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New Zealand Code of Practice
for the Management of
the Tomato/Potato Psyllid
in Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum Crops
Published by: Tomatoes New Zealand and Vegetables New Zealand 2nd Edition4 October 2012 Table of Contents
Table of Contents . 2
Relevant legislation and industry standards. 3 Information on the tomato/potato psyllid. 3 Responsibilities, training and planning . 4 Monitoring Duties and Responsibilities . 4 Training requirements . 4 Pre-planting requirements. 4 Crop removal and actions between cropping cycles . 5 Key aspects of crop protection. 5 Control Methods. 5 Cultural practices . 5 Biological agents . 5 Physical methods . 5 Management of alternative host plants . 6 Crop monitoring . 6 Monitoring for tomato/potato psyllids. 6 Guidelines for Action Thresholds for Psyllid control. 8 Control actions . 8 Records - Monthly Tomato/potato/psyllid/Liberibacter summary sheet . 8 Consideration of other pests, pollinators and natural enemies. 9 Plant protection products . 9 Advice on effective application of insecticides . 12 Insecticide application records . 12 Best practice where vectors are involved . 12 Summary of recommendations for minimising psyllid and other insect levels in crops . 13 Appendix 1: Life cycle and pest ID . 14Appendix 2. Host plants for the tomato/potato psyllid. 15Appendix 3. Monthly tomato/potato psyllid / Liberibacter Record Summary sheet. 16Appendix 4. Toxicity of selected Chemicals to Natural Enemies. 17Appendix 5: Spray Record . 19 The tomato/potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is a relatively new pest to New Zealand(confirmed present by Biosecurity NZ May 2006) and is the vector for CandidatusLiberibacter a plant disease of tomato, capsicum and other solanaceous crops includingpotato.
This document is the industry's Code of Practice for its greenhouse tomato and capsicum growers. For further information contact:The Business Manager, Tomatoes New Zealand or Vegetables New ZealandHorticulture New Zealand (Telephone: 04 473 3795)PO Box 10232Wellington The objective of this Code of Practice is to provide guidance to growers and others in theindustry for the effective, safe and responsible control of the tomato/potato psyllid in order tominimise the impact of Liberibacter on production and export market access.
The Code of Practice is aimed at all producers of greenhouse tomato and capsicum crops.
Use of this Code will result in a number of benefits for this industry group and consumersalike. Implementation of the Code will ensure: Damage to individual crops will be minimised Control of the pest will be effective and sustainable Management of other pests of significance in these crops will not be undulyaffected in place remain functional and the continued supply of high quality low residue fruit to the NZ public and our exportcustomers is not compromised.
Resumption and continuation of export of these crops will be facilitated Relevant legislation and industry standards
All relevant legislation and industry standards should be followed or adhered to in the controlof the tomato/potato psyllid. For further information refer to the following:  New Zealand (Maximum Residue Limits of Agricultural Compounds) Food Standards consolidation.pdf )  New Zealand GAP or GLOBALGAP  Other Approved Supplier or Produce Trading Partners programmes Information on the tomato/potato psyllid
The tomato/potato psyllid is a small phloem-feeding, winged insect about 3mm in length andresembles a miniature cicada. This pest can sometimes vector ‘psyllid yellows' disease to anumber of host plants. Recently, a new species of bacterium causing this disease insolanaceous plants has been described as belonging to the genus Candidatus Liberibacter.
A description of the insect is found in Appendix 1 along with additional sources of informationand photos of life stages, characteristic excreta and typical host plant damage. HorticultureNew Zealand has published sets of identification cards and a poster, and MAF BiosecurityNew Zealand has a pamphlet with further information and images. Refer to Appendix 1 forthe relevant web links.
Responsibilities, training and planning
Monitoring Duties and Responsibilities
Greenhouse growers or managers should:  Identify a suitably trained person (or persons) to scout the crop on at least a weekly basis (shorter interval during periods of high pest pressure).
 Establish a crop monitoring plan based on the requirements of section 3.3. Make maps of the greenhouse unit in which row numbers and bays can be easily identified.
 Set up a pest monitoring records system, and record pest numbers, life stages, location, and actions taken.
 Undertake monitoring at least weekly, increasing in frequency to daily monitoring during periods of high pest pressure.
 Ensure that monitoring is consistent between plants and between monitoring  Make all greenhouse staff aware of Psyl id and Liberibacter symptoms and encourage reporting to the crop scout of any unusual or unhealthy symptoms in thegreenhouse.
 Make identification cards and posters available to all staff.
 Crop monitoring personnel must be familiar with monitoring techniques and of Psyllid/Liberibacter symptoms or identification.
 All greenhouse staff should be familiar with the potato/tomato psyllid and the symptoms of the disease that it can sometimes cause.
 Quality images and easy to understand descriptions of the disease vectored by the psyllid facilitates more informed feedback from staff because symptoms of feedingdamage may resemble other disorders.
 Ensure sufficient copies of the psyllid field identification cards are available.
 Only source seedlings from a supplier implementing psyllid control measures during the nursery phase: Psyllid control on young plants can be achieved by spraying or drenching withan IPM compatible insecticide. Abamectin or spinosad sprays are options. Fordrenching, Calypso (Thiacloprid) in the irrigation water at a rate of 20ml per1000 plants has been effective. Avoid substantial run off in the days fol owingapplication. Repeat if required.
 Inspect the area surrounding the greenhouse for host plants, both weeds and ornamentals (see Appendix 2). Remove and destroy host plants where possible.
 Only plant seedlings that are free of pests. If psyllids are found on seedlings, destroy infected seedlings before they are introduced into the greenhouse.
 Check all other seedlings in the batch to ensure they are not infested.
 Psyllid control on young plants can be achieved by spraying or drenching with an IPM compatible insecticide. Abamectin or spinosad sprays are options. For drenching,Calypso (Thiacloprid) in the irrigation water at a rate of 20ml per 1000 plants hasbeen effective. Avoid substantial run off in the days following application. Repeat ifrequired.
Crop removal and actions between cropping cycles
 Before the end of a crop, pests should be contained within the building and eliminated before the old plants are removed. This prevents pests from being spread into theenvironment around the outside of the greenhouse. Apply a high volume pesticidespray of, for example, abamectin together with triple rate surfactant or mineralspraying oil. Keep the greenhouse closed for 24 hours before plant removal.
 Remove the plants in a secure manner such as in covered bins to land fill or covered  Clean and disinfect the greenhouse ensuring all plant material including weeds and volunteer plants are removed and destroyed.
 Check all flying insect pests have been eradicated by hanging yellow sticky traps (at least 10/ha) and inspect daily. Fog or spray insecticide if pests are present. Close thegreenhouse ventilators and doors and allow a period for warming to accelerate pesteradication.
 Where possible, set up a double door system at the greenhouse entrance using insect mesh. This is to prevent flying insects from easy access to the crop. Hang oneyellow sticky trap at least every 10m2 in this area.
Key aspects of crop protection
To successfully control the tomato/potato psyllid over an extended period, various methodsmust be employed or control will not be reliable.
Cultural aspects of crop protection involve considering all of the basic growing best practiceconcepts to ensure optimum growing conditions for maintaining a healthy crop which hasmaximum resistance to pests and diseases. Attend to as many of these as possible; e.g.
temperature, irrigation, pH and fertility, plant spacing.
Preventing pests from entering the crop should always be a key consideration in cropmanagement. This commences before the end of a crop to ensure low carry over of al pestsand diseases refer sections 2.3-2.5, above). All crop debris should be removed from thegreenhouse and immediate environment. Weed and volunteer plant removal is required toensure no green bridge remains for hosting pests. Adequate sanitation is essential before thenew crop arrives. During the cropping period ensure good hygiene practices are observed atall times. Infestations must be dealt with promptly and appropriately, and diseased plantsshould be removed promptly and disposed of in a secure manner.
Biological agents Research on a number of new natural enemies of the psyllid is underway. Some beneficialinsects and mites are found in the crop without being introduced. If agrichemicals arecarefully managed, predatory mites, lacewings, ladybirds, parasitic wasps and otherbeneficial arthropods and entomopathogenic fungi will contribute to controlling pests (theirimpact on Tomato/potato psyllid is not extensively researched at this stage). Refer toAppendix 4 on side effects of chemicals on natural enemies and identify the least damagingoptions if it is determined that spraying is required.
Physical methods Exclusion of pests by screening vents and doors is not practical for many properties atpresent. However certain spray options with a physical mode of action should be consideredwhenever possible. Soaps; e.g. dish washing liquids, and compounds that are sticky or have deterrent properties; e.g. certain spreader and sticker adjuvants, can be employed to preventpests from visiting plants and/or laying eggs. Several essential oils; e.g. cedar wood andneem, deter psyllids from selecting plants for egg laying. Care should be taken when triallingoils as many are phytotoxic. Yellow sticky traps placed near vents and entranceways can beused to reduce psyllid populations migrating into the greenhouse.
Chemicals registered for use in tomato and capsicum crops are listed in section 3.5. Care isrequired in selecting chemicals so that a minimum of damage is done to beneficial organismsand resistance to the pesticide is prevented. Most chemicals should only be used 2 – 3 timesper season. Adhere strictly to specific product advice at all times to ensure pesticideresistance is minimised. Consult crop protection specialists for advice on selection,application guidelines and rotation of products with different modes.
compliance with New Zealand Maximum Residue Limits.
Management of alternative host plants
Check plants in the area surrounding the greenhouse are not hosting tomato/potato psyllids.
Remove known host plants where possible. The host range of the tomato/potato psyllid issaid to include the plants listed in Appendix 2.
Check regularly to ensure a buffer zone remains free of host weeds. If the pest psyllid layseggs on desirable ornamentals that cannot be removed or replaced, control thesepopulations by selecting sprays from the list in section 3.5. Continue the practice of rotatingpesticides by their mode of action groups.
It is necessary to monitor psyllid populations in order to make informed decisions for theircontrol. Monitoring psyllid populations on the plants in the greenhouse is the most reliableand effective way to monitor psyllid populations at the moment. Yellow sticky traps may givesome indication of psyllid activity but currently there is insufficient information to relate trapcatches with psyllid populations in greenhouse crops. Yellow sticky traps however can givebackground information on psyllid activity.
Yellow sticky traps if hung near vents can be used to reduce psyllid populations migrating into the greenhouse.
Monitoring for tomato/potato psyllids Scheduled crop scouting
The method outlined below is based on a 4m x 8m structural module common in manymultispan Venlo style glasshouses, but can readily be adapted to suit other structures. The4m sections between poles along the row are a designated sampling unit. Each samplingunit will contain approximately 15 tomato stems or >40 capsicum stems.
Monitoring is based on searching for psyllid sugars as a way for homing in on psyllidinfestations:  Monitor at least weekly – more frequent monitoring is recommended during times of high pest pressure.
 Each week, sample 1 row per 8 metre bay and alternate the rows (1 through to 5) between weeks so that all rows are monitored over a 5 week period.
 Monitor the plant between poles which is showing the most psyllid sugars.
 If no sugars are seen, monitor a plant at random within a 4m bay.
 Concentrate on monitoring the top section of capsicum plants and middle section of tomato plants.
 Score the psyllid infestation: no psyllids present adults, eggs and nymphs (on 1 -5 leaves) adults, eggs and nymphs (on > 5 leaves) psyllid infestation on adjacent plants  Using the 4 metre section method approximately 1 in 60 - 65 plant stems should be examined in each monitoring period.
 Not all plants infected with Liberibacter show disease symptoms, however these may be detected during scheduled crop monitoring.
Record and then remove all plants showing yellowing symptoms associatedwith the Liberibacter disease in each sampling section.
Any plants showing Liberibacter symptoms anywhere in the greenhouseshould also be removed.
 If the symptoms are not expressed strongly, plant samples may be sent for testing for  Make control action decisions as described in section 3.2.2.
Monitoring yellow sticky traps
Yellow sticky traps are not a formal part of the monitoring programme, as there is currentlynot enough information to relate trap catches with action thresholds. However they can beuseful for giving a quick assessment of comparative psyllid activity in greenhouses for givenperiods.
It is suggested that sticky traps are monitored and replaced weekly inside and outside thegreenhouse in north, south, east and west positions (See Sections 2.5 & 3.5). Caution isrequired in interpreting results from sticky yellow traps from outside the greenhouse as otherpsyllid species may also be present and these may be difficult to distinguish from thetomato/potato psyllid adults.
Monitoring by staff while working the crop
In addition to specific crop scouting activities, described in 3.3.1. (a), all greenhouse staffshould be trained to look for and recognise psyllids and their symptoms while working thecrop. It is suggested that a reward system be instigated as an incentive for extra vigilance.
All staff working in the crops must be able to recognise all the life cycle stages of thetomato/potato psyllid and to report suspected psyllid infestations to crop monitors. This isextremely important at the initial stages of the psyllid infestation when numbers of psyllids ingreenhouses may be very low.
This informal monitoring by crop working staff is a very important component of cropmonitoring and should be incorporated into the monitoring programme.
Monitoring other pest and diseases
Psyllid monitoring can be incorporated into the other pest and disease monitoring. It issuggested that each plant that is selected to be monitored for psyllids is also used formonitoring whitefly and other pests and biological control agents.
Guidelines for Action Thresholds for Psyllid control The guidelines for action thresholds are described below and are only indicative – they arebased on grower experience and have not yet been scientifically validated.
Monitoring will give growers two values: the proportion sample infested with psyllids and avalue from 1 - 5 indicating the severity of the infestations. Both values need to be taken intoaccount when defining the required action. In general growers should take the action thatapplies to the highest of the value or percentage. For example, if the percentage value is<1% but the level of infestation is >1.8, then a full insecticide application should be made.
Table 1: Suggested action thresholds
Value indicating level of infested with psyllids psyllid infestation Remove infected leaves Spot spray insecticides Full insecticide application These guidelines are only indicative and will require adjustment by individual growers tomeet their particular requirements.
Control actions Removal of infected leaves At very low infestation levels, psyllids may be controlled by removing infested leaves.
These leaves should be placed directly into plastic bags, sealed and disposed of in a safemanner.
When spot spraying is to be undertaken further monitoring of plants and rows around theidentified infested area should be undertaken to more accurately define the section ofgreenhouse that needs to be treated by spot spraying.
Monitoring hot spots Experienced growers can often determine areas in their greenhouse where the initialpsyllid infestations occur. Extra monitoring in these areas will give additional information.
It has been reported that psyllids preferentially attack plants that have previously beeninfested with psyllids.
Marking and monitoring these plants may also give additional Records - Monthly Tomato/potato/psyllid/Liberibacter summary sheet Monthly data sheets can be used to summarise psyllid monitoring, control actions andLiberibacter infestations (see Appendix 3 for the layout of the monthly recording sheet). Aseparate sheet should be used for each greenhouse on the property.
This summary sheet records: Surveying the property for weeds that are host plants for the tomato/potato psyllid andrecording actions to remove these alternate host plants (See Appendix 2 for list ofweed host plants).
Neighbouring crops: The location of neighbouring crops that host the tomato/potato psyllid and controlstrategies.
Yellow sticky traps: Total tomato/potato psyllids caught on sticky traps inside and outside the greenhouse.
Plant monitoring for psyllids Weekly counts of the number of plants monitored, percent of plant infested withpsyllids, the mean psyllid score and the control actions taken in response to themonitoring for each week.
Plant monitoring for Liberibacter Weekly counts of the number of plants showing Liberibacter symptoms and theresponse including the number of plants removed.
Insecticide application Record all insecticides applied each week for both the control of psyllids and otherpests. This data will include product used, active ingredient, concentration, water rateand method of application.
Consideration of other pests, pollinators and natural enemies.
Many methods of controlling plant pests are not selective to the pest and can kill beneficialinsects. Consideration must to be given to the role pollinators need to play in a crop and theimportance of maintaining populations of natural enemies such as parasitic wasps andpredators. If bumblebees or biological control agents are being caught on yellow sticky trapsin substantial numbers, either reduce trap density or change the trap position relative to theheight of the crop.
Sprays with a contact mode of action should also be used with care as these can also reducethe role beneficial organisms' play in the control of psyllids and other important pests (SeeAppendix 4).
Plant protection products
The tomato/potato psyllid is a relatively new pest in tomato and capsicum crops in NewZealand, and is not currently covered by any New Zealand agrichemical registrations.
Fortunately many agrichemicals registered for controlling pests such as greenhouse whiteflyand mites also have activity against the tomato/potato psyllid. While optimum applicationrates have not been set, concentrations listed on labels for similar insect pests should beregarded as appropriate rates when a product is used to target psyllids.
At all times adhere to pest management best-practice including:  Seek up-to-date advice on pest management options.
 Implement cultural and biological control options where available.
 Utilise non-chemical methods to suppress pests as part of the  Use sound scouting procedures and action thresholds.
 Apply insecticides only when necessary.
 Use appropriate, adequately maintained spray equipment.
 Spot spray infested areas whenever feasible. Commence spraying from a low infestation area and progress towards the ‘hot spot' or towards agreenhouse wall to avoid dispersing the pest.
 Preserve natural enemies of plant pests by using selective products when possible. Refer to Appendix 4 for side effects of chemicals on beneficialorganisms.
 Report poor control of an insecticide to a crop protection advisor.
 Do not use the same spray on successive generations of the pest.
 Rotate active ingredients with different Mode of Action Classifications.
 Ensure that the relevant MRL is not exceeded at time of harvest (Table 2).
Many insecticides act on the nervous system of the pest but do not necessarily target thesame site within the nervous system. Thus there are different groups affecting the nervoussystem, some inhibiting metabolic processes, others are feeding blockers or inhibitors ofcuticle synthesis. For more detailed information refer to IRAC website:
Active ingredients reported to give control of this pest both locally and in other countriesinclude the following chemicals: Table 2: Spray Options Information Summary
Active Ingredient CypherDominex 100Fastac Deltaphar 25 ECCislinInsectigone Active Ingredient Cap – notregistered(0.1 mg/kg) * Maximum Permitted Residue Level in Food– "NZ Food Standards 2008" Some of these active ingredients are also effective when applied as a drench. The sideeffects on beneficial organisms can be reduced when systemic active ingredients are appliedin this manner. Consult your insecticide supplier for details.
Extracts from the neem tree contain many chemicals with insecticidal properties. The mostcommonly researched extract is azadirachtin which is reported to have useful activity againstthe tomato/potato psyllid. The mode of action on psyllids is unknown but researchers havereported disruption of feeding and growth along with prevention of settling and egg laying.
Neem extracts and other botanical products could play a useful role in repelling or deterringthe pest from using the plant as a host.
Further spray options that are compatible with biological control agents and pollinators aresoaps, oils and naturally occurring fungi, the latter being pathogenic to many insects. Soapsand oils can sometimes be used with selected agrichemicals to gives dual modes of actionwhen spraying. Plant damage can result from such mixtures so small scale trials should becarried out first.
Two of the most commonly used insect pathogens are Beauveria bassiana and Verticilliumlecanii. Under favourable conditions these fungi can give good control of psyllid nymphs butenvironmental conditions may limit the useful life of these organisms.
The tomato/potato psyllid has numerous natural enemies in New Zealand in the form ofpredators, parasites and pathogenic fungi. Long term control of this pest will be bestaccomplished by utilising as many deterrent options as possible and supported by chemicaluse when required.
Advice on effective application of insecticides
Whenever insecticides are applied attention to equipment set up is crucial to achieving goodcontrol. For targeting both sides of the leaf surface a boom spray with fan nozzles (03F80)30cm apart, 45 deg upward from horizontal at a pressure setting of 2.5 – 3.0 bar and groundspeed of one metre per second is efficient. For targeting underside of leaves only, a conenozzle angled under the leaf may be more appropriate. Use spray sensitive paper placed intarget ones to confirm adequate insecticide coverage.
Record all details of spray applications in a spray diary. This includes the operator's name,dilution rates of active ingredients and additives, total volume, spray speed, pressure,temperature and climate data (Refer Appendix 5). Obtain comments from the crop scout afterspraying, on efficacy of each spray and be guided by past results when deciding onconditions for a repeat spray if required.
Best practice where vectors are involved
 Work with neighbours to achieve low tomato/potato psyllid numbers in the
 Control pest psyllids in the crop to low levels using IPM best practice.
 Aggressive management of infected plants reduces the risk of disease spread within the crop. Rouge out infected plants, place in plastic bags and bury or burnthem promptly.
Summary of recommendations for minimising psyllid and other
insect levels in crops

 Ensure all staff and visitors are instructed in compulsory growing-site hygiene  Plant good quality pest-free seedlings.
 Use pest resistant cultivars where possible.
 Ensure growing best practice in plant care, irrigation, plant nutrition and  Use biological control options for pest and disease management whenever possible.
 Choose spray options that have a non toxic physical mode of action where available.
 Ensure as many staff as possible can recognise key pests and diseases so that prompt remedial actions can be taken to minimise impact on yield and quality.
 Maintain robust crop scouting procedures with strict routines and evaluation of  Take pest control actions in accordance with pest monitoring records and recommended thresholds  Choose agrichemicals with care targeting least side effects on beneficial insects including bumblebees and adequate rotation of classes of mode of action to preventinsecticide resistance. Ensure with holding periods can be realised before the nextharvest day. Keep records of al treatments.
 Check the selection of spray equipment is appropriate, settings, calibration and active ingredient dilution rate. Ensure good target coverage is achieved during each spraysession. Moisture sensitive paper can be used to confirm coverage.
Appendix 1: Life cycle and pest ID
The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) is a hemipteraninsect measuring 2-3 millimetres (mm) with piercing-sucking mouthparts that enables thispest to feed on the phloem of its host plants. It undergoes incomplete metamorphosis: egg,nymph and adult.
Eggs are oval, small and attached to the leaves by a short stalk which would requiremagnification for identification but quite noticeable when on the leaf edges. Eggs are yellowwhen first laid and turn orange prior to eclosion or emergence to the first nymphal stage.
Eggs are hatched between 4 to 5 days after being laid.
The nymph passes five scale-like nymphal stages requiring between 12-21 days. The nymphlooks much like a scale insect or a large whitefly scale and grows to 2 mm. It is flat and has afringe of spines around the edges. With in this stage, it changes from light yellow to tan thento greenish brown. However, wing buds appear at the 3rd nymphal stage and becomes veryapparent at the 4th and 5th stages. The wing buds of the psyllid nymph distinguish it from thewhitefly nymph.
Adult psyllids are winged and resemble tiny cicadas. They are yellowish or greenish as theyemerge and turn dark green or brown as they mature with white stripes on the thorax andhead after 5 days. The psyllids are seen in aggregates feeding and mating on the leaves ofhost plants and mate more than once. After mating, female psyllids lay eggs on any part ofthe leaves. A single female is capable of laying up to 510 eggs in its lifetime.
Psyllid total development occurs between 15.5oC and 32.2oC with optimum developmentoccurring at 26.6oC. In a greenhouse environment averaging at 18oC, psyllid takes 33 daysto complete its life cycle.
Sources of additional information: Appendix 2. Host plants for the tomato/potato psyllid
Adult potato/tomato psyllids can be found on many plants, especially in summer when theyare migrating. Although they may be able to feed on a wide range of plants they can onlyreproduce only on some members of the Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae families.
In addition to the host plants listed in the table, the psyllid probably breeds on Chilli.
Overseas it has been found breeding on field bindweed (Convulvulus arvensis) and morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea) (Convulvulaceae) and tobacco and black nightshade (Solanumnigrum) (Solanaceae). However, overseas information must be confirmed locally.
example we have found that black nightshade (sometimes cal ed deadly nightshade) in not abreeding host plant in New Zealand. Adults may lay eggs on the plant, but all nymphs die.
Table: Plants on which potato/tomato psyllid can breed in New Zealand. Plants that supportlarge populations of the psyllid are indicated with an asterisk.
Ipomoea batatas Capsicum annuum Solanum melongena Solanum aviculare and probablyS. laciniatum Solanum tuberosum Solanum betaceum Datura stramonium Appendix 3. Monthly tomato/potato psyllid / Liberibacter Record Summary
Number of plants
Pull out
Export/no export
Weed host survey
Thorn appleBindweedNightshade*Other host Presence of alternative crop host in locality
Yellow sticky traps
Plant monitoring for psyllids
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Plant monitoring for Liberibacter
plants showing symptoms Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Full house insecticide applications
Week 1Week 2Week 3Week 4 Appendix 4. Toxicity of selected Chemicals to Natural Enemies
Predatory Mites (1)
The side effects of insecticides are classified into four categories according to IOBC/WPRS classification: Percentage death or reduction of parasitism capacity Pesticides residual effects:For beneficial organisms, the residual period or persistence (Per) is given in days (d), weeks (w), or Hours (h). A hyphen (-) signifies that theinformation is not available. "More than" (>) signifies that the indicated residual period is a strict minimum.
The side effects on bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are described in 3 classes: Can be used in combination with bumblebeesRemove the bumblebees hive before product application and until after the indicated persistence period Do not use in combination with bumblebees Bumblebee hives must be removed from the greenhouse before the application and not returned until after the indicated persistence period forclass B. Hives can be removed for a maximum period of 72 hours before tomato pollination is affected.
Sources of additional information: Appendix 5: Spray Record


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