Experimental Study of Cardiac Functionality for
the Wellness of Individual by developing an
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology,
Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology
Bengaluru-560056, Karnataka, India.
Bengaluru-560056, Karnataka, India.
—Since the beginning of the twenty-first century,
Keywords— Healthcare, Wearable, Physiological, Android, Heart
healthcare cost has increased exponentially which has burdened the
common man across the world. India being the country of having
high youth concentration, needs a cost-effective quality healthcare
delivery system to generate the healthy workforce. Here, comes the
Today, the world population has breached the mark of 7 billion
role of wearable device which provides users the flexibility to know
which reveals the need of a cost-effective quality healthcare
about their health irrespective of their location. Though it is one of
system. But achieving this target has become a mammoth task for
the means to access body vitals, it does not analyze them. Therefore,
all countries, irrespective of developed or emerging economy,
it is necessary to discover a solution for the world's burgeoning
due to the continuous rise in health-care costs and the onset of
population to analyze the physiological parameters viz. heart rate,
chronic diseases every year. Thus the healthcare system has
respiratory activity, blood pressure etc. captured from wearable
undergone a paradigm shift from the conventional hospital-
devices and provide customized healthcare recommendations. This
centered system to an individual-centered system . This
paper attempts to develop an android application which takes the
heart rate data of the users as an input using wearable device
individual-centered system is referred as wearable technology.
Over the past decade, we have seen substantial improvement in
application predicts cardiac problems on the basis of the recorded
the field of wearable technology which led to the development of
heart rate data and thereby recommends precautionary/ curative
cost-effective wearable devices. Wearable devices are the
measures in the form of diet prescription, physical activity among
electronic items worn on human organs to monitor a person's
others. In this way the state-of-the-art application enables its users
physiological signals. These devices play an important role in
to access the cost- effective quality home-based health care which
delivering healthcare solutions such as measurement of heart rate,
will make them more prosperous and productive at their workplaces
SpO2 (blood oxygen saturation), blood pressure, respiratory
in the long run.
signals etc. These devices address various challenges, such as
increasing healthcare cost with low quality services and inability
of accessing healthcare services at remote locations. Thus,
every wearable device in literature. Thus, it makes sense to
wearable devices generate curiosity among the researchers and
discuss some of these cardiac wearable devices in the study.
medical practitioners to come out with novel ways to address the
Valenza et.al  propose an application based on wearable
needs of the increasing population globally .
textile technology which assesses instantaneous nonlinear heart
We have seen several advantages of wearable devices. But at the
rate variability and characterizes the autonomic status of bipolar
same time, they offer various challenges. Though wearable
patients by considering their electrocardiogram recordings. On
devices assess the physiological parameters, they remain silent on
the similar lines, H. H Tsai and C. W Yi  establish an algorithm
"what to do" based on user's vital values. Therefore, an integrated to analyze the relationship between human heart rate and their
solution is required to analyze these bio-signals in real time
excitement levels while performing different activities. They
environment and enhance the general well-being of the people by
have used wearable sensors which also collect ECG signals to
providing medical prescriptions. This paper attempts to develop
reveal the activity of the Autonomic nervous System (ANN).
an android application based on the analysis of one physiological
Further, a dynamic direct rate algorithm in wearable devices is
parameter i.e. heart rate recorded from a wearable device. The
proposed by C. T. Chu, H. K Chiang and J. J Hung  to present
application predicts possible cardiac problems associated with the
a low cost solution for heart rate oximeter with automatic initial
different sets of heart rate data, thereby recommends
detection process to process feedback analogy error noise.
precautionary/ curative measures in the form of customized diet
Z. Zhang, Z Pi, B Liu  propose a framework to solve the
prescription, physical activity, sleeping hours, among others.
problem of contaminated photoplethysmographic signals in Heart
The organization of this paper is as follows. Literature Review
rate monitoring using wrist watch. The framework is called
of various wearable devices used for measuring heart rate is
TROIKA, which comprises signal decomposition for denoising,
carried out in section 2. In Section 3 we discuss various
sparse signal Reconstruction for high-resolution spectrum
objectives. Section 4 describes the design of cardiac
estimation, and spectral peak tracking with verification.
questionnaire along with the working of the application. Section
Similarly, G Gaoan and Z Zhenmin  describe a procedure to
5 describes the precautionary and/or curative measures to be
capture the apical pulse signal using acceleration sensor and
taken by the users for their general well-being. Section 6
estimate the heart rate. They propose a real-time heart tracking
concludes the paper.
algorithm for predicting heart rate with the help of wearable
device using phase space method. Moreover, J. Liu, F Xie, Y
Zhou, Q Zou, J Wu,  propose a multi-functional wearable
Wearable devices are the electronic articles acting as clothes
device fastened around waist to monitor the user's
and/or accessories of human body to measure physiological
electrocardiogram (ECG), respiratory activity, and the body
parameters. There have been several studies conducted across the
globe on wearable device-based health monitoring via
measurement of heart rate, SpO2 (blood oxygen saturation),
A Keerthika and R Ganesan  design a wearable wireless
blood pressure, respiratory signals etc. But the most common
health monitoring system to measure and transmit the user's
vital sign of importance is heart rate, which is sensed by almost
arterial blood-oxygen saturation (SpO2) level and heart rate (HR)
using sensing devices, low power microcontrollers and modem.
Young Sung Kim, Bae Sun Kim, Yong Ki Son, Il Yeon
IV. QUESTIONAIRE DESIGN
Cho  present a wrist- worn wearable device for nonintrusive
In this phase of our study, the primary data collection is
heart rate sensing with the help of array of sensors mounted on a
conducted through a well-designed questionnaire consisting of
flexible band. This device helps to avoid the wrist worn rigid
cardiac profile. The respondent is a senior cardiologist. We try to
form-factors which otherwise make them vulnerable to motion
collect even the basic questions related to heart health of an
artifacts. Further, D. Da He, E. S Winokur, C. G Sodini 
individual of different age.
demonstrate a wearable heart monitor that is worn on the ear.
They propose that with the help of ear(anchoring point), the heart
Cardiac Health Questionnaire:
monitor measures the ballistocardiographic (BCG) motion of the
Cardiac health questionnaire consists of different questions
head using a MEMS tri-axial accelerometer, and the
regarding heart health. In our cardiac health questionnaire, we
electrocardiogram (ECG) using a single-lead configuration. have included certain questions that can help us to analyze the There are various researches conducted on the effectiveness of
data recorded from wearable device:
heart based wearable devices, such as E Sardini, M Serpelloni
and M Ometto  present a wireless device in the form of a shirt
Heart rate for different age groups: We have included different
to monitor the heart rate derived from ECG signals in a non-
set of age groups to get an idea of their corresponding heart rate
invasive manner. Hyonyoung Han, Yunjoo Lee and Jung Kim
 also represent a wearable and motion artifact reduced health
Blood pressure: Human heart health is dependent on both
monitoring device in the form of finger band that consists of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We collect the normal range photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, 3-axis accelerometer,
of blood pressure values for different age groups from the
microprocessor and wireless module to measure heart beat
signals. In this way, we have seen that over the last decade, the
heart based wearable devices have been put in place to assess the
Blood Glucose level: Human heart health is directly dependent
health of the people in real time environment. But we need the
on the blood glucose level of each user. Increase in blood glucose
immediate solution after assessing our heart rate values. Thus, in
level clearly indicates that the person suffers from diabetes which
this paper we are trying to develop an application to complement
in turn gives the fluctuations in heart rate. Hence to provide the
the assessment potential of the wearable device by providing
recommendations, it is required to get the reading of the specified
suitable recommendations to the users based on their heart rate
glucose level for each age.
Apart from these cardiac parameters discussed above, some
general questions related to heart profile are asked from the senior
To develop an application to predict health problems on the cardiologist in order to fulfill our desired objectives. Some of
basis of heart rate data recorded from the wearable device.
these questions are described as follows:
To prescribe customized nutritional diet by analyzing the Test Recommendation: As our application provides home based
different sets of heart rate values.
solution to cardiac problems, so it becomes necessary for us to
To recommend precautionary and/or curative measures to the ask the cardiac specialist to recommend that at what age should a
users for their general well-being.
person begin paying attention to heart health and what tests
High blood pressure: High blood pressure causes a
should be recommended.
specific heart disease which can affect the muscles of
Causes of Heart ailment: Our project revolves around the
Diabetes: High blood sugar level and heart disease go
recommendations provided to the users. Thus, to provide the
hand in hand. If a person is suffering from diabetes, there
appropriate solutions, we first list certain factors causing heart
are more chances of heart disease as high glucose level
ailment that are as follows:
damages nerves and vessels.
Sedentary lifestyle: Our heart health depends on our
Overweight: As a person's body mass index increases,
daily lifestyle. People having sitting jobs, or those who
risk of coronary heart disease increases.
don't do physical activities on a regular basis, are at high
Anxiety: Anxiety increases blood pressure which in turn
risk of getting cardiovascular problems.
affects the heart.
Physical Inactivity: Physical activity, in general, is
important for healthy living. If a person doesn't do Symptoms prominent in heart ailment: There are certain
symptoms for each heart problem. The user may exhibit some or
physical exercises on a regular basis, risks of heart
all of the following symptoms in case of heart problem.
diseases increase as there is improper flow of blood to
Chest Pain or Pressure: a person feels pressure
Liquor Consumption: Consumption of alcohol increases
surrounding the chest region and this pain moves up to
cholesterol level, which in turn increases blood pressure
and ultimately leads to heart failure.
Shortness of Breath
Smoking: Smoking affects the heart arteries in such a
Palpitations, irregular heartbeats, fast or slow heart rates
way that it damages their lining and leads to narrowing
Fainting, near fainting, or dizziness
the wall of the arteries.
Swelling of legs
Eating habits (lack of nutritional foods): Excessive
intake of both salt and sugar in a diet can affect human
Leg pain or cramps
heart badly. A person should have nutritional food,
which consists of vitamins, minerals, proteins etc. to
Symptoms between men and women: Women have more
maintain his health and to get rid of the cardiac problems
atypical asymptomatic heart beats (Myocardial infarction) as
compared to men.
Poor sleep: Getting insufficient sleep (insomnia) The application works in a series of steps as shown below:
increases the blood pressure which in turn affects the
heart health badly.
Application Authorization in the wearable device takes place in
Hereditary factor: If a person suffers from two ways, viz. code grant and implicit grant flow. The code grant
cardiovascular disease at an early age, there may be
flow is generally recommended for the application that uses web
hereditary factor behind this.
interface as a service and thus, it requires server to server
communication to perform the function.
In our project we are using implicit grant flow that works as
Figure 2 represents the outline of the application. The sequence
follows, shown in Fig. 1.
of steps performed in the process are shown using arrows. It starts
with the measurement of cardiac activity followed by the
Application redirects the user to the wearable device customized dietary recommendations to the user.
authorization page which consists of parameters: Client _id,
response type, scope, redirect_uri, etc.
When user gets redirected to the authorization page,
permission is required from the user to allow the application
to use the wearable device data. Thus, on user approval the
application gets redirected to the callback URL where the
access token is present as a URL fragment.
Further, the application gets access to the required token,
which is used to make the request to the wearable device API.
Finally, the user needs to specify the lifetime of an access
token in authorization page during implicit grant flow which
can be of a day, a week, or a month.
Fig.2. Application data flow
After getting an insight into the causes and symptoms of cardiac
problems, we are trying to recommend certain precautionary
measures to avoid these problems with the help of our application,
based on the expert recommendations. Some of these measures
are described as follows:
Physical activity type & duration: For having good heart
health, it is recommended to do moderate aerobic
exercises, with regular physical activities that include
walking, running etc.
Sleeping Duration: Minimum of 7-8 hours' sleep is
required to avoid heart problem.
Recommended Diet: Don't skip any meal, intake of less
salt and sugar, high protein diet, avoid consumption of
Fig.1. Overview of user phase
saturated fats like ghee, butter, fried food etc.
Immediate home remedy if person suffers from extreme Figure 3 shows the overview of health application consisting of
chest pain: Sub-lingual Tab. Sorbitrate.
different fields, viz. heart rate, activity, food plan etc.
Table I presents the symptoms and the causes of abnormal heart
rate values which are described in the heart scope of the
Table I: Cardiac Functionality
Everything is fine.
Chest pain, pressure
rate ( more than
Shortness of breath (
Fig.3. Drop down: Physiological Parameter
with stress, rest or
Figure 4 shows the symptoms and the causes of the cardiac
Leg pain, swelling
Shortness of breadth
Fatigue (Low- energy
rate( less than 60)
Cramps while walking
Fig.4. Low heart rate: Causes, Symptoms, Cure
Table II describes the causes of low heart rate and also
recommends certain solutions in the form of dietary sources. Each
value in the following table is associated with users low heart beat
as recorded by the wearable device and every user is provided
with the recommendations
Table II: Irregular Heart Rate (< 60): Causes &
What it means
What needs to be done
Excessive loss of
1. Use an ORS(Oral
body, which causes
2. Drink Lots of water,
juice and avoid dairy
products. 3. Eat foods with High water content like Fruits: Watermelon,
muskmelon Vegetables: Broccoli,
eggplant, lettuce, spinach, zucchini, tomatoes
Endocrine gland is
Consult doctor for certain
Figure 5: Normal Heart Rate Profile
responsible for how
Table III describes the causes of high heart rate and also
recommends certain solutions in the form of dietary sources.
Aging leads to a
general weakening of the heart, which can cause a slow
heart rate. It can also be due to after-
In our application, if the user heart rate comes in normal series,
then the user is provided with no recommendations as shown in
Fig. 5. In this figure, heart rate field is chosen, which denotes the
heart rate in three different positions, viz. resting, normal and
exertive heart rate. It presents the default heart rate value, i.e. 70-
80, which signifies "everything is fine".
Table III: Irregular Heart Rate (>100): Causes &
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250 mg/g powder for oral administration with the drinking water or milk /milk substitute Target species: cattle (calves) and pigs Statement of the active substance(s) and other ingredient(s): 1.0 g powder contains:Pharmacological active substance: Tetracycline hydrochloride 250 mgExcipients:Glucose monohydrate. Indications:Cattle (calves) and pigs:For therapy and metaphylaxis of infectious diseases of the respiratory- and gastro-intestinal tract and infections of the urinary tract in calves and pigs (with the exception of systemic E. coli and Salmonella infections), caused by bacteria sensitive to tetracycline. Contraindications:Hypersensitivity to tetracyclines.Severe disturbances of hepatic or renal function.Do not use in ruminating cattle (calves older than 6 weeks).Resistance to tetracyclines.Adverse reactions:On corresponding disposition, allergical or anaphylactic reactions may occur. In this case withdraw tetracycline hydrochloride immediately and initiate appropriate countermasures (parenteral administration of glucocorticoids and antihistaminics). Gastro-intestinal disturbances with vomiting and diarrhoea may be observed in rare cases when the product is administered to fasting animals. In long-term treatment pay attention to superinfections e.g. with Candida spp. In animals with disturbed fluid balance, the danger of functional disturbance of the kidneys is increased. Tetracycline may cause liver damage. During therapy intensive light insolation on skin with poor pigmentation often causes photodermatitis. Target species:Cattle (calves) and pigs.Dosage for each species, route(s) and method of administration:Pigs:
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