this The eight-story Rana Plaza building in Savar, on the outskirts category. (ref: 25) of the capital Dhaka contained three factories and a shopping mall.
A press release from the Clean Clothes Campaign stated that Sale of non-organic, non free range meat (August 2011)
workers' rights activists had managed to enter the ruins of ‘Rana According to the George Weston Foods company (a subsidairy of Plaza' and found labels and documentation linking the factories Associated British Foods) website, with major retailers including Primark which in the same week au, it sold meat under the brand KR Castlemaine®. No mention had announced record profits.
was made of whether any of the meat it sold was organic or free range, therefore it was assumed that the company was involved "It's unbelievable that brands still refuse to sign a binding in selling factory farmed meat. (ref: 30) agreement with unions and labour groups to stop these unsafe working conditions from existing. Tragedy after tragedy shows Sale of foie gras (2011)
that corporate-controlled monitoring is completely inadequate," According to the PETA UK website viewed in September 2011, PETA's vegan campaigns officer had changed her name said Tessel Pauli from Clean Clothes Campaign.
to StopFortnumAndMasonFoieGrasCruelty.com in protest at the Workers had complained about cracks appearing in the walls company's insistence on continuing to sell goose foie gras in its days before the accident but managers ordered them back to store and its restaurants, despite stating in 2008 that it would no work. The Clean Clothes Campaign have alleged that the floors longer sell duck foie gras. PETA was urging supporters to email where "illegally built." the company to protest. All major supermarkets in the UK have Campaigners were now calling on brands sourcing from refused to stock foie gras. Sir Roger Moore had also joined forces Bangladesh to sign up to the Bangladesh Fire and Building with PETA once again and had fired off a letter to the retailer, Safety Agreement. The CCC, together with local and global before featuring on a PETA ad which was placed at Piccadilly unions and labour rights organisations had developed a sector- Circus tube station.
wide programme for action that includes independent building Deprived of everything that is natural to them, ducks and geese inspections, worker rights training, public disclosure and a who are used in foie gras production suffer from frustration and long-overdue review of safety standards. It is transparent as well stress. They are crammed into tiny pens or individual cages fouled as practical, and unique in being supported by all key labour with faeces and blood and often develop skeletal disorders and stakeholders in Bangladesh and internationally.
respiratory problems as a result of forcefeeding. Pipes are shoved The labour signatories were calling on all major brands sourcing down their throats several times a day to force approximately in the industry to sign on to the initiative in order to ensure its two kilograms of grain, maize and fat into their stomachs. In rapid implementation. The programme has the potential to save human terms, that is the equivalent of roughly 20 kilograms of the lives of hundreds of thousands of workers currently at risk pasta per day.
in unsafe and illegally built factories. (ref: 33) The pipes sometimes puncture the birds' throats, causing them (See also ‘No cotton sourcing policy' in Pollution & Toxics
unbearable pain and making it impossible to drink. Pumps used to force food into the birds' stomachs can cause severe tissue Criticised for use of ‘workfare' labour (August 2011)
damage and internal bleeding. This painful overfeeding process According to an article on the Corporate Watch can even cause the birds' internal organs to rupture. Those who ‘Unemployed people ‘bullied' into unpaid survive the forced-feedings suffer intensely as their livers swell work at Tesco, Primark and other multinationals', dated August to up to 10 times their normal size. After several weeks of this 12th 2011, unemployed people were being sent to work without torture, the birds are hung upside down and slaughtered, and their pay in multinational corporations, one of which was Primark, by livers are sold as foie gras. (ref: 31) Job centres and companies administering the government's welfare reforms. Some were working for up to six months while receiving unemployment benefit of £67.50 a week or less. The article said (See also ‘Sale of non-organic, non free range meat' in
that people were sent to Primark by contracted employment Factory farming above.)
companies through the previous government's Flexible New (See also ‘Sale of reindeer meat - impact on wild predators
Deal for up to six months and that this would be continued in the and stress to reindeer through herding methods' in
recently started Work Programme. Primark did not comment. In Habitats & Resources above.)
an interview a woman who was given a placement in Primark for (See also ‘Sale of foie gras' in Factory farming above.)
six months, under the previous government's welfare programme, says her work was the same as that of other paid staff and that she was not given a job at the end of it. She also says she was told Human Rights
her benefits would be stopped if she did not attend. Campaigners (See also ‘Rated "poor" by Oxfams behind the brand
argue that such work placements provide companies with free scorecard' in Climate Change above.)
labour, undercut existing jobs and that people are "bullied" into (See also ‘Use of unsustainable palm oil' in Climate Change
them. A spokesperson for the Boycott workfare campaign said: "These placements are not designed to help people into full-time Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
According to Associated British Food's 2013 Annual Report, paid work but they serve to increase organisations' profits. They of which British Sugar (a subsidairy of Associated British Foods) provide a constant stream of free labour and suppress wages by was said to be a member. In the article a representative of the replacing paid workers with unpaid workers. People are coerced, International Association for the Study of Obesity was quoted bullied and sanctioned into taking the placements. Placements as saying that the Foundation "did a big piece of work for the in the public sector and charities are no better and are making Food Standards Agency reviewing ‘influences on consumer food volunteering compulsory. This is taking away the right of a person choices' which conveniently left out any review of the influence to sell their own labour and their free will to choose who they of marketing and advertising techniques". A representative of volunteer their time for." (ref: 34) the Campaign Against Trans Fats in Food commented on two Supply Chain Management
documents published by the Foundation on his area of expertise "The first is a briefing sheet and is very balanced.The other is a Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
submission to the Scottish parliament on a bill to limit trans fats, and essentially it says to do nothing", which coincides with the Jackson's of Piccadilly's website, industry view, according to the representative. co.uk, was searched for a supply chain management policy in November 2013. All of the company's products were certified The Foundation was said to be open about its involvment Fairtrade with the exception of its ‘White Tea' product. The in lobbying, stating that it aimed to "help shape and support company was phoned by Ethical Consumer in November 2013 and questioned why this was. They stated that there was a limited The article stated that "many of the Foundation's staff move supply of White Tea, and they could not source Fairtrade white between the organisation and the food industry" and that food tea at present. The Fairtrade mark ensured that an independently companies often direct people to the Foundations work, claiming verified code of conduct for workers existed. However, as the that it is an independent source of information. White Tea was not certified Fairtrade, it would be expected that a The article detailed the involvement with the Foundation of supply chain management policy would be provided that ensured several other large, named, food companies. (ref: 36) adequate workers and human rights across the supply chain. Charity Commission ruling for political donations (April
2010)

Jackson's of Piccadilly therefore received Ethical Consumer's According to an article on the website Civil Society, worst rating for supply chain management. (ref: 21) published in April 2010, the Charity Commission had ruled against trustees of the Garfield Weston Foundation (GWF) following an investigation regarding political donations by Wittington Investments Limited (WIL), a company GM policy (November 2013)
79.2% owned by the Foundation. It was said to have made Ethical Consumer searched Associated British Food's website donations to the Conservative Party totalling £800,000 between for a policy on genetically modified organisms. An undated Policy 1993 and 1999 and another of £100,000 in 2004. Between 2001 on Genetically Modified (GM) Ingredients was downloaded. The and 2007 it was said to have also made five and six-figure donations company recognised the differing views on GMOs within different to the European Foundation, the Centre for Policy Studies and the countries and stated it strove to meet consumer expectations as Labour Euro-Safeguards Campaign, all of which were claimed they varied, country by country, as well as complying with local to have political links. regulations on the use and labelling of GM ingredients. The Commission was said to have found that shareholders of It stated that the majority of the food products sold to consumers the GWF, and thus the charity, had not been consulted on the in Europe, Australia and New donations "due to an oversight". According to the article, the Commission found that "prior to 2006 the trustees of the charity Zealand did not contain GM ingredients. In a handful of the who were also directors of WIL had breached their duties by thousands of products it sold, GM oils were present in the wider failing to raise the issue with their fellow trustees". In 2006 the supply chain, but the company had not been able to establish trustees were said to have passed a resolution allowing WIL to make political donations without the charity's consideration. certain that the oils it sourced were non-GM.
The Commission was said to have found this to be in breach of In regard to GM crops for animal feed, ABF stated that as GM their duties. (ref: 37) crops had been cleared by UK and EU regulatory bodies as safe for both animal and human consumption, these formed part of Tax avoidance in Zambia (February 2013)
the company's offerings. It also sourced assured non-GM crops It was reported in February 2013 that Associated British Foods, where demanded by consumers.
one of Britain's biggest multinationals, was avoiding paying The company's enzymes business used GM microorganisms in millions of pounds of tax in Zambia.
the manufacturing process, but no GM material was said to be present in the final product.
New research from campaign group ActionAid released showed that a subsidiary of ABF contributed virtually no corporation tax The company therefore received negative marks for for use to the state's exchequer between 2007 and 2012, and none at all of GM ingredients in animal feed and in human grade food for two of those years.
prdoucts. It also received a mark in animal rights for supplying The firm, Zambia Sugar, posted record pre-tax profits and its animal feed. (ref: 35) huge plantation was increasing its capacity to produce more (See also ‘No cotton sourcing policy' in Pollution & Toxics
sugar for markets in Europe and Africa. Yet it paid less than 0.5% of its $123m pre-tax profits in corporation tax between 2007 and 2012.
Member of "independent" food information charity (22
According to an article in the Guardian newspaper the company March 2010)
benefited from generous capital allowance and tax-relief schemes An article on the Spin Watch website, spinwatch.org.uk, dated in Zambia, but the investigation also found that it funneled around 22 March 2010 and credited to the British Medical Journal, a third of its pre-tax profits to sister companies in tax havens, outlined criticisms made against the British Nutrition Foundation, including Ireland, Mauritius and the Netherlands. Tax treaties between Zambia and some of those countries meant the state's report discussed the following of the company's environmental revenue authorities were unable to charge their normal tax on impacts: greenhouse gases, water, waste, sustainable sourcing of money leaving their shores.
raw materials. The company had set targets to train small holder ActionAid estimated that the tax haven transactions of this one farmers in sustainable practices and had set targets for each raw British headquartered multinational deprived Zambia of a sum 14 material it sourced such as sugar or tea.
times larger than the UK aid provided to the country to combat The report contained several quantified targets for 2020 including hunger and food insecurity.
to source 100% of agricultural raw materials sustainably by Chris Jordan, a tax specialist at ActionAid and co-author of the report, said: "This is a really shocking case where the Associated Selected performance data was independently assured by British Foods group has gone to great lengths to ensure it pays virtually no corporation tax in a very poor country. Tax avoidance Unilever received Ethical Consumer's best rating for is not victimless financial engineering. In Zambia 45% of children environmental reporting. (ref: 41) are malnourished and two-thirds of the population live on less than $2 a day." (ref: 38) Climate Change
Rated "fair" by Oxfams Behind the Brands scorecard

Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
strategies (November 2013)
In September 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the most recent In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Wittington "Behind the brand" scorecard produced by Oxfam as part of its Investments Ltd family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.
GROW campaign which sought to evaluate the world's top 10 com. This listed a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer most powerful food and beverage companies. The campaign to be considered at high risk of being used for tax avoidance aimed to challenge the companies to begin a "race to the top" to purposes due to the company type and the fact that they were improve their social and environmental performance. located in jurisdictions considered by Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
Unilever was ranked 2nd out of 10 companies in the scorecard. The company was rated in seven areas and marked out of ten These included three holding companies in Luxembourg, investment companies in Luxembourg and Jersey and several business service subsidairies in Jersey and Guernsey. Wittington According to the report Unilever scored: Investments receieved Ethical Consumer's worst rating for likely 3/10 for its land policies - Unilever needed to explicitly commit use of tax avoidance strategies due to the fact it had two or more to addressing land disputes within its supply chain.
high risk subsidaries based in tax havens. (ref: 39) 4/10 for policies on women - Unilever needed to understand Excessive directors' pay (November 2013)
where women were most vulnerable within its supply chain. Associated British Food's 2013 Annual Report was downloaded 7/10 for policies on farmers: Unilever needed to treat farmers from the company's website, The reported more fairly.
stated that executive director George Weston received a total of 7/10 for policies regarding workers: Unilever needed to ensure £2,181,000 in remuneration in 2013, and John Bason £1,441,000 suppliers were implementing key labour rights.
in 2013. Ethical Consumer considered remuneration above one million pounds to be excessive. (ref: 32) 6/10 for policies on climate change: Unilver needed to help farmers respond to climate change.
Product sustainability (+ve)
6/10 for transparency: Unilever needed to be more transparent Fairtrade Product (+ve)
about its suppliers. Fairtrade certified (November 2013)
6/10 on water: Unilever needed to set a target for reduction of Jacksons of Piccadilly's website, water use through its supply chain. co.uk, was searched for product sustainability information in Due to the fact Unilever had not received best in any of the November 2013. The majority of Jacksons of Piccadilly's teas categories it lost marks in Ethical Consumer's climate change, were certified Fairtrade. (ref: 40) human rights and workers rights categories. (ref: 23) Pollution & Toxics
Lipton tea
Fined for Polluting California Air With Deodorant Spray
Owned by Unilever According to an article posted on the Environmental News Unilever, Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London, Service website,a fragrant personal care EC4Y 0DY, United Kingdom spray, sold by Conopco (a subsidairy of Unilever) and designed Unilever is owned by Unilever PLC (50%) to make men appear to be free of unpleasant body odour, polluted Unilever PLC, Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, California air to the degree that the state fined the company London, EC4Y 0DY, UK more than $1 million. The California Air Resources Board penalised the company $1.3 million for illegal consumer sales of Unilever is also owned by Unilever N.V. (50%) AXE Deodorant Bodyspray for Men. An Air Resources Board owned by Stichting Administratiekantoor Unilever spokesman said that the deodorant spray contaminated California air with the volatile organic compounds used as a propellant and Stichting Administratiekantoor Unilever N.V., Claude Debussylaan went on to say deodorant sprays sold in California had a very 24, Amsterdam, 1082 MD, The Netherlands small specific level of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) that they were permitted to emit and this product exceeded that level. Between 2006 and 2008, Conopco, sold, supplied and offered for sale in California more than 2.8 million units of deodorant body Best ECRA rating for environmental report (2013)
spray that failed to meet the state's clean air standards for aerosol The Unilever Sustainable Living Plan 2012 was downloaded from deodorants. According to the Air Resources Board Enforcement the company's websiteovember 2013. The Chief James Ryden, "Consumer products, because of their pervasive use, contribute a growing portion of VOC emissions animals' produced by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals throughout California. Therefore, it's important that every can and updated 11/11/13. The companies were on the list because and bottle of product be compliant with ARB's standards." The they have not eliminated tests on animals for their entire line of violations resulted in what the Board called "significant excess cosmetics and household products. (ref: 45)emissions" from volatile organic compounds which contribute to Animal testing of food for health benefits (June 2013)
ground-level ozone, or smog. Exposure to ozone can cause lung The BUAV released findings in June 2013 of research showing inflammation, impaired breathing, coughing, chest tightness, cruel and unnecessary animal tests carried out by some of shortness of breath and worsening of asthma symptoms. Over the world's leading food giants, Yakult, Danone, Nestlé and 90 percent of Californians were said to still breathe unhealthy air at some time during the year. (ref: 42) Animal experiments have been carried out in an attempt to Shares in Vedanta (2009)
identify the ‘health benefits' of certain foods to feed the growing The Ecologist published an article on its website, infatuation with ‘super foods'. The animals subjected to the org, on 19 June 2009 in which it listed several UK companies which experiments uncovered included mice, rats, rabbits and pigs. The owned shares in Vedanta Resources plc. Vedanta was behind the research is recent, having been published in the past two years.
controversial mine in India's Orissa state which was situated on a Unilever was named by the BUAV for experiments involving mountain sacred to local people. The company was given the go- Hoodia gordonii, a spiny African shrub (which is already used as ahead to begin mining for bauxite in May 2009. Campaign groups a weight management supplement for the treatment of obesity), had warned that the 600-hectare mine would result in ecological rabbits and mice were subjected to a reproductive toxicity test. degradation that would threaten the livelihoods of tribal people. Pregnant rabbits and mice were force fed extracts of the plant They said that several villages had been razed to make way for the construction of a refinery, with up to 100 indigenous families throughout their pregnancy for 25 days. The day before the animals were due to give birth, they and their unborn foetuses evicted from their land and relocated to ‘rehabilitation colonies' were killed and examined.
where locals claimed they felt as though they were living ‘in a jail' with little access to land for farming. A nearby bauxite refinery Unilever was also named in an experiment in which piglets which was already in existence had been blamed for causing were given an extract of Lipton's tea to see if it could counter health problems, damaging crops and killing livestock. diarrhoea caused by the Ecoli stomach bug. Eight of the month-old animals died, with severe diarrhoea to blame in at least seven of the cases. (ref: 46) Unilever Pension Fund was listed in the Ecologist as having shares in Vedanta. (ref: 43) Factory farming
Sale of intensively farmed meat (2013)

Products contain triclosan (July 2012)
The US website of Unilever brand According to the ‘What's in our products' section of listed several frozen meals on sale when viewed in November viewed in July 2012, Mentadent P and 2013. Some of these contained meat, and this was not stated to Mentadent Sensitive toothpastes both contained triclosan.
be free range.
Several studies have shown that triclosan disrupts the thyroid Unilever UK also owns Peperoni, a spicy pork salami and Bovril hormone in frogs and rats, while others have shown that triclosan beef and chicken extracts plus Knorr stocks. None of these were alters the sex hormones of laboratory animals. Others studies have listed as containing free range or organic meat. (ref: 47) shown that triclosan can cause some bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. (ref: 44) Use of non free range eggs (2012)
According to its Sustainable Living Plan 2012, Unilever stated Habitats & Resources
"We aim to move to 100% cage-free eggs for all our products, where (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
allowed by local legislation. In Western Europe our Hellmann's, Amora and Calvé brands have been 100% cage-free since 2009 and by the end of 2011, 99% of all eggs used in Ben & Jerry's ice cream mix worldwide were cage-free. Around one-third of Worst ECRA rating for animal testing policy (November
our mayonnaise portfolio in North America becoming cage-free Unilever's website, was viewed in November This suggested that not all its brands were cage free in Western 2013 by Ethical Consumer for its animal testing policy.
Europe, not to mention all its products outside of Western Europe We found a statement from Unilever: including non-mayonnaise products in North America. (ref: 41) "Unilever is committed to the elimination of animal testing. Use of battery farmed eggs (2011)
We are equally committed to consumer health and safety, and to According to a press release by the Humane Society of the the safety of our workforce and the environment. We do not test United States, dated 23rd August 2006, a campaign had been finished products on animals unless demanded by the regulatory launched to ask Ben & Jerry's to stop using eggs sourced from authorities in the few countries where this is the law. In such battery chicken farms in its ice-cream. The company was said cases, we try to convince the local authorities to change the law. to have given assurances over the space of a year that it would Where some testing of ingredients is required by law or currently switch to free range eggs, but had failed to do so.
unavoidable, we aim to minimise the number of animals used." In September 2011 the parent company's website, Due to its use of animal testing and the lack of clarity about com, was searched and the following information on their eggs when it was used, for example for medical or cosmetic purposes, sourcing policy was found: the company received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this "All Ben & Jerry's ice cream sold in Europe has used only category. (ref: 44) cage-free eggs since 2004, and globally, 88.3% of all eggs used Involved in animal testing not required by law (November
in Ben & Jerry's production in 2009 were cage-free. In the US in 2010, all Ben & Jerry's ice cream sold in pint containers was According to the PETA website viewed in November 2013, made with certified cage-free eggs." Unilever was listed in a pdf called ‘Companies that test on However, this left some areas of the company's business which still used eggs from caged hens. (ref: 48) rapidly-rising cost of living . meeting only 40% to 46% of workers' minimum expenses per month." Of workers in the Cu Chi factory, 80% said they needed another source of income to Product containing slaughterhouse by-products (2013)
feed their families. One worker recounted having to take two An Ethical Consumer shop survey, conducted on the 11th of her three children out of school to work as a consequence of November 2013, found that the product Flora Lighter than Light, inadequate pay.
contained pork gelatine, a slaughterhouse by-product. (ref: 49) Any such labour issues could be dealt with by a grievance (See also ‘Sale of intensively farmed meat' in Factory
hotline or the trade union. However, neither were used nor trusted. There was only one state-run trade union in Vietnam, and it was dominated by senior managers. Similarly, the workers feared that the grievance hotline would simply go straight to the management Human Rights
and put their job at risk. "We dare not raise our voice through the Human rights abuses by palm oil supplier (23 August 2011)
union leaders because they are paid by the company, they are the On 23rd August 2011 it was reported on the Rainforest Rescue company's people," said one worker.
website, that the small village of Sungai Beruang on the Indonesian island of Sumatra had been Conditions for those employed temporarily, by a third party, or stormed by 700 armed soldiers from the notorious special forces by suppliers, were even worse. Globally, the number of people unit Brimob, and the Wilmar Group's security forces. Wilmar directly employed by Unilever decreased by nearly a half (45%) International was reported to be one of the world's biggest palm from 295,000 employees to 164,000 between 2000 and 2009. oil companies and one of the major suppliers to Unilever, one of However, the report states: "The work of 131,000 people did not the world's biggest palm oil processors, which used palm oil it disappear. According to Unilever, in 2009 this work was being in almost all of it's products. The raid on Sungai Beruang was done instead by 86,000 people that were outsourced and/or under reported to result in hundreds of people fleeing "to escape the temporary contracts."guns and bulldozers" and much of the village being destroyed. 40 In the Cu Chi factory, 748 of the 1,539 workers (53%) were people from the ethnic group of the Suku Anak Dalam, which had employed by a third party, Thang Loi – mostly migrants living lived in the area for generations, were reported to be missing. in rented accommodation, paid just above minimum wage (only with cash benefits and overtime did this rise above the local Rainforest Rescue was calling on supporters to contact Unilever and request that they reconsider their collaboration with Wilmar average urban income). and replace the palm oil in its products with native fats. (ref: Among suppliers outside the factory, 20 of the 48 interviewed said Unilever's supplier code (which required at a bare minimum (See also ‘Rated "fair" by Oxfams Behind the Brands
an adherence to local laws) had never been mentioned. At one scorecard' in Climate Change above.)
supplier, employees worked four hours' overtime a day, six days (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
a week, for 10 months: well in excess of a legal national limit of 200 hours a year. Another said that offering excessive overtime gave it a competitive advantage.
Workers rights issues at factory in Vietnam (January 2013)
A report by Oxfam in January 2013 revealed evidence of poor Unilever said it was disappointed by the outcome of the Oxfam labour practices in Unilever's operations in Vietnam between report and the problems stemmed from the assumption that regional operations would follow its global CSR standards. It stated that it would work with its factory in Vietnam to change The in-depth review by Oxfam of one of Unilever's Vietnam the way it works. Factories showed that: • Wages were insufficient to make savings or support dependants, However, it was pointed out that Vietnam was just one case study and that the company had a presence in over 100 countries, with instances of workers unable to eat adequate diets or afford directly employing 171,000 employees. Nearly 55% of its business to keep children in school.
was in emerging markets. • Suppliers and managers unclear about Unilever's codes of Unilever stated that it would welcome Oxfam back to the factory conduct, in some cases only accessible in English.
in two years time to assess improvements made. (ref: 51) • Workers were too scared to voice grievances or engage in Child labour likely in vanilla supply chain (May 2011)
freedom of association.
In May 2011 Dutch sustainable development NGO SOMO • Factory workers employed by a third party were on much published an overview of Unilever's controversial business poorer terms and conditions.
practices that occurred in 2010. It focussed on Unilever's use of • Suppliers with employees working illegal overtime hours.
vanilla from Madagascar in its ice cream. Vanilla production is Oxfam researchers were given access to the factory at Cu Chi, plagued by child labour and unsustainable farm gate prices. Two near Ho Chi Minh city, where 700 workers were directly employed thirds of EU vanilla imports come from Madagascar.
by Unilever and 800 more were employed by Thang Loi, a third There were 80,000 smallholder, family-run vanilla farms in party labour provider. Managers and workers were interviewed Madagascar. In 2008, growers were getting 6.6% of the export on site and off site; 48 suppliers were also interviewed, with price. In 2010 it was reported that growers were earning a dollar three selected for in-depth research. The results, published with a day. 97,000 children aged 5-17 were economically active in the approval of Unilever, showed the company fell short of the Sava, a region of Madagascar responsible for the vast majority standards it set for itself.
of vanilla production. Although the study found that wages paid by Unilever were in On the subject of child labour, Unilever responded by saying excess of the national minimum wage (approximately £45 per that it was satisfied that its suppliers were not sourcing from month in 2011) and the international poverty line of $2 (£1.20) producers that resort to child labour. It made no comment on low per day, wages still did not meet the basic needs of employees farm income despite the fact that it sourced 8% of Madagascar's and their families.
vanilla. Low farm income was related to child labour because The minimum wage itself, said the report, "lags behind a vanilla prices had plummeted, so growers were forced to rely on their children for unpaid work in the fields.
However, the report stated that the ethical standards of Unilever's Due to the lack of stakeholder engagement the company received (first tier) suppliers were not effective because they could monitor a poor rating.
the work of farmers further down the chain. 6,000 individual farmers might be indirectly supplying Unilever.
Auditing and reporting (poor) SOMO concludes that Unilever was not taking enough A search of Unilever's website found there was no evidence of responsibility for addressing both these issues, despite Unilever's a schedule of audits for its whole supply chain or disclosure of awareness of the problems in its vanilla supply chain and its influence as a major client. It was noted that it had committed too results of any audits completed. There was no commitment to audit its whole supply chain. sourcing Fairtrade vanilla for the minority share of its ice cream (Ben & Jerry's) by 2013 whilst failing to address responsible Its website stated "Based on our assessment of supplier risk, sourcing for the majority of its ice cream. (ref: 52) we may request further verification from suppliers in the form of self-assessments and audits to verify that their operational Sexual Harassment at Kericho tea plantation (August
practices meet our Supplier Code requirements". It continued by stating that if practices did not meet its requirements then In February 2012 the School of International and Public Affairs, suppliers would need to take action to achieve compliance. Columbia University, published a report entitled "Allegations of Unilever said it was a continuous process but said in cases of sexual harassment and abuse in Unilever's Kericho plantation, Kenya: A case study of due diligence and certification processes". non-cooperation or final non-compliance, it would cease doing business with that supplier.
Unilever was criticized for not showing due diligence in its response to allegations of sexual harassment and abuse of female It said that it engaged with other industry peers to "deploy a workers by their male supervisors at its Kericho tea plantation in common approach to supplier assessments that is recognised Kenya. The report claimed that "sexual harassment and coercive across our industry.This facilitates a process where suppliers sex [are] absolutely standard for all women under forty". The can confidentially share their audit reports on the principle that paper concludes that "on many dimensions the company took a ‘an audit for one is an audit for all'. This reduces unnecessary defensive rather than proactive approach to the allegations, thereby duplication and complexity and accelerates the process of assessing falling short of its own commitments to due diligence." suppliers". There was no mention of costs. Unilever was considered to have a poor rating for auditing and reporting. The report also criticized Unilever for forcing female employees to take pregnancy tests, which Ethical Consumer considered to be a discriminatory practice.
Difficult issues (poor) Unilever published a response to the study, dated 17 April 2012, No discussion was found on Unilevers website about working written by Rachel Cowburn-Walden. This response argued that towards payment of a living wage, homeworkers, and freedom the claims of sexual harassment had not been proven. However, of association or problems with audit fraud or training for buying it also highlighted that Unilever had rolled out a human rights agents on labour standards therefore the company received a poor training programme and appointed a welfare manager at the rating in this category. Kericho plantation. (ref: 53) Supply Chain Management
Overall Unilever received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
supply chain management. (ref: 54) Unilever was sent a questionnaire in October 2013 requesting information on its supply chain management. No response was received. Ethical Consumer searched Unilever's Pro GM policy statement (November 2013)
and found Unilever's Supplier Code and set of In November 2013 Ethical Consumer searched the Unilever website for the company's policy on the use of GM ingredients. The following position statement was found on its website; "We Supply chain policy (poor) support the responsible use of biotechnology within the framework The Supplier Code had adequate provisions for child and of effective regulatory control and provision of information about forced labour. It stated that freedom of association, hours and its use. The use of this technology to improve food crops can bring important benefits to mankind and individual applications wages should in be accordance with local laws, it did not state an upper limit on hours work. Ethical Consumer considered should be judged on their merits.
these provisions inadequate. There was no statement defining "We acknowledge that the public's view of biotechnology, such the width and depth the code applied to within its supply chain as the use of GM ingredients in foods, is still evolving and that and there was no provisions relating to employment being free the debate and public acceptance is at different stages in different from discrimination. Therefore Unilever was considered to have regions of the world.
a poor supply chain policy. "Our companies are free to use ingredients derived from modified crops, which have been approved by the regulatory authorities and Stakeholder engagement (poor) which meet our own standards for quality and acceptability.
A search of Unilever's website found no evidence of its "The decision whether or not such ingredients will be used is made involvement in multi-stakeholder initiatives or NGOs / NFPs at local or regional level, taking into account public perception, in working to improve workers rights within its supply chain. national legislation, availability and costs of alternatives and The company appeared to be members of several business-led attitudes of our customers, including the retail trade." (ref: 47) initiatives working on improving workers rights within supply chains including the Global Social Compliance Programme Member of WEF (July 2013)
(GSCP) and AIM-PROGRESS. Unilever was listed as a strategic partner of the World Economic There was a confidential ethics hotline but this appeared to be Forum, on its website by Ethical for reporting non-compliance with Business Code Principles. Consumer in July 2013. The World Economic Forum was a lobby group which campaigned for greater economic liberalisation itself estimated these changes would result in an £840 million and deregulation. ECRA defined the World Economic Forum tax break for multinational companies that used tax havens. With as a corporate lobby group which lobbied for free trade at the both developing and developed countries bearing the brunt of expense of the environment, animal welfare, human rights or debilitating losses, ActionAid said the UK must ensure the G20 health protection. (ref: 55) takes the decisive action it promised on tax havens at the London Member of four lobby groups (2011)
summit in 2009. (ref: 57) According to the Unilever viewed in 2011, the company was a member of the follwing lobby groups; Pukka Herbs organic herbal teas
the European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), TransAtlantic Business Dialogue (TABD), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development Owned by Pukka Herbs (WBCSD) and the World Economic Forum (WEF). (ref: 47) Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
strategies (November 2013)
Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Unilever family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed a number In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Pukka Herbs of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at high risk of asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the company type no reply. A search was made of Pukka Herbs website, and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions considered by for the company's environmental report. The Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
company's website stated that all of its herbs and porducts were These included a management, a holding and security brokers certified organic by the Soil Association and the USDA. As the and dealers subsidiaries based in Switzerland plus an advertising company had a turnover of less than £8m and was providing an company based in the Channel Islands.
environmental alternative it received Ethical Consumer's best Based on this evidence Unilever was considered likely to be rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 58) using tax avoidance strategies and received Ethical Consumer's worst rating in this category. (ref: 39) Excessive directors' pay (2012)
Supply Chain Management
According to Unilever's 2012 Annual Report, in 2012 the CEO Best ECRA rating for supply chain management
was paid £6,030,000 and the CFO was paid £3,878,000. In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Pukka Herbs Ethical Consumer regarded payments of over £1 million as asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received excessive. (ref: 56) no reply. A search was made of Pukka Herbs website, Criticised by ActionAid for having subsidiaries in tax
for the company's supply chain policy. No havens (October 2011)
supply chain policy was found. The company sold products ActionAid published a FTSE 100 Tax Haven Tracker in October ranging from skincare creams to tea. Most of the products had 2011 which tracked how many of the subsidiaries of the FTSE been certified organic by the Soil Association, it also sold some 100 companies were in tax havens. It uncovered that Unilever Fairtrade certified teas. The Soil Association certification scheme had 696 subsidiaries, 34% of which were in developing countries included some provisions for workers rights.
and 26% of which were in tax havens.
Pukka Herbs received Ethical Consumer's best rating for supply According to ActionAid corporate tax avoidance, one of the chain policy due to the fact it had an effective if not explicit main reasons companies use tax havens, was having a massive practice and a turnover of less than £8m. (ref: 58) impact on rich and poor countries alike. Developing countries, it said currently lose three times more to tax havens than they receive in aid each year. Chris Jordan, ActionAid's tax justice Company Ethos (+ve)
expert said: "ActionAid's research showing the use of tax havens All organic products (November 2013)
by Britain's biggest companies raises serious questions they In November 2013, Ethical Consumer viewed Pukka Herbs need to answer. Tax havens have a damaging impact on the UK exchequer, the stability of the international financial system, which stated that "all our herbs and products are certified organic by the Soil Association and the and vitally on the ability of developing countries to raise tax revenues which would lift them out of poverty and make them less dependent on aid." Product sustainability (+ve)
The use of tax havens facilitates tax avoidance and evasion, which undermines the revenue bases of both developing and Organic Product (+ve)
developed countries. Additional revenues are urgently needed Organic (November 2013)
both to invest in the fight against poverty and to tackle the deficits Ethical Consumer viewed Pukka herbs website in November incurred during the financial crisis in rich countries. Chris Jordan 2013 and found that it sold herbal teas certified by the Soil continued: "When multinationals use tax havens to avoid paying Association. (ref: 58) their fair share, ordinary people in both poor and rich countries are left to pick up the bill. Spending on doctors, nurses and other essential services gets cut for those who need it most. Tax havens might provide the lure of financial secrecy and low tax rates for big companies, but at a time when all countries are desperate for revenues, the UK government can't afford to turn a blind eye." ActionAid was calling on the government to urgently rethink its current proposals to relax UK anti tax haven rules. The Treasury Redbush Rooibos Tea
included four aims: Owned by Redbush Tea Co 1. To strive for zero environmental impact from our business Redbush Tea Co, 90 Long Acre, Covent Garden, London, WC2E 2. To be organic in all we do 3. To think about the environmental impact of the ways in which we work, then to strive for the best practical environmental Best ECRA rating for environmental reporting (November
4. Good packaging The company also had information on sourcing, transport & In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Redbush Tea Co travel, packaging & waste, energy & IT, building, and carbon asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received costs. Steenbergs demonstrated excellent understanding of its no reply. A search was made of Redbush Tea Co website, main environmental impacts. for the company's environmental report. The It stated: "Our environmental principles are deeply held, so company's website included an environmental policy which the factory incorporates many eco-features, including low water stated the company had put into place a number of "policies usage toilets, 100% green energy, solar tubes, natural linoleum, and changes to ensure that we do what we can to protect and carbon neutral carpet tiles and phone services from an ethical preserve our precious planet". It stated that for its tea boxes it phone co-operative.
used timber sourced from managed, sustainable forests and for its tea bags it used non-chlorine bleached paper which was sourced Steenbergs offsets its excess carbon footprint, including all from sustainable forests in Europe, Ecuador and the Philippines. transport in, staff travel (to and from work) and transport outwards The company also stated that in 2006 it had made the decision through Climatecare. We believe that we are one of the only UK to drop using non-sustainable palm oil in its handmade soaps. food businesses that already has a zero carbon footprint, and we The company also donated profits from the sale of its tea to the have been so since 2006. There's still more to be done, but we're Kalahari Peoples Fund (KPF). working on this - more recycling, better packaging and solar heating are all being addressed." Redbush Tea Co was considered to be providing an environmental and social alternative and therefore received Ethical Consumer's Due to the fact the company had a turnover of less than £8 million best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 59) and was providing an environmental alternative it received Ethical Consumer's best rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 60) Supply Chain Management
Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management

Sells pet food (November 2013)
In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Redbush Tea In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Steenbergs website, Co asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received and found that the company sold organic no reply. A search was made of Redbush Tea Co website, pet food. While organic pet food addressed factory farming issues, for the company's supply chain policy. No supply it was still a product containing animal which Ethical Consumer chain policy was found. Since February 2001 the company had considered to be an animal rights issues. The company therefore donated some of its profits from the sale of their teas to the Kalahari lost a whole mark in this category. (ref: 61)Peoples Fund (KPF). The fund helped to promote innovative community development programmes ranging from training community members to become local teachers, ensuring that their Supply Chain Management
culture and language is sustained, craft cooperatives, establishing Best ECRA rating for Supply Chain Management
farmland where crops can be grown to support communities to buying computers for their schools.
In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Steenbergs While The Redbush Tea company was applauded for its work Organic asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer with the Kalahari people the company did not have any publicly received no reply. A search was made of Steenbergs Organic available information regarding its workers within its supply chain. It therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for co.uk, for the company's supply chain policy. An ethical policy supply chain management. (ref: 59) was located which included adequate clauses on prohibiting forced labour, freedom of association, and employment free from discrimination. The clause on child labour was considered Steenbergs organic tea [O]
inadequate due to the fact "child" was not defined in accordance Owned by Steenbergs Organic with International Labour Organisation's (ILO) definition. The clauses on working hours and living wages were also considered Steenbergs Organic, Steenbergs Limited, 6 Hallikeld Close, Barker inadequate due to the fact they were only required to meet local Business Park, Melmerby, Ripon, HG4 5GZ, United Kingdom or national laws. However since its establishment in 2003 the company was registered with FLO-Cert GmbH and The Fairtrade Foundation to trade in and sell Fairtrade tea products, it was also one of the few businesses to be registered to trade in and sell Best ECRA rating for Environmental Reporting
Fairtrade spices and herbs. According to its website over 80% of its raw material purchased were organic and much of it Fairtrade In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Steenbergs as well. Due to the fact the company was considered to be a Organic asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer small company with a turnover of less than £8million and had received no reply. A search was made of Steenbergs Organic an effective if not explicit policy it received Ethical Consumer's website, for the company's best rating for supply chain management. (ref: 60) environmental report. An environmental policy was found which Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)
Human Rights
Certified organic (November 2013)
(See also ‘No palm oil policy found' in Climate Change
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Steenbergs website,d found that it sold teas certified Supply Chain Management
organic. (ref: 61) Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
(October 2013)

Taylors of Harrogate Herbal teas
In October 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd for the company's supply Owned by Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd chain policy and downloaded the "Taylors of Harrogate Ethical Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd, 1, Parliament St, Harrogate, North Trading Policy for Tea & Coffee" dated September 2011. Yorkshire, HG2 7NX, England Supply chain policy (inadequate) The company's Trading Policy stated that it adhered to the Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
following principles, which included right to freedom of association, employment free from discrimination and payment Bettys and Taylors Group's website, of living wages. There was also clauses on hours and child labour co.uk, was searched for an environmental policy in November however these were not defined and therefore were not considered 2013, and the group's environmental policy was downloaded. adequate. There was no provision on the use of forced labour and The policy discussed packaging, waste, emissions, noise no statement which stated it applied to the entire breadth of the pollution, resource use, reforestation efforts, recycling and the supply chain. Therefore Battys and Taylors was considered to company said that they audited all suppliers to ensure that they have an inadequate supply chain policy.
were environmentally aware and complied with environmental legislation.
Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) The company was a signatory to the Food and Drink Federation's Taylors of Harrogate stated that it worked with the Ethical Five-Fold Environmental Ambition, and consequently measured Trading Intiative which was a multi-stakeholder process as well and targeted reductions in energy, water, waste, packing and food as the Ethical Tea Partnership - a not-for-profit organisation that miles, and reported on the company's progress annually. In the monitored social and environmental conditions on tea estates in 2011 report the company said it recorded a 17% reduction in all major tea producing regions. It also said it brought tea from energy used per tonne of production at its tea and coffee factory, a Faritrade, Rainforest Alliance and Utz Certified. There was no saving of 100,000 road miles per year, by importing commodities mention of a process whereby workers could feedback to the through Teesport in the North East, and a decrease in food waste company about workplace conditions therefore Bettys and Taylors due to partnerships with charities and local farms. received a rudimentary stakeholder engagement rating.
However, this report could not be found.
Although the company seemed to understand it key environmental Auditing and reporting (poor) impacts, it did not present environmental performance data and did not provide future dated and quantified environmental targets. Taylors of Harrogate stated that suppliers not covered by an international certification scheme would be required to have Bettys and Taylors Group therefore received Ethical Consumer's a diagnostic visit from a certifying body of their choice. For worst rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 62) first time diagnostic visits costs could be covered by Taylors of Harrogate. However producers would be expected to cover No palm oil policy found (November 2013)
the costs of certification. The company's ultimate aim was to Bettys and Taylors Group's website, have 100% suppliers covered by certification schemes by 2013. co.uk, was searched for a palm oil policy in Novermber 2013. However there was no disclosure of results from audits, there was No information could be found. Due to the fact the company no schedule for continued audits until producers were certified sold biscuits and chocolates under the Betty brand the company and it was unclear what the company did in instances of non- lost half marks in Ethical Consumer's rating system in the compliance. Taylor of Harrogates received a poor auditing and categories of climate change, habitats & resources and human reporting rating. rights. (ref: 63) Habitats & Resources
Difficult issues (poor) (See also ‘No palm oil policy found' in Climate Change
No discussions about purchasing training, audit fraud, illegal freedom of association and living wage could be found on the company's website.
Animal Rights
Sells meat in Cafes (November 2013)

Overall the company received a worst Ethical Consumer rating A search of Bettys and Taylors for supply chain management. (ref: 64) co.uk, by Ethical Consumer in November 2013, found that the company sold meat and fish in its cafe which were labelled as Politics
being free-range. (ref: 63)
Genetic Engineering
Products potentially contain GMOs (November 2013)

Bettys and Taylors Group's website, co.uk, was searched for a GMO policy in November 2013. The group's environmental policy was downloaded. The environmental Climate change impact sector (November 2013)
policy had a small GMO section which stated ‘wherever possible In November 2013 Financial Times website, we try to work with the very best suppliers. We do not actively com reported that the competition comission was looking into the source any genetically modified ingredients for our food proposed joint venture between Tata Sons and Singapore Airlines and beverage products. However, we acknowledge that the which will run Tata-SIA Airlines. The new airline was due to increasingly widespread use of GM soya and corn – particularly launch in June-July 2014 according to the report. (ref: 68) in animal feed– means that we can no longer expect our extended High climate impact sector (November 2013)
supply chain to be GM free. No further information could be In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Motors 68th found. The company sold meat through its cafés.
Annual Report 2012-2013 which stated "Tata Motors Limited is As the company did not commit to business-wide GMO free India's largest automobile company. It is the leader in commercial products, Bettys and Taylor received a negative mark for potentially vehicles and among the leaders in passenger vehicles in India with supplying products containing GMOs. (ref: 62) winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. It is also the world's fourth largest bus and fifth largest Product sustainability (+ve)
truck manufacturer". (ref: 69) Organic Product (+ve)
Pollution & Toxics
Marketed as Organic (November 2013)
Death of worker and protestors (2010)
The Taylors of Harrogate website was viewed in November According to the 2011 Ecologist report ‘Whats really in your 2013 and listed organic peppermint and chamomile tea bags as cuppa' in 2010, on an estate owned by Tata Group, a worker who being organic. (ref: 65) collapsed while spraying pesticides was reportedly refused medical treatment and later died. Protests in response to the death were Teapigs tea
quelled by local police, resulting in the deaths of two protesters and a further 15 injuries.
Owned by Teapigs Ltd The report also stated: "Grown in monoculture, tea plants Teapigs Ltd is owned by Tata Global Beverages provide ideal conditions for a number of pests, resulting in the owned by Tata Group (35%) widespread use of toxic pesticides. Recently four elephants were found dead in Kaziranga National Park, India, after they wandered Tata Group, Bombay House, 24 Homi Mody St, Fort,, Mumbai, into a tea plantation and ate grass which had been sprayed with 400 001, India pesticides." (ref: 70) Tata Global Beverages also owns Tetley Redbush tea [S] and Shares in Vedanta (2009)
Tetley tea The Ecologist published an article on its website on 19 June 2009 in which it listed several UK companies who owned shares in Vedanta Resources plc. Vedanta was behind the controversial mine in India's Orissa state which was situated on a Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
mountain sacred to local people. The company was given the go- ahead to begin mining for bauxite in May 2009. Campaign groups In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Tata Global had warned that the 600-hectare mine would result in ecological Beverages (TGB) asking for its environmental report. Ethical degradation that would threaten the livelihoods of tribal people. Consumer received a reply. Which included a link to TGB's They said that several villages had been razed to make way for sustainability report dated 2008-09 which included a chapter the construction of a refinery, with up to 100 indigenous families on environmental performance. The chapter included details evicted from their land and relocated to ‘rehabilitation colonies' about how much the company had used in materials, green where locals claimed they felt as though they were living ‘in a jail' house gas emissions, water use, biodiversity and environmental with little access to land for farming. A nearby bauxite refinery which was already in existence had been blamed for causing In the questionnaire response from TGB it stated that its global health problems, damaging crops and killing livestock. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions had been independently Jaguar Cars Pension Plan (a subsidairy of Tata Motors) was listed verified by British Standards Institution (BSI) as per ISO 14064 in the Ecologist as having shares in Vedanta. (ref: 43)and that it had been rated as Climate Disclosure Leadership Index Shares in Vedanta (2009)
in India covering over 65 sites, globally, including factories and The Ecologist published an article on its website plantations. Its climate change strategy included, sustainable on 19 June 2009 in which it listed several UK companies who agricultural practices towards climate change adaptation; owned shares in Vedanta Resources plc. Vedanta was behind the sustainable forestry, afforest ration and sequestration towards controversial mine in India's Orissa state which was situated on a climate change mitigation; use of renewable sources - wind energy, bio gas, Tata Solar, etc. and energy efficiency programs & ISO mountain sacred to local people. The company was given the go- ahead to begin mining for bauxite in May 2009. Campaign groups 50001 in all the production units. TGB was considered to have had warned that the 600-hectare mine would result in ecological demonstrated a good understanding of its main environmental impacts however it did have two quantified dated targets nor was its degradation that would threaten the livelihoods of tribal people. data or information independently verified. TGB received a worst They said that several villages had been razed to make way for the construction of a refinery, with up to 100 indigenous families Ethical Consumer rating for environmental reporting. (ref: 66) evicted from their land and relocated to ‘rehabilitation colonies' where locals claimed they felt as though they were living ‘in a jail' Oil and gas exploration (November 2013)
with little access to land for farming. A nearby bauxite refinery In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Petrodyne which was already in existence had been blamed for causing website, It stated that the company was health problems, damaging crops and killing livestock. involved in the exploration and production of crude oil and Land Rover Pension Trustees Ltd (a subsidairy of Tata Motors) natural gas. (ref: 67) was listed in the Ecologist as having shares in Vedanta. (ref: 43) Habitats & Resources
of marginalized indigenous communities," said Stephen Ekka, (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
Director of PAJHRA, one of three community organisations that (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
filed the complaint to the World Bank's accountability office.
(See also ‘Oil and gas exploration' in Climate Change
Workers had been interrogated, intimidated, and in some cases, retaliated against by plantation management for voicing their complaints. One worker, who did not wish to be named for fear of losing her job said, "I worked a heavy workload even when nine months pregnant. I live in a broken home without clean Involved in animal testing (November 2013)
water. Tata refuses to respect us as human beings." In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Advinus "The World Bank Group must ensure that workers receive Therapeutics website, a subsidairy of Tata the basic protections that it claims to value and is responsible Group and found that it had been "only one of the 5 labs world- for upholding," says Komala Ramachandra of Accountability wide to successfully complete a Transgenic mice carcinogenicity Counsel, a non-profit organization supporting workers in their studies". The company also offered in vivo services. (ref: 71) complaint. Jayshree Satpute of Nazdeek, a legal empowerment organisation working closely with workers, said, "Tata is not Manufactures and markets leather (November 2013)
only in violation of its contract with the World Bank, but is also In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Internationals denying the basic human rights guaranteed to the workers under found that the company the Indian Constitution and domestic laws." was involved in the manufacturing and selling of leather Wilfred Topno, Secretary of People's Action for Development, products. Leather was considered by Ethical Consumer to be a stated, "A colonial attitude and feudal structure persist in the slaughterhouse by product. (ref: 72) plantations, with the same subhuman living and working conditions for the last 150 years. Our community demands change." Tata Global Beverages, and their brand Tetley Tea, is the second Human Rights
largest player in global tea industry. The World Bank Group, Supplier to Israeli military (June 2013)
through an investment in Tata, owns a nearly 20 percent stake in In June 2013 it was reported on the Who Profits? website that the tea plantations involved in the complaint to the World Bank's Land Rover (a subsidariy of Tata Motors) supplied armoured accountability office. (ref: 74) vehicles to the Israeli ministry of defence through its sole Israeli Health and Safety Executive fines (2013)
distributor, Eastern Automobile Marketing, which also supplied In April 2013 it was reported on the Health & Safety Executive maintenance services for the vehicles. The Israeli army was also (HSE) website, that Tata Chemicals Europe said to have developed the ‘David' armoured vehicle, which was Ltd, which is part of the global Tata group, had been fined more built on top of a Land Rover Defender chassis. According to the than £100,000 after workers were put in danger in three separate article, "David Vehicles are used by the Israeli army to protect incidents at its Cheshire factory. Tata Chemicals was prosecuted illegal settlements and military bases along the West Bank, to by the HSE following an investigation into the incidents at the prevent Palestinian shepherds from herding on their lands and Winnington Lane site, all of which occurred during 2010.
to oppress Palestinian demonstrators. David Vehicles carrying Chester Crown Court was told on the 10th of April 2013 that tear Gas launchers on their roofs were used during non violence the first incident happened on 29 January 2010 when a worker demonstrations in the village of Nabi Saleh." (ref: 73) was trying to reach a pump to restart it when his right foot went Operations in oppressive regimes (November 2013)
through a missing part of the grating. He was exposed to a toxic In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Global liquid at a temperature of approximately 95 degrees Celsius Beverages website, and found when his foot entered the sump below, which was used to collect that it had operations in Russia and China. It also had offices overflowing chemicals.
in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The company was The second incident occurred six months later, on 25 July 2010, headquartered in India. At the time of writing Ethical Consumer when a dangerous gas was released, resulting in high levels of considered each of these countries to be governed by oppressive carbon monoxide being present in the area of the plant where regimes. (ref: 66) employees were working. An investigation into the incident (See also ‘Shares in Vedanta' in Pollution & Toxics above.)
found employees had not been given sufficient practical training for the work activity that caused the gas leak, and the emergency (See also ‘Death of worker and protestors' in Pollution &
procedures at the plant were inadequate.
The final incident took place on 21 November 2010 when part Labour abuses on Indian tea plantations (July 2013)
of the gantry a worker was walking along gave way as the metal A press release from the Accountability Counsel on July 5th 2013 grating under his feet had become badly corroded. He escaped alleged that workers on Tata's Tetley tea plantations in northeast with minor injuries after landing on a scaffolding board on the India, who made less than $2 a day, demanded the company walkway below.
respect their human rights on World Bank-financed plantations. When a HSE inspector visited the factory, she discovered the A workers' complaint to the World Bank calls on the Bank to company had failed to report another part of the grating on the ensure the end of inhumane working and living conditions, and same walkway collapsing two days before the incident on 21 coercion and pressure of workers on the plantations.
On Wednesday 3rd July 2013, in the presence of the World Bank's accountability office, Tata met with worker representatives Tata Chemicals Europe Ltd pleaded guilty to four breaches of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 due to failing to to discuss intimidation and retaliation by plantation management ensure the safety of workers.
against workers participating in the complaint process.
The company also admitted two breaches of the Reporting "While Tata and Tetley market themselves globally as socially of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations responsible leaders, they are fooling their customers and making large profits from the mistreatment and exploitation 1995 after it failed to report the two walkway collapses in TGB received a poor rating for auditing and reporting because November 2010 as soon as possible, despite this being a legal there was no commitment to audit its whole supply chain which included other drinks brands, there was no remediation strategy Tata Chemicals was fined a total of £100,750 for all six offences from those suppliers covered under ETP or RA, and no schedule and ordered to pay £71,082 in prosecution costs. (ref: 75) for auditing suppliers. Of the 16% that had not been audited TGB stated they were "low priority" sites in Sri Lanka and Supply Chain Management
India which the company may exit in the future. There was no Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
mention of costs.
In January 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Tata Global Beverages (TGB) asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Difficult issues Consumer received a reply which stated that all of its tea was TGB stated in its questionnaire that in November 2013 some covered under the Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP) and that it had of its senior managers of the buying team underwent University a target to source 100% of Tetley tea from Rainforest Alliance of Cambridge Sustainability Leadership Programme, it also said certified farms by 2016. Overall TGB received Ethical Consumer's that internal training occurred on sustainability issues. With its worst rating for supply chain management.
Tetley brand the group had long term purchasing agreements with former companies such as Kanan Devan Hill Plantation and APPL. TGB stated that it had recently entered into a joint Supply chain policy (inadequate) partnership in China and stated that it had the support of ETP TGB stated that the company was a signatory of the UN Global whose standard required Chinese suppliers to have "parallel Compact and adhered to the principles contained within the code means" in place and recommends that factories establish worker which included freedom of association, forced labour, child labour committees. TGB was considered to be addressing one difficult and employment free from discrimination. Ethical Consumer issue within its supply chain. It therefore received a rudimentary searched the UN Global Compact website for the company's rating for this category. (ref: 66) Communication of Progress - a document which was sent to update the initiative on the company's progress - however TGB could Arms & Military Supply
not be located on the website. The only workers right provision Manufactures products for defence industry (November
that could be located was in the company's Code of Conduct policy 2008 which included a provision for employment free In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed Tata Advanced from discrimination. No commitment could be found to ensure Systems (TASL) website, which workers rights provisions were adhered to throughout its supply stated it was addressing the business areas of Defence, Aerospace, chain. TGB received a inadequate rating in this category. Aero-Structures and Homeland Security. The company was establishing critical manufacturing capabilities through strategic alliances and collaborations with Global Stakeholder engagement (rudimentary) Technology Majors in the following areas: TGB stated that its tea brand Tetly was a member of ETP, a RF Systems and ICT Networks (SDRs, Ruggedized Switches business led initiative bringing together tea companies which & Interoperability Gateways) worked towards (among other things) improving workers and farmers livelihood. The company was also involved with Maritime Systems – Maritime Command & Control (IPMS another buisness led initiative trustea. While it was clear TGB & IBS), Sonars & Simulators was engaging with other tea companies to try and improve Mini and Micro UAVs workers and farmers livelihood within the tea sector, they were NVDs (Monoculars, Binoculars, Weapon Sights) not considered by Ethical Consumer to be a multi-stake holder Aerospace & Aero-Structures initiative which were led by non-governmental organisations. In Sri Lanka, TGB stated that it worked with local staff from CARE Homeland Security on the Plantation Community Empowerment Project that focused TASL was also involved in developing a family of Mini on labour standards and wider empowerment issues, particularly Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for various defence and civil for women. TGB also stated that it worked with local staff from applications. These Mini UAVs would be fully equipped with a WUSC and the Sri Lankan Centre for Poverty Analysis. TGB wide variety of mission-specific payload, appreciated operational stated in the questionnaire that it worked with indirectly or capabilities and a user-friendly man-machine interface. (ref: directly a range of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Christian Aid, SOMO and Solidaridad. Listed as military contractor (2011)
TGB stated that under the Rainforest Alliance and ETP standards In the International Defence Directory 2011, Tata International there were grievance procedures which allowed employees to Singapore Pte. Ltd was listed as a military supplier involved in feedback anonymously about working conditions. There was the manufacture and distribution of steel and aluminium products no mention of TGB's own grievance procedure for workers for the Air Force. The company was also provided supply chain not covered under these schemes. Due to its involvement in management services. (ref: 77) trade unions and NGOs, TGB received a rudimentary rating for Listed as military contractor (2011)
stakeholder engagement In the International Defence Directory 2011, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd was listed as a military supplier involved in the Auditing and Reporting (poor) provision of consultancy service for information technology and business process outsourcing. (ref: 77) TGB stated in the questionnaire returned that its audits were always performed by independent, third party audit firms. The company only stated Tetley's current situation with regards to auditing which it said 50% had been certified by Rainforest Alliance (RA), 14% were working towards RA certification, another 20% were audited by ETP and 16% had not been audited. Supply Chain Management
Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
strategies (November 2013)
In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Tata Sons In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Punjana Ltd family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed asking for its supply chain policy. Ethical Consumer received no a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at reply. A search was made of Punjana's website, high risk of being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the com, for the company's supply chain policy. company type and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions A statement was found which stated "As always, great care is considered by Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
taken to source these teas and herbs from the finest producers These included holding companies based in Switzerland, in the world, and from growers who share our ideals in treating Hong Kong and Singapore and an investment company based workers fairly, and giving regard to proper wages, healthcare and in Switzerland.
education". There was also a paged called "Ethical Sourcing" Given that the company had two or more subsidaries which were which explained that health care, education and housing was considered to be likely to be used for tax avoidance strategies and provided on its estates. It also stated that its tea pickers were "paid were based in tax havens it received Ethical Consumer's worst more for their tea leaves than most other leading tea brands".
rating in this category. (ref: 39) As a company with a turnover of more than £8million Ethical Worst ECRA rating for likely use of tax avoidance
Consumer expected Punjana Ltd to have a more rigorous supply strategies (November 2013)
chain policy and there received a worst rating in this category. In November 2013 Ethical Consumer viewed the Tata Steel family tree on the corporate website Hoovers.com. This listed a number of subsidiaries Ethical Consumer to be considered at Yogi Tea herbal and fruit teas [O]
high risk of being used for tax avoidance purposes due to the company type and the fact that they were located in jurisdictions Owned by Yogi Tea GmbH considered by Ethical Consumer to be tax havens.
Yogi Tea GmbH, Burchardstraße 24, D-20059 Hamburg, These included several holding companies based in Singapore. Tata Steel receieved Ethical Consumer's worst rating for likely Yogi Tea GmbH is owned by Kit Holding BV use of tax avoidance strategies due to the fact it had two or more owned by Siri Singh Sahib Corp high risk subsidaries based in tax havens. (ref: 39) owned by Sikh Dharma International Human rights abuses in India (May 2010)
Sikh Dharma International, 2545 Praire Road, Eugene, Oregon, On 10th May 2010 the website an article that reported conflict between local Indian people 97402-970, USAand mining companies. Tata Steel was named as a company acquiring thousands of acres of land, and was reported to have met with resistance from local people. The following instances were reported: police breaking up gatherings of as few as five Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
people; people who refused to sell their land being repeatedly
arrested; police violence during arrests; suspected Tata officials Yogi Tea's website, was searched trying to persuade arrestees whilst they were detained; forgery of by ECRA for an environmental policy in November 2013. The records that stated people had sold their land when they hadn't, website stated that "YOGI TEA® was committed to providing and prisoners being released when their families agreed to sell. the highest quality ingredients while also protecting the earth's The company was said to have denied the allegations. (ref: 78) natural resources. The herbs and spices used in their teas were grown in controlled organic environments wherever possible. The website discussed the broader environmental benefits of organic Thompson's Herbal Tea
farming. Yogi tea was packaged in 100% recycled paperboard Owned by Thompson's Family Tea Ltd and was shipped in cases made of 100% recycled cardboard. Yogi Tea printed all of its packaging with environmentally-friendly, Thompson's Family Tea Ltd is owned by Punjana Ltd vegetable-based inks. Punjana Ltd also owns Thompson's Organic apple & mint [O] However, no further information regarding an environmental policy, the organisation's key environmental impacts and future reduction targets could be found. Yogi Tea therefore received Worst ECRA rating for environmental reporting
Ethical Consumer's worst rating for environmental reporting. In November 2013 a questionnaire was sent to Punjana Ltd asking for its environmental report. Ethical Consumer received no reply. A search was made of Punjana Ltd com, for the company's environmental report. No environmental Supply Chain Management
report was found. Punjana Ltd received Ethical Consumer's Worst ECRA rating for supply chain management
worst rating for environmental reporting due to the fact it had a turnover of over £8 million and had no environmental report or Yogi Tea's website, was searched information available on its website. (ref: 79) by ECRA for a supply chain management policy in November 2013. No information could be found. Yogi Tea therefore received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for its supply chain management. (ref: 80) Arms & Military Supply
Salus Organic Teas
Own US contract security firm (November 2013)
See Salus-Haus GmbH & Co KG above According to an article on viewed by ECRA in November 2013, Akal Security was owned by Sikh Dharma International. According to Akal Security's website, Taylors of Harrogate Teas
Akal Security was one of the largest See Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd above contract security companies in the United States and specialised in providing security for critical federal government facilities, state and local government agencies and military installations. Tetley Redbush tea [S]
Akal's capabilities included the design, installation, and integration See Teapigs Ltd above of electronic security, surveillance and access control systems. (ref: 81) Tetley tea
See Teapigs Ltd above Company Ethos (+ve)
All products are organic (November 2013)

Yogi Tea's website, was viewed by Thompson's Organic apple & mint
ECRA in November 2013. It stated that all 70 of the company's herbs and spices were 100% organically grown. (ref: 80) See Thompson's Family Tea Ltd above Product sustainability (+ve)
Organic Product (+ve)

Tick Tock organic rooibos [O]
Organic product (2013)
See Tea Times Holding Ltd above According to the company website viewed by ECRA in November 2013, Yogi Teas were certified organic. (ref: 82) Tick Tock rooibos
See Tea Times Holding Ltd above Clipper organic herbal tea [O]
See Clipper Teas Ltd above Twinings herb teas
See Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited above Dragonfly Organic Rooibos [F,O]
See Tea Times Holding Ltd above Dragonfly Rooibos Breakfast Tea
co.uk (5 November 2013) (1335225) See Tea Times Holding Ltd above Eleven O'Clock organic rooibos
3 - Koninklijke Wessanen nv (AKA Royal Wessanen) Corporate See Tea Times Holding Ltd above clipper-teas.com (5 November 2013) (1335195) 5 - Higher Living T Heath & Heather teas
See Typhoo Tea Ltd above 7 - Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Corporate Communications: Higher Living Herbal Tea [O]
See Only Natural Products Ltd above 9 - Equal Exchange Trading Ltd Corporate Communications: London Fruit & Herb
10 - Equal Exchange Trading Ltd Corporate Communications: See Typhoo Tea Ltd above 11 - Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd Corporate Communications:Questionnaire (19 November 2013) Pukka Herbs teas [O,F]
12 - Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd Corporate See Pukka Herbs above August 2011) (560702) Ridgways tea
13 - Essential Trading Co-operative Ltd Corporate See Typhoo Tea Ltd above (11 September 2006) (297461) 14 - Salus-Haus GmbH & Co KG Corporate Communications: 15 - Salus-Haus GmbH & Co KG Corporate Communications: major food companies to prove ‘health benefits' (21 June 2 17 - Hampstead Tea & Coffee Co Ltd Corporate September 2011) (562071) Communications:Hampstead representative (12 November 48 - Humane Society of the United States:Tell Ben & Jerry's to help animals (23 August 2006) (301321) 49 - ECRA shop survey:ECRA shop survey (25 November 2008) 19 - Apeejay Surrendra Group Corporate Communications: 50 - Rettet den Regenwald eV:The bloody products from the house of Unilever (23 August 2011) (922979) 51 - Oxfam:Labour Rights in Unilever's Supply Chain: From typhootea.com/ (23 October 2013) (1335075) compliance to good practice. An Oxfam study of labour 21 - Jacksons of Piccadilly Limited Corporate Communications: 52 - SOMO Reports:Unilever - overview of controversial business practices 2010 (May 2011) (564222) 22 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate 53 - Allegations of sexual harassment and abuse in Unilever's Communications:2013 CSR Report (11 November 2013) Kericho plantation, Kenya:A case study of d:2 August 2012 23 - Oxfam International:Behind the Brands (September 2013) October 2013) (1335164) 24 - EIRIS News Release:Corporate Ethics Overview (September 2010) (1327420) 2013 members list (8 July 2013) (1332303) 56 - Unilever Corporate Communications:Annual Report 2012 July 2011) (558979) 57 - Actionaid:FTSE 100 tax haven tracker (October 2011) co.uk (7 March 2011) (552411) behind the trade in ‘novelty' reindeer meat (15 January pukkaherbs.com (5 November 2013) (1335229) 28 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Communications: Ethical Standards for Products (11 November 2013) steenbergsorganic.net/ (5 November 2013) (1335232) steenbergs.co.uk (11 November 2013) (1335350) 62 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: August 2011) (561132) Environmental Policy (11 November 2013) (1335421) 63 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: 1 November 2013) StopFortnumAndMasonFoieGrasCruelty.com (7 September 64 - Bettys & Taylors Group Ltd Corporate Communications: 32 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Bettys and Taylors Ethical Trading Policy (September 2011) Communications:2013 Annual Report (11 November 2013) 33 - Clean Clothes Campaign press release:building collapse April 2011) (554279) (29 April 2013) (1330252) 66 - Tata Global Beverages Corporate Communications: uk:Unemployed people ‘bullied' into unpaid work at Tesco, Primark and other multinationals (12 August 2 (562689) 35 - Associated British Foods Plc Corporate Communications: tatapetrodyne.in (15 November 2013) (1335721) Policy on Genetically Modified (GM) Ingredients (11 68 - Financial Express (India):Will look into Tata Group's JVs November 2013) (1335394) with Singapore Airlines, AirAsia, if required: CCI (16 36 - Spinwatch:Independence of nutritional information? The November 2013 (1335760) British Nutrition Foundation (22 March 2010) (557049) 69 - Tata Motors Corporate Communications:68th Annual Report eston Foundation 2012-2013 (2013) (1335715) censured for links to political donations (1 April 2010) 70 - Ecologist, The (online):report - Whats in your cuppa (22 June 2011) (556339) 39 - Hoovers 2013:online commerce page (26 June 2013) tatainternational.com (15 November 2013) (1335708) 73 - Who Profits?:Land Rover (25 June 2013) (1331738) accountabilitycounsel.org:Tea Plantation Workers Call on Tata and Tetley to Stop Human Rights Abuses (5 July 2013) 41 - Unilever Corporate Communications:Sustainable Living Plan 2012 (2012) (1335299) 75 - Health & Safety Exec:International chemical firm prosecuted over multiple incidents (10 April 2013) Unilever Fined for Polluting California Air With Deodorant Spray (12 February 2010) (539931) 43 - Ecologist, The (online):UK companies linked to devastating Indian mine (19 June 2009) (553085) 77 - International Defence Directory:IDD (2011) (1331630) July 2012) (1321527) 78 - forbes.com:India's Dirty War (10 May 2010) (543979) 45 - PETA - Companies that test on animals:CompaniesDoTest.
pdf (22 November 2007) (517163) (5 November 2013) (1335240) 46 - BUAV :BUAV condemns cruel animal experiments by yogiproducts.com (27 November 2013) (1336116) 81 - Sikh Dharma International Corporate Communications: Ownership ref (October 2012) (1336104) eu (18 November 2013) (1335809)

Source: http://cftn.ca/sites/default/files/AcademicLiterature/ethicalconsumer_tea_jan2014.pdf

Novartis: it's an uphill climb to the bottom

Healthcare European Pharmaceuticals Novartis It's an uphill climb to the bottom from Equal Weight Earnings and execution headaches: With the sector at a 30% premium to the EU market (1yr fwd PE) earnings and execution uncertainties are not en vogue, which is why we now rate Novartis a relative UW (was EW). The company's top-line growth is >50% dependent on two launch products (Entresto in heart failure and Cosentyx in

03 tiger report

THE VENEER How Indonesia's Last Rainforests are being Felled for Flooring exclusion zone, white area to be kept clear DO NOT PRINT BOX exclusion zone, white area to be kept clear DO NOT PRINT BOX Theft of Indonesia's A Fashion for Flooring Behind the Brand 1. Armstrong/Bruce Executive Summary