(ht p:/ www.brazil.org.uk)
Complete the following sentence with the option which
BRAZIL'S YOUTH IN POVERTY ESCAPE
reflects the text point of view It´s true to affirm that .
About half of the young people from the Brazilian town
8% of Britain´s territory has been left after the Industrial
of Gonzaga move abroad in the hope of securing a better
future. One of them was27-year-old Jean Charles de Menezes,
deforestation happened only in Brazil.
the manmistakenly shot dead in London by police officerswho
deforestation happened only in Britain.
feared he was a suicide bomber.
deforestation happened in Brazil as well as in Britain.
In the tiny cobbled town, houses and small apartment
deforestation in Brazil over the past 30 years developed the
blocks being built among dilapidated bungalows give the
appearance of a holiday resort, except there are no tourists.
The construction is paid for with foreign earnings, as
Complete the sentence with the appropriate option. One
those who stay in this rural area struggle to earn the minimum
of the causes of deforestation in Brazil, in the70's, last
century, was the .
Jean's family live half an hour outside the town, along a
Amazon State development.
dusty red dirt track. Hundreds of small hills dot the landscape,
coffee agricultural expansion.
where smallholdings are surrounded by subsistence crops of
usage of fire as an agricultural technique.
maize, sugar cane and banana trees, and the richer families raise a
number of inhabitants growing.
result of using fire for the last 30 years.
At the family home, MatosinhosOtoni da Silva, a
bricklayer, spoke about his son in the present tense.
The word "However"
was used to:
Describing his pride in the way his "wellmannered" son
emphasize human beings are the only responsible for
behaved with people, and the future he was building by
working as an electrician, the 66-year-old said: "My son only
explain an opinion given before.
went to primary school because we are poor. But
conclude an opinion given before.
he is intelligent.
justify why Brazil has started deforestation.
add an opposite piece of information.
Mark the alternative that expresses the reasons brazilian
The word "Which"
in the statement: " .. human beings
people leave their country to live abroad.
have interfered with the natural environment in
poverty escape and tourism.
which they live
tourism and better future.
moving abroad for fun and earning money.
earnig money and tourism.
poverty escape, lack of jobs and better future.
The family relationship between Jean Charles de Menezes
and MatosinhosOtoni da Silva is:
brother / brother.
son / father.
cousin / uncle.
father-in-law / son-in-law.
RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND
cousin / cousin.
The United Nations Conference on _ and
The phrase: ". except there are no tourists.
" (parag. 2
Development, having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June
1992, reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations
means the place is prepared to receive tourists, besides
Conference on the Human _ , adopted at
anyone of them is seen around.
Stockholm on 16 June 1972, and seeking to build upon it,with
is a reference to tourist cities nearby.
the goal of establishing a new and equitable global
means that native people would like to receive tourists.
partnership through the creation of new levels of
reinforces the idea of paradise for tourists come.
cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people,
says that even tourists are welcome, they can not be seen
working towards international agreements which respect the
interests of all and protect the integrity of the global _
and developmental system, recognizing the integral and
interdependent nature of the Earth, our home, proclaims that:
HOW HAS HUMAN ACTIVITY AFFECTED BRAZIL'S
Human beings are at the centre of concerns for
Since prehistoric times, human beings have interfered
sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and
with the natural environment in which
they live. However
productive life in harmony with nature.
in Brazil, it is only the last 150 years or so that large scale
changes have occurred. For example, in the 1850's, 80% of the
State of São Paulo was covered with forest. By the 1970's, with
the rise of coffee growing, there was less than 8% natural forest
States have, in accordance with the Charter of the
left. But this is no different to what happened to our British
United Nations and the principles of international law, the
forests during the industrial revolution.
sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their
Many believe that the grasslands in central Brazil are
own _ and developmental policies, and the
the result of the earliest inhabitants using fire to help them
responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction
hunt wild animals. Now these grasslands, once almost
or control do not cause damage to the _of other
completely infertile, have become very productive - thanks to
States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
new farming methods developed in Brazil. What has caused
most concern over the past 30 years or so is the risk to the
The right to development must be fulfilled so as to
equitably meet developmental and _ needs of
Human dignity is an important concept. The phrase has
present and future generations.
two central connotations: that the dignity of humanity is
inviolable, and, secondly, that each and every human being has
the same, everlasting value. A natural corollary of this is that
we all have a common duty to defend human dignity. All
thoughts of solidarity — even the command to love one another
In order to achieve sustainable development, _
— have their foundation here. Human dignity is humanity's
protection shall constitute an integral part of the
shared possession, a possession which we all have both a part
development process and cannot be considered in isolation
in and a responsibility for. We are bound together in a common
lot which makes it impossible for us to be unaffected by the fate
Internet: <ht p:/ www.nobelprize.org> (with adaptations).
All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential
. From the text above it can be deduced that
task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for
( )solidarity is based on human dignity.
sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparities in
( )two fundamental implications derive from human dignity.
standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of
( )we should not let others' destiny influence us.
the people of the world.
( )human dignity must be everybody's responsibility.
(ht p:/ www.brazil.org.uk)
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has evaluated Lech
Respecting the text order, choose the option which
Walesa's contribution as being of essential importance in the
completes it according to the grammatical usage.
campaign to establish the universal freedom of organization in
all countries. It is in just
this context that the name
"Solidarity" has its deepest and most wide-ranging meaning.
Lech Walesa's contribution is more than adomestic Polish
concern; the solidarity for which he is spokesman is an
expression of precisely the concept of being at one with
he belongs to us all. The world has heard
his voice and understood his message; the Nobel Peace Prize is
merely a confirmation of this.
Lech Walesa has made the name "Solidarity" morethan
an expression of the unity
of a group campaigning for special
environment, environmental, environmental, environment.
interests. Solidarity has come to represent the determination to
resolve conflicts and obliterate disagreement through peaceful
negotiation, where all involved meet with a mutual respect for
one another's integrity.
Internet: <ht p:/ www.nobelprize.org> (with adaptations).
According to the text, which principle expresses the inner
essence of the sustainable development?
According to the text above,
( ) Walesa's actions brought about the freedom of organization
all over the world.
( ) there are no frontiers as far as solidarity is concerned.
( ) solidarity presupposes selfishness.In the text above,
( ) "just" is synonymous with fair
( ) "Polish" is the name of a country.
( ) "therefore" can be replaced by however
Match column 1 to column 2 according to their themes.
changing the meaning.
When a natural or a man-made disaster strikes a
developing country, death and disease are often compounded by a
lack of adequate medical care. In many war-torn countries,
animosity is so great between warring factions that medical care is
often denied to those in need because of their religion, ethnic
identity, or political affiliations. In such cases, who will help the
( )The preservation of life on Earth.
In 1971, a group of concerned physicians established
( )Exterminate poverty.
Doctors Without Borders / Médecins Sans Frontiers (MSF), to
( )Respect peoples land exploration not to affect whole world.
provide emergency assistance wherever wars and disasters
( )Environment cannot be an end in itself.
occur. Since then, MSF has grown into the world's largest
( )People's integration with nature.
independentinternational medical relief agency, aiding victims
of epidemics, armed conflicts, and natural and man-made
disasters in more than 80 countries through the efforts of more
Choose the best response.
than 2,000 volunteers representing over 45 nationalities.
a, b, c, d, e
Additionally, MSF is often called upon to provide assistance to
c, e, b, d, a
individuals who lack healthcare due to geographic remoteness
c, a, d, b, e
or ethnic marginalization.
d, c, a, e, b
a, d, e, c, b
Doctors Without Borders. Médecins Sans Frontiers(MSF)
<ht p:/ www.dwb.org> (with adaptations).
. From the text above, it can be inferred that
. didn't have become
( )flood victims are eligible to receive MSF aid.
. hasn't become
() political rivalry may be an obstacle to provide medical aid
. no has become
to some people in war-torn countries.
( )there's no way to help the helpless.
Select the correct proposition
( ) there is no independent international medical relief agency
One alternative is correct
larger than MSF.
Two alternatives are correct
Three alternatives are correct
Four alternatives are correct.
Five alternatives are correct.
Every new generation is different from the one that
preceded it and differences of opinion between the generations
have always existed. This generation gap is by no means a
modern phenomenon. Young people have always reacted
Os textos abaixo foram adaptados de um número da revista
against the accepted beliefs of their elders. Today this gap is
NEWSWEEK de 2001 e serve para as questões 19 a 21.
well marked indeed.
The young of today are better educated and better
informed. They earn their own money and they enjoy more
Fosamax, a drug already shown to be effective in treating
freedom. They mature quicker and are less dependent on their
OSTEOPOROSIS in postmenopausal women, may prevent
parents. They reject conformity and make a point of living in
the condition from occurring in the first place. Touted as a safe,
the present rather than in the past or future. They have their
nonhormonal alternative to estrogen, the drug prevented bone
own opinions and don't blindly accept the views of their
loss in 95% of women studied. To keep working, Fosamax
elders.People of the older generation, in turn, say that they
requires daily dosing. for years.
know best because they have lived longer and have had more
experiences in life.
When the young begin to question past values,
A new treatment can save PREMATURE BABIES born with
assumptions and beliefs, the elders take the defensive and try
underdeveloped lungs. Doctors fill the tiny collapsed air sacs
to impose their own views. Hence many incompatibilities arise
with an oxygen-rich liquid that enables the lungs to expand.
and every day it gets more difficult for the two generations to
The liquid eventually evaporates.
adjust to each other.
(writ en by LucianeFigueiredo and Silveira)
Starting next month, a nonsurgical approach to ABORTION
will be tested on 3,000 U.S. women. Two drugs are taken, one
. According to the text, the generation gap is the result of:
a cancer drug that stops the rapid cell division of the embryo.
Love and understanding between the generations.
Excess of communication.
As if cramps and bloating were not enough, research shows
Comprehension between the young and the old.
that asthmatic women of childbearing age are more likely to
Differences of opinions and values between the
suffer severe attacks right before and during menstruation. A
rapid drop in estrogen, which prompts changes in the immune
system and elsewhere, may be to blame.
According to the text, the young today .
are more and more dependent on their parents.
According to the NEWS items.
don't like to work.
NEWS 1 is about a drug which has some negative effects for
have more access to education and are supplied with more
NEWS 2 is about a new treatment for babies born with big
are afraid of freedom.
don't have access to culture.
NEWS 3 is about a new technique of abortion.
NEWS 4 is about childish problems.
NEWS 2 and NEWS 3 are bad news.
According to the text, the elders say they know best
They are more intelligent than the younger generation.
De acordo com o texto I é incorreto
They have lived longer and have had more experience in life
um líquido especial introduzido nos alvéolos de bebês
They have no experience.
prematuros nascidos com problemas pulmonarespode
Nothing deserves to be changed
ajudar a salvar suas vidas.
The young ask for their advice very often.
3000 mulheres americanas serão submetidas a uma forma
de aborto em que dois medicamentos serãoadministrados.
a rápida queda nos níveis de estrógeno causa mudanças no
The underlined word "when" in the last paragraph can be
sistema imunológico da mulher durante operíodo
a diminuição do nível de estrógeno pode ser a causa dos
ataques as mulheres asmáticas.
. as soon as
estudos mostram que 95% das mulheres que continuam
trabalhando sofrem de osteoporose.
One alternative is correct
De acordo com o texto, Fosamax
Two alternatives are correct.
só poderá ser ingerido diariamente durante quatro anos.
Three alternatives are correct
é eficiente para evitar perda óssea em mulheres.
Four alternatives are correct
é um hormônio semelhante ao estrógeno.
Five alternatives are correct.
é um medicamento receitado para mulheres antes de entrar
é considerado ainda um medicamento arriscado
. "The generation gap has become a serious problem".
The negative form of the sentence above is:
. doesn't have become
On Government and Politicians
. has not become
. A government big enough to give you everything you want, is
O'Rourke believes that governments should have more
strong enough to take everything you have.
access to money and power.
-- Thomas Jefferson
you must read a newspaper to be uninformed.
politics has been debated before Christian times.
. A government which robs Peter to pay Paul can always
depend on the support of Paul.
-- George Bernard Shaw
Swine Influenza - Treatment - In humans
Giving money and power to government is like giving
whiskey and car keys to teenage boys.
If a person
becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs
-- P.J. O'Rourke, Civil Libertarian
can make the illness milder and make the patient
also prevent serious flu complications. For
. If you don't read the newspaper you are uninformed, if you
treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after
do read the newspaper you are misinformed.
getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). Beside antivirals,
palliative care, at home or in hospital, focuses on controlling
fevers and maintaining fluid balance. The U.S. Centers for
. If you think health care is expensive now, wait until you see
Disease Control and Preventionrecommends the use of Tamiflu
what it costs when it's free!
(oseltamivir) or Relenza (zanamivir) for the treatment and/or
-- P.J. O'Rourke, Civil Libertarian
prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses, however
, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full
In general, the art of government consists of taking as much
recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs.
money as possible from one party of the citizens to give to the
The virus isolates in the 2009 outbreak have been found
resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.
-- Voltaire (1764)
In the U.S., on April 27, 2009, the FDA issued
Emergency Use Authorizations to make available Relenza and
Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't
Tamiflu antiviral drugs to treat the swine influenza virus in
mean politics won't take an interest in you!
cases for which they had been unapproved. The agency issued
-- Pericles (430 B.C.)
these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the
current approval allows and to allow the widespread
Suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member
distribution of the drugs, including by non-licensed volunteers.
of Congress. But then I repeat myself.
SOURCE: adapted from: ht p:/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swine_influenza
Talk is cheap. except when Congress does it.
Considerando o texto "Swine Influenza - Treatment - In
humans" é correto afirmar.
Medicamento antiviral é o único tratamento eficaz para a
. The only difference between a tax man and a taxidermist is
that the taxidermist leaves the skin.
Medicamento antiviral tem melhor efeito quando iniciado
logo após o surgimento dos primeiros sintomas da gripe
. What this country needs are more unemployed politicians.
A infecção pelo vírus requer atenção médica urgente para
-- Edward Langley, Artist (1928-1995)
combater os sintomas na maioria da população.
Source: received by email
A amantadina e a rimantadina são usadas com sucesso na
profilaxia e no tratamento da gripe suína.
Considerando o texto "OnGovernmentandPoliticians", é
Oseltamivire zanamivirsão os vírus que agem nas recentes
infecções causadoras da gripe suína.
O autor anônimo do pensamento 9, alega que o Congresso
irá criar um imposto para o ato da fala.
Conforme o uso, no texto "Swine Influenza - Treatment - In
No pensamento 2, George Bernard Shaw sugere que um
humans", é correto afirmar:
governo sempre terá o apoio daqueles a quem ele beneficia.
personepatientreferem-se ao mesmo indivíduo.
No pensamento 3, o autor se mostra favorável a que o
Theyrefere-se às pessoas acometidas da gripe suína.
governo tenha poder e dinheiro.
bettere fastersão as formas do grau superlativo de bete fast.
Edward Langley sugere que o país precisa de mais políticos
maypoderá ser substituído por must sem alterar o sentido
considera que a política não é justa porque os políticos não
howeveré o mesmo que wherever, whichevere whoever.
se interessam pelo cidadão.
Baseado no texto "OnGovernmentandPoliticians", é correto
Considering the text "Swine Influenza - Treatment - In
humans" one might infer that
Voltaire, já em 1764, dizia que o governo arrecadava muito
it is necessary to treat the pigs with the same drugs used for
dinheiro para promover festas.
Mark Twain sugere que o coletor de impostos " só não tira o
most people who catch swine flu never get better on their
O'Rourke denuncia que o governo fornece dinheiro e
the use of Relenza and Tamiflu antiviral drugs used to be
bebida a adolescentes.
O'Rourke acredita que os planos de saúde serão gratuitos no
symptoms of swine flu infection will only appear two days
after the infection.
Mark Twain parece acreditar que os jornais transmitem
patients, victims of the swine flu, will never recover
completely from the disease.
From the text "On Government and Politicians" one might
Drinking and driving
correctly infer that
Mark Twain suggests that members of Congress aren't
Most drivers who have had something to drink have low
blood alcohol content (BAC) and few are involved in fatal
government, politics and politicians are highly regarded by
crashes. On the other hand, while only a few drivers have BACs
higher than 0.15 percent, many of those drivers have fatal
. Never use illegal drugs. Illicit drugs are involved in a large
proportion of traffic fatalities.
Never drive when fatigued. The dangers posed when fatigued
are similar to those when intoxicated. A drunk or fatigued
driver has slowed reactions and impaired judgment.
. Don't use a car phone, put on make-up, comb your hair, or
eat while driving. Drivers using cellular phones are four times
more likely to have an accident
Steer clear of aggressive drivers. Aggressive drivers may be
responsible for more deaths than drunk drivers.
. Don't be fooled. The contents of the typical bottle or can of
beer, glass of wine, or liquor drink (mixed drink or straight
liquor) each contain virtually identical amounts of pure
alcohol. When it comes to alcohol, a drink is a drink and are all
the same to a breathalyzer.
Know your limit. If you are not sure, experiment at home
with a responsible individual. Explain what you are attempting
to learn. Most people find that they can consume one drink per
hour without any ill effects.
. Eat food while you drink. Food, especially high protein food
such as meat, cheese and peanuts, will help slow the absorption
of alcohol into your body.
Accept a drink only when you really want one. If someone
tries to force a drink on you, ask for a non-alcoholic beverage
instead, if that doesn't work, "lose" your drink by setting it
down somewhere and leaving it.
. Skip a drink now and then. Having a non-alcoholic drink
between alcoholic ones will help keep your blood alcohol
content level down, as does spacing out you alcoholic drinks.
. Beware of unfamiliar drinks. Some drinks, such as zombies
and other fruit drinks, can be deceiving as the alcohol content
is not detectable. Therefore, it is difficult to space them
28. Based on the text, judge the following items.
( )Few drivers with low BAC have fatal crashes.
( )BAC is responsible for more traffic fatalities than illegal
( )Driving when fatigued can be as bad as driving drunk.
( )A driver with high BAC has more than 150 millilitres of
pure alcohol per litre of blood.
29.According to the text, judge the items below.
( )Aggressive drivers can be more dangerous than drunk
( )The widespread use of cellular phones doubled the number
of car accidents.
( )A breathalyzer measures the amount of alcohol in a driver's
( )Don't get used to combing your hair while driving.
30. According to the text, it is correct to conclude that
( )it is possible to discover one's tolerance to alcohol.
( )a person should not eat meat while drinking.
( )people should pretend to forget where they leave a drink
they do not want.
( )fruit drinks are not dangerous.
The AAPS Journal ( # 2012)DOI: 10.1208/s12248-012-9382-1 Theme: Facilitating Oral Product Development and Reducing Regulatory Burden through Novel Approaches to Assess Bioavailability/BioequivalenceGuest Editors: James Polli, Jack Cook, Barbara Davit, and Paul Dickinson Bioequivalence Requirements in the European Union: Critical Discussion Alfredo García-Arieta1,3 and John Gordon2
SAFETY DATA SHEET This Safety Data Sheet meets or exceeds the requirements of the Canadian Controlled Product Regulations (WHMIS), the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazard communication standard, the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), the Taiwan Bureau of Standards, Metrology & Inspection (BSMI), the Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China(GB/T 16483-2008) and the European Union Commission Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.