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Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 62nd Anniversary .…. ai rs Madhav Kumar Nepal Address on the occasion of the 62nd Anniversary Celebration of the Nepal
Council of World Affairs (NCWA)
The foreign policy of Nepal is based on the principles of the United Nations Charter, - Madhav Kumar Nepal*
the Panchsheel, non-alignment, international law, the values of international peace, as well as the imperatives of international cooperation and friendship with all. The It gives me a great pleasure to join you in celebrating the 62nd Anniversary of the main objective of our foreign policy is to preserve the national sovereignty, territorial Nepal Council of World Affairs, one of the oldest non-governmental institutions integrity and political independence of Nepal as a sovereign independent nation. At engaged in the field of foreign affairs, this afternoon. I wish to take this opportunity the same time we also have to uplift our economic status through economic growth to congratulate the President and office bearers of the Council on this happy and development. We have been gearing our diplomacy and diplomatic initiatives The fact that the Council has been in existence for the last six decades is in itself a Having come out of a long period of isolationism in the early 1950s, we as a nation remarkable achievement. It is more so when we notice that the Council has been embarked on a path of friendship and cooperation with the external world. At the active in organizing talk programs, seminars and conferences on topical foreign beginning it was an uncharted path for us, and we encountered a number of affairs-related issues from time to time. The suggestions and expert opinions challenges as well. But as we moved on, we became more and more confident. expressed in such programmes have been helpful in crystallizing diplomatic initiatives by the relevant government agencies in our bilateral and multilateral At the bilateral level, our relations with our immediate neighbours – India and China interactions and relationships. I hope the Council will continue to remain active as a – carry great significance for us. Our relations with India are based on mutual think tank in the days ahead. respect, goodwill, understanding and cooperation. We have very extensive, close and cordial relations with India at the people's level as well. Likewise, our relations with A State's foreign policy is often said to be an extension of its domestic policy. In a our Northern neighbor – China – has been equally cooperative, close and cordial. world which is rapidly globalizing, interdependence growing, and where a number Friendship with all and enmity towards none is the fundamental premise of our of new transnational issues of global concern are emerging day by day, sharp bilateral relationship. We have been consistent in nurturing our relations with our divisions in the domain of domestic and foreign policies, as would have been immediate neighbours and all other friendly countries on that basis. possible in the past era, are no more practical and realistic today. The world has changed much, and so should we to keep pace with this global change and benefit As a least developed country, Nepal has been a recipient of development assistance bilaterally as well as through multi-lateral aid agencies. We are grateful to our development partners who have been extending valuable support and assistance to Having said this, let me briefly touch upon the basic tenets of the foreign policy of us in our development efforts. As a landlocked and least developed country, we have to encounter several challenges of development, both internally and externally. Our constraints are many, but with renewed national resolve, commitment and Mr. Nepal is Prime Minister of Nepal. He addressed the Council on July 27, 2009 dedication, and with the support and cooperation of our neighbours and friends in the international arena, we hope to navigate them successfully. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 62nd Anniversary .…. ai rs Madhav Kumar Nepal missions has continued since that time. Today, more than 3,000 of our peacekeepers – At the regional level, Nepal has been one of the propounders of the idea of South the military, the police and the civilian personnel – have been serving the cause of Asian regional cooperation which has taken an institutional shape as the South Asian world peace in about a dozen of the UN peace missions around the world. We are Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) since 1985. Although a late starter as currently the fifth largest troop contributing country. We are proud of being able to a regional grouping, SAARC has been making a steady progress in building the basis make a modest contribution to the task of peacekeeping, peacemaking and peace of more meaningful regional cooperation in the years ahead. Nepal is proud to host building under the leadership of the United Nations in countries where conflicts have the Secretariat of SAARC in Kathmandu and committed to promote regional ideals. badly damaged social harmony, peace and development. Multilateralism remains one of the most important components of Nepal's foreign Diplomacy is the instrument to attain our foreign policy objectives. In addition to the policy. In an increasingly globalizing world, it cannot be otherwise. It is in this traditional diplomatic activities undertaken by our missions abroad, we are currently context that we continue to give importance to the ideals of the Non-aligned focusing on economic diplomacy which includes trade, investment, tourism and Movement. I recently attended the XV Summit meeting of the Heads of State and foreign employment promotion. We have been gradually expanding our reach Government of the Non-Aligned Movement in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. With 118 through the establishment of new embassies in countries and continents which have member countries and more than two dozen observer countries and international greater prospects for us to benefit from economic diplomacy. It is in his context that agencies attending, the XV NAM Summit was a huge event which took stock of all the Government of Nepal has recently decided to open embassies in Brazil, Canada, the important developments in international relations, regional issues, UN reforms, Kuwait and South Africa. the ramifications and impacts of the current economic and financial crisis on the developing countries, the special needs and vulnerabilities of the developing and Consular protection to the Nepalese workers in foreign countries has been one of the least developed countries as well as global concerns such as international terrorism, most important activities of our missions abroad. We have been making our missions climate change, disarmament, drug trafficking, HIV/AIDS and other diseases etc. It more resourceful so as to make them more able to deal with the problems associated provided us with an important opportunity to apprise the members countries of with Nepalese workers abroad. NAM about our ongoing peace process and other political developments taking place in Nepal. I also have had the opportunity to hold bilateral meetings and exchange of At home, we have been working hard to take the peace process to a positive views with a number of the Heads of State and Government attending the Summit. I conclusion, and to draft a new democratic constitution within the stipulated time am glad that they have all been very positive about Nepal and supportive of our frame. It has all along been our effort to build national consensus of all the major endeavors to peace and constitution making. political parties on major national issues. The long-term understanding among the major political parties and trust will help in achieving political stability and economic Soon after becoming a member of the United Nations in 1955, Nepal was invited to development. This will not only help in establishing lasting peace, drafting a new take part in one of the most important activities of the United Nations – the constitution, institutionalizing democracy and strengthen Nepal's independence and peacekeeping mission. It was almost exactly 51 years ago that Nepal first took part in sovereignty, but also contribute in achieving our long cherished goals of economic the UN peacekeeping mission as the United Nations Observers Group in Lebanon development and social harmony. As we all know that we do not have any under the aegis of the United Nations. Nepal's participation in the UN Peacekeeping alternative other than building understanding among the political parties to fulfill

Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 62nd Anniversary .…. ai rs Madhav Kumar Nepal those common responsibilities. I have been trying my best to this end, and I hope to I am happy to note that our commitment to peace, democracy and development has have the full cooperation and support of all the major political parties in this regard. been fully recognized, respected and supported by our development partners and the international community including the United Nations. There has been a gradual improvement in the law and order situation in the country since the new Government came to power. With the willing support and cooperation With these views, I once again would like to convey my best wishes for a bright and of all segments of the people in our society, the Government is committed to bring prosperous days ahead. further improvement in the overall security situation in the country. I would like to reiterate here again that my government has given its top most priority in improving the law and order environment of the country and will make every effort towards I am in deep pain in hearing the news of people dying due to the outbreak of cholera and diarrhea diseases in some of the remote hilly districts of Mid-Western and Far Western regions. The Government is seriously engaged in providing emergency medical services and relief assistance to the people suffering. All the relevant Government agencies in those districts are being mobilized to help and support the affected people. I have already given strong instructions to the concerned officials to take all necessary measures to contain the disease and to make essential health and sanitation services available to them on a priority basis. With the understanding, support and cooperation of all including governmental and non-governmental agencies and individuals from both inside and outside the country, I am confident that we will be able to get over this problem soon. I would like to recognize here the roles that the Non Resident Nepali community has been playing in the nation building processes. The contribution through remittance, economic investment and other forms of cooperation that the NRN community has been providing has contributed greatly to our economy. The Government of Nepal is ready to provide conducive environment to further utilize the resources, knowledge and assistance of Non Resident Nepali towards social and economic development of Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 62nd Anniversary .…. ff ai rs Sujata Koirala Speech on the occasion of the 62nd Anniversary Function of the Nepal policy and the success of the overall national policy. Council of World Affairs - Sujata Koirala*
Moreover, the Government is keen to further develop mutually beneficial relations by promoting economic diplomacy through further expansion and strengthening of I am very pleased to attend the sixty-second anniversary of the Nepal Council of our diplomatic missions. In doing that, there will be closer coordination with World Affairs today. I thank the President and office bearers of the Council for relevant agencies and partnership with the private sector. In this day and age of kindly inviting me to attend the programme. As the Rt. Hon'ble Prime Minister is globalization, we must align our interests with the contemporary trends to the extent also going to speak on the same subject, I shall be brief in my presentation. possible and try to maximize benefits through collaboration and cooperation in all fields, development cooperation, trade, investment, tourism and foreign First of all, I wish to heartily congratulate the Council on to completion of its sixty-two years of existence since its founding. It has been led by those who have made notable contributions in our public lives. The Council has played an important In that overall context, maintaining excellent relations with the international role by arranging talk programmes, seminars and workshops on topical aspects of community and ensuring full support and cooperation to Nepal at the moment is Nepal's international relations, and brought out different publications in this regard. my immediate priority. This is more important as we move ahead towards institutionalizing peace and writing a democratic constitution on time. There is a Pursuing a policy of developing friendship and co-operation with all countries, and reservoir of goodwill in the international community to promote peace, and writing particularly our immediate neighbours, on the basis of five principles of peaceful a democratic constitution in community to promote peace, stability and co-existence, non-alignment, promotion of peace and stability, respect for human development in the country. I believe that ensuring sustainable peace in the country rights and abiding faith in the Charter and ideals of the United Nations are some of requires rapid economic progress and social transformation. They cannot be the fundamental tenets of our foreign policy. On this basis. Consolidation of pursued independently. This is where the international community should come relationship with neighbours, deepening and widening of relationship with all our forward with a higher level of assistance, support and understanding. If we look at development partners, and promotion of international principles reflected in the UN the overall progress in the peace process, we have made substantial achievements in Charter and regional cooperation constitute the core activity of the Foreign Ministry. the last 3 years since the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement. But we still Our effort has always been directed towards making foreign policy responsible and have a long way to go. This Government is committed to taking forward the peace responsive to the needs and aspirations of the Nepalese people. process towards its logical conclusion with broad cooperation and participation of all major parties through consensus, unity and dialogue. Nepal is proud that it has always maintained independence and sovereignty throughout history. While continuing that glorious legacy, our commitment would The Government will further strengthen its institutions including foreign policy be to enhance foreign relations and use them to bring a positive change in the lives establishment to make them even more effective and result-oriented in tune with the of the people. Therefore, there is a close inter-linkage between the conduct of foreign changing times. We are open to all constructive suggestions and feedback from our academics, intellectuals and experts in this direction. Ms. Koirala is Foreign Minister of Nepal. She delivered the speech on July 27, 2009 .

Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 62nd Anniversary .…. ff ai rs Sujata Koirala Finally, I wish the Nepal Council of World Affairs all success in its endeavours to enhance the understanding of Nepal's Foreign policy and international relations. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha Celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Nepal's Contribution to United assistance and support in our endeavours to institutionalise democracy and peace in Nations Peacekeeping Operation Nepal, and for the reconstruction and rebuilding of the nation. Promoting a broader - Sujata Koirala1
level of economic engagement with friendly countries would reinforce our efforts for stability and progress in the country on a sustainable basis. I am pleased to attend the concluding event of the Golden Jubilee celebration commemorating the involvement of Nepal in the UN peacekeeping operations. I Nepal is committed to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. The world thank the organisers for kindly inviting me to this programme as the chief guest and body today represents the hopes and aspirations of the people around the world. giving me an opportunity to interact with all of you on the contributions made by While we are appreciative of the progress we have collectively made in reducing the Nepal Army, the Nepal Police and the Armed Police Force in different parts of wars between states in the post -Cold War era, it is also true that today conflicts the world. Despite various constraints and obstacles, our security forces and within nations have become a common feature. The causes of the conflicts may be observers have won international acclaim for their exceptional services in this field. I different, but their negative impact has been detrimental to the lives of the people congratulate our security forces on this achievement and hope that they will and peace and security around the world. It is in this context that the role of the UN continue to play their exemplary role in the future. peacekeeping has been more prominent now than ever before. Besides, the nature of conflicts is now so varied that the mandates for the UN peacekeeping operations are At the outset, I am reminded of the pertinent address made by the then Prime also in a state of flux. To suit the changing realities of the conflicts around the world, Minister Girija Prasad Koirala to the Nepal Council of World Affairs last year for UN peacekeeping operations have evolved accordingly. revitalizing institutions that have a direct bearing on the formulation of foreign policy. It will be our endeavours to help develop institutions like the Nepal Council Nepal has been consistently participating in UN peacekeeping operations for a long of World Affairs and the Institute of Foreign Affairs as effective think-tanks in time. It is a matter of satisfaction to note that Nepal's contribution to international matters of fulfilling broader objectives of our foreign policy. peace and security through the UN peacekeeping has been well appreciated by all. Today we are the fifth largest contributor. It is also a reflection of our determination The fundamental aims and objectives of the foreign policy of a country are the to lend full support for the role of the United Nations in protecting the lives of the protection of its national interests, sovereignty and territorial integrity. The foreign people around the world. We hope that the gap between the strategic and policy of Nepal embraces basic tenets of the UN and non-alignment, and seeks to operational levels of the UN operations is bridged by providing proper mandate and promote peace and stability in our region and other parts of the world. The new sufficient human and financial resources to deal with various problems around the Government is committed to further promote foreign policy to advance our larger national interests. We seek to consolidate our mutually beneficial ties of friendship and co-operation with both our immediate neighbours, India and China, and all The new Government is effortful to take all possible measures to take the peace other friendly countries on the basis of mutual understanding, co-operation and process to its logical end and to draft the new Constitution within the stipulated respect. We thank our friends and international organisations for their invaluable timeframe. The new Constitution should not only meet the aspirations of the people following the successful completion of the historic Constituent Assembly elections Ms. Koirala is Foreign Minister of Nepal. She delivered the speech on June 10, 2009, Kathmandu and establishment of a truly pluralistic federal republican order in the country, it

Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha should also realistically reflect various aspects like state restructuring, inclusiveness, human rights and rule of law. At the same time, there is an urgent need to promote socio-economic development so as to raise the quality of life of our people and sustain the political gains particularly made after the second People's Movement. We are confident and conscious that we can achieve these goals through a spirit of broad national consensus, unity and joint efforts on the part of all political parties represented in the Constituent Assembly and the wider support from the international community would be crucial to promote this homegrown process. As the Minister for Foreign Affairs, I seek spontaneous support and cooperation from professionals, intellectuals, experts and all our friends in the common task of making our foreign policy more productive and result-oriented. Coming back to the central theme of international peacekeeping, I can assure you that the new Government will continue to give priority to our participation in these operations with a view to promoting peace and stability in various trouble spots in the world. With these words, I once again thank the organisers for arranging such a befitting programme to commemorate fifty years of our participation in the UN Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha Buddhist Light: Buddhism and Sino-Nepal Cultural Linkage
Common Culture. The ethnic groups residing in the Himalayan region are taken as - Prof.Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha1
ancestors of ethnic communities of both the countries. Nepal has inhabited by the aboriginal ethnic communities of Mongolian origin such as the Kirats. The Newars Abstract
derive their origin from one of the ethnic tribes known as Nerbung. The Tamang Mount Everest remains as the symbol of Nepal-China cultural relationship. The Himalayan trace their origin from the horse riders of Mongolian tribe. In the same way the mountain being the home of early man the relationship of the two countries continued from Lepchas, the Gurungs and the Magars are of the Mongolian origin. prehistoric, proto historic and historic period, Nepal's relation with her southern neighbor is deep rooted because many ethnic communities of Nepal are of Mongolian origin and the Tradition mentions that in the Pleistocene age, northern India constituted of a big Nepal-China relationship has become cordial with the exchange of presents like lake which consisted of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh of present India. As it drained Gunakaranda Vyuha Sutra (third century A.D) which deals with Buddhisattva Charya.
gradually, it was confined to Nagadaha in the primordial period2. The tie of friendship between the two countries started from the beginning of the 1st century A.D. Buddhist scriptures were translated into the Chinese language. The tangible and Manjushree Mythology
intangible cultural heritage facilitated the exchange of scholars of both countries facilitated Early Nepal-China relations are shrouded in legends. Mahamanjushree of the development of relations. The skilled craftsmen enriched the art, architecture and Manjudevacharya came from Maha-Chian (Greater China) Wutaishan (Five peacked sculpture of the two countries and promoted common culture known as Budhisattvayana
mountain) of China to pay homage to primordial light known as Svayambhu. He is which developed Mahayana and propmoted common culture known as meaning of
credited for draining the water of Nagadaha and made Kathmandu Valley inhabitable. Panchaseel promoted diplomatic relation in keeping with the principle of equality,
He is referred to have performed Jalaslambhavayoga and cut Kutpala Paracata (gorge non-interference in the interval affairs of each others country and respect of sovereignty. The of southern hill known as Kutapala Parvata). Then water began to flow out of the mission of diplomatic relationship fostered pure land Buddhism. The Buddha light or Buddha Valley. Tradition mentions that Manjudevacharya, Mahamanjushreee established way of life or pure land Buddhism of China is entertained by both the countries. Manjupatan city. It appeared like Herukamandala. Mandala is conceived as the basis of Key Words: Buddhisattva Charya, Budhisattvayana Mahayana, Vajrayana, Panchaseel,
my auspicious work. Svayambhu Purana refers that it appeared as Mahasamvara Gunakaranda Vyuiha Sutra. Mandala, Chakrasamvara mandala, and Hevajra Nairatma Mandala. According to the Buddhist tradition of Nepal, Vajracharayas and Shakyas Practice Samdhiyoga in 24 important religious shrines known as Purvasewa or Pithaseva. They are in three circles Nepal and China have been nourishing the age old cultural tradition since time namely Chakracitta (Consciousness), Chakravaka (Speech), and Chakrakaya (body). All immemorial. Mount Everest (Chomlongma) remains as the testimony of friendship the three circles are called Cittamandala, Vakamandala and Kayamandala. The three between the two countries. The Himalayan Mountain is regarded as the house of circles and twenty four Pithas (religious shrines) of Nepal Mandala and Chakrasamvara early men (homonids), ape men by anthropologists. Civilization dawned in this part Mandala are identical. Thus Nepal Mandala is conceived on the basis of Chkrasamvara of the globe since prehistoric and historic periods. Both the countries fostered Prof. Dr. Shrestha is Registrar, Lumbini Buddha University. He addressed the Council on November Yanjnamanpati Vajracharya "Preface" Svayambhu Mahapurana by Badri Ratna Vajracharya Kathmandu; Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha Mandala.3 Gradully it spread to all parts of China.8 Theravada (Buddhism of the Theras or elder Bhiskshus) was preached in the Pali language. Mahayana which is better known The Gyanesara inscription of Jayadeva II of Lichhavi period later mentioned as Nepal as Bodhisattvayana in preserved in Sanskrit language. Theravada Buddhism has its Mandala4 in historical period. Nepal was famous as Nepal Mandala from ancient time. base in Sri Lanka. The Buddhist scriptures are said to have been written in Pali in the Mandala is the base of worship. The center of Mandala is surrounded by circles based 1st century A.D. In the introduction of Bodhicharyavatara Watulawasava, Vajra on religious and cultural traditions. The capital is the central point of a country Rinpdee (Sridhar Rana) writes that Buddha preached his teachings in Mogadhi, Pali known as Mandala, surrounded by territories or provinces. Nepal Mandala was the while in Magadha and also preached his doctrine in other parts of northern India in capital surrounded by different territories of Provinces.5 The Mythology indicates Sanskrit. Therefore, Pali Buddhism in known as Southern Buddhism and Sanskrit that the first immigration in the Kathmandu Valley was from the north.6 Relations Buddhism as Northern Buddhism. Mahayana in also known as Agrayara, between Nepal and China have a long history besides mythological illusion. Scholars write that Sino-Nepal relation existed from ancient times on the basis of According to Sridhar Rana, Mahayana is the continuation of Bodhisttvayanba and religion and trade. Mostly the trade with Tibet was carried out through the Vaitulyavada, which are apparent in Pali Tripitaka. Vaitulyavada was certainly in Kathmandu Valley. Nepalis have significant by contributed in the spread of existence before the third Buddhist Council was held in the time of Emperor Ashoka Buddhism in the Himalayan region. In the same way the Tibetan monks have (243 B.C.) in the third century.10 prominent roles in the revival of Buddhism in Nepal.7 It is mentioned that around the first century A.D., Buddhism was introduced in China in the Han Empire. Faith on Mahayana / Bodhisattvayana
Mahayana in the form of Bodhisattvayana was very popular in Nepal. It is attested by the icon of Budhisattva found in Lumbini excavation and Hadigaon. The nine texts Manish Shakya, "The Concept opf Nepal Mandala," lalitpur; Buddha Jayanbti golden Jubilee of Mahayana are very popular in Nepal. These texts were taken to Tibet and from Souvenir, 2006 A.D. p.p.126-128. cf. Naresh Man Bajracharya "Buddhism in Nepal Mandala. A there to China and translated into Chinese. Most of these texts were taken to China Conference on the Buddhist Heritage of Nepal Mandala" 1998, Lalitpur; Lotus Research Center 1998) via Gilgit (Central Asia). The nine Sutras included are listed below. Dhana Vajra Vajracharya, Lichhavi Kalka Abhilekh ( Inscription of Lichhavi Period) Kathmandu; Center a) Lalitcistara Sutra, 3rd Century B.C, translated into Chinese in 221 A.D. for Nepal and Asian Studies, 1996 AD. pp. 57-76 b) Saddharma Pundarika Sutra, translated into Chinese in 225 A.D. T.R. Vaidya, "Nepal Mandala" Unpublished article. Suvarna Prabhas Sutra, translated into Chinese in 297-439 A.D. Vijaya Kumar Manandhar. A Comprehensive History of Nepal China Relations Upto 1955 AD, "New d) Samdhiraj Sutra, its original form was Chandra Prabhadeep Sutra. Its was Delhi" Adroit Publishers, 2004 AD p.18 Punya Prasad Prajuli "Nepal Ra Tibet Bichki Dharmik Antersambandha" (Religious interrelation Manandhar f.n. No 5 p.18. between Nepal and Tibet) Kathmandu; 1991 p.91 cf. Dudjom Rinpoche, "The Nyingma School of Acharya Dharma Vajra, Trans. Narayan Prasad Rijal "Upodghat" (Introduction) Boudhicharyavatara Tibetan Buddhism, First Fundamentals and History" History of Ancient Sect published in Tibetan Kath; Siddhi Bdr& Rukmani Shrestha, 2000 AD pp. 44-45. 10 Bodhicharyavatra Kath; Siddhi Bdr & Rukmani Shrestha, 2000 AD pp. 44-45 Ibid, p44. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha translated into Chinese in 450 A.D. has incorporated the ideas of Adi Buddha or primordial Buddha. The first translation e) Lankavatara Sutra which explains the term Tathagata Carbha, Alayavijnana of Guna Karanda Vyuha Sutra was done by Thonmi Sambhota during the period of Cittamatra, was Translated into Chinese in 443 A.D. Srong-tsan-Gampo (617-650 A.D.).13 The theme of both the Sutras is the compassion Gandhavyaha Sutra- A part of Avastamsaka Sutra, translated into Chinese in of Avalokitesvatra. The availability of the icons of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvatra in the 1st century A.D. and currency of Mahayana Buddhism during that period shows the g) Dasa Bhumika Sutra. currency of Bodhisattvayana in both the countries. It set a bench mark on the relation h) Asta Sahashrika Prajnaparanita Sutra. -100 B.C. was translated into Chinese in between Nepal and China.14 Tathagataguhyaka Sutra. Better known as Guhyasamaj Tantra. The Legend of Simha Sarthabaha
It was translated into Chinese in 930-1000 A.D.11 When the Mahayana Sutras were The legand of Simha Sarthabaha is very popular in Nepal. Its story is related with the introduced into China by the missionaries of India and Central Asia, it was already compassion of Avalokitesvatra. The theme shows that Avalokitesvatra appeared in regarded as the authentic words of Lord Buddha. But there are some controversies the form of light and prophesized that the fairies who accompanied him (Simha Sarthabaha) from Tamradeepa (Tibet) to simhakalpa (Kathmandu) belonged to Rakshasas. Chapter fifteen of Gunakarnada Vyuha Sutra mentions that the 4740 verses Popularity of Avalokitesvara Cult
of the text are related with the narratives of Shakyamuni Buddha's previous It is stated that Guna Karanada Vyuha Sutra was written around the 1st century A.D. to existence as Simhala or Simha Sarthabaha. popularize Dana Paramita of Panchadana. Tibetan historian Butom Rinpodhe writes- "During the time of Lhatho Thori New yambula Nhamkhangko (233 A.D.), Guna Chorten of Bhakar
Karamda Vyuha Sutra was sent to Tibet as a present from Nepal Mandala.12 During It is said that a big Chorten (Chaitya) still exists of Bhakar in Lhasa dedicated to that time Panchadana festival had started in Nepal Mandala. Gunakaranda Vyuha Sutra Simha Sarthabaha. It is stated that the Chorten was vandalized during the Cultural is one of several Mahaayana Sutras published in prose as well as Verse (1600 Verses) It Revolution of 1966 A.D.15 It is also said that Jhyampaling, Chaitya was constructed in was published in 187 A.D. in Calcutta. It was edited by Satyavarta Samasrami. Ratna the memory of Simha Sarthabaha (Chhod-Pung-Narbu-Ge) during the time of Tibets Karanda Vyuha Sutra was translated into Chinese in the 3rd century A.D. including King Dwong-Glde (1059-1108 A.D).16 The Jhyampaling Chaitya existed as the symbol some parts of Guna Karnda Vyuha Sutra. The entire chapters of the text do not belong to the same period (3rd century A.D.). Only Ratna Karanda Vyuha Sutra is the 13 Min Bahadur Shakya, Guna Karanda Vyuha Sutra Lalitpur; Nagarjuna Institute of Buddhist Studies collection of all teachings of the philanthropic activities of Avalokitesvatra. The text 1997 A.D. pp. 26-27. 14 Mahisvara Raj Vajrachary, Mahayana Buddha Dharmko Udbhava (Origion of Mahayana Buddhism) 11 Min Bahadur Shakya, "Introduction" Nava Sutra Sangraha by Dibya Vajra Vajracharya, Nava Sutra Lalitpur; Nepal Buddha Mahasangh, 2005 A.d. p 57. Sangralia Lalitpur; Bodhi Prakashan Kendon, 1990 A.D. pp. 22-36 15 Shakya f.n. No.9, pp 26-27. 12 Harsa Muni Shakya, "Buddha Dharma Ko Vikasha Ma Shakya Haru Ko Den" (contribution of the 16 Harsha Muni Shakya, "Nepal Ra China Bichko Maitriko Pratik Jhyampaling Ko Vishal Chaitya" (The shakyas in the development of Buddhism) Kathmandu; the Shakya Foundatio, Nepal, 2006 A.D. Great Chaitya of Jhyamaling, The symbol of Nepal China Friendship), Buddha Dhama Ko Vikasama Shakyaharuko Den (Contribution of Shakyas in the Development of Buddhism Kathmandu; The Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha of Nepal-China relationship. In the Jhyampaling Gumha (monastery), the image of where Chitiso Gumba is located. It was made by the Nepali traders. There is an Boddhisattava Maitreya is placed. The Tibetans call Boddhisattava as Gylba Jhyampaling. image of Mahankal in Chitiso village. The Nepali traders offer Samayebaji20 to It is a sacred place. A great fair is held over there. On the Ground floor, there is an Mahankal. They invite their relatives to that feast. After the celebration, they return image of Samvar in the from of buffalo. On the second floor Karunamaya with six to their shops. According to the census of the office of Nepal Envoy conducted in hands is embellished. It is a 20 feet long image. In this floor, the picture narratives of 1974 there are 284 Nepali traders in 142 houses in Chitiso, Tanang and Gyaling Shakyamuni Buddha's career is depicted. The pictures included the concepts of vfillages in Tibet. Tibet is known as country of one months walk from Kathmandu. Prajnaparamita and Mandalas. The floor contains cupboards full of holy sculptures. The Buddhist holy scriptures are Written with the ink of gold and silver. Under the Sakari Chorten (Ratna Chaitya)
cupboards different Mandaps are embellished. The temple's height is eight stories. It Sakari Chorten or Ratna Chaitya inscription in mutilated form shows that the Chorten is not less than 20 feet height. Inside the Gumba is the statue of Simla Sarthabaha. All was made by the Newar traders inhabiting in Sigachhen or Jhikhachhen (ten house these artifacts are the creations of Nepali artists.17 in Nepal Bhasa) or Digarcha. Initially there were only ten houses of Newars. Ratna Chaitya is located in a place called "Tacho" near Sambasyar River. The Chaitya was Jyampaling Chaitya (Digarcha) and its Trade Fair
constructed by Koliyan Shakyas of south Kaliyagram(ancient name of southern part of In the Jyampaling Chaitya about 60 to 70 Buddhist monks live. Jyampaling is of four Kathmandu) in the seventh century.21 The sigachhen Chorten located to the east of days walk from Lhasa. It is on the other side of Sangpo River (River Brahamaputra). Sigachhe Bazar in the middle part of Chhangpongdi (Brahma Putra River) is similar In this way lies Chiteso. A great trade fair is conducted in Jyampaling. The Amdus of with the Stupa of Patan. The Tibetans call it "Sakari Chhuten". Newars calls it Ratna Siling, (the Capital of Chhicuhai) the Khasmpas of Khan, the Bhoyebas of Lhasa, Chaitya. Chorten is constructed with the relics of a great man or religious saint. It the Chyangbas of Sikatse, the Kongs from the side of Assam, the Sakories of inner commemorates the heroic deeds of mortal beings, The Ratna Chaitya remains as a Mongolia come to take part in the fair. Nabu18, the popular commodity of trade, symbol of veneration for the people of both China and Nepal. It is another milestone golden and copper inks are cultural goods. The Jyampaling fair is held once a year. of (Anthropomorphize) the Buddhist saints. Generally the people of both the In the fair it is stated that the chief trader Simha Sarthavana is commemorated. Up countries venerate Saptamunis, seven buddhas Vipasvi, Shikhi, Vishwabhu, Kashyap, till now the rituals conducted by Nepali traders are observed over there.19 There are Krakuchhanda, Kanakmuni and Shakyamuni. The Stupa of Bauddhanath is said to 60 to 70 shamanist Buddhist monks in Jyampaling Chaitya. have been constructed keeping the relics of Kashyap Buddha is Garbhagriha, Svayambhu Mahachaitya consists of the relics of Vipasvi Buddha and Namobuddha Chitiso Gumba
with the relics of prince Mahasattva (erlier existence of Shakyamuni Buddha in his After the conclusion of Jyampaling fair, the traders of Lhasa live in Chitoso village, previous birth as Bodhisattva) aimed at compassion to all. The Buddha made his teachings to do away with Avidya (Spiritual ignorance), with the light of wisdom, Shakya Foundation, 2063 V.S. P.1. 20 Samayabaji is a Nepali dish offered to non-vegetable deity. It includes flat rise or bitten rise, fried flat 18 Nobu is a cloth woven out of thick and fine wool. The cloth is very durable. It is very popular cloth rice, meat, soybean, fish, ginger and wo or bara, bread made of black pulse or bean: Shakya f.n. No. p. in different states of China and Unner Mongoha. The art of its weaving is of Nepali origin. 19 Shakya, f.n. No. 13, pp2-3. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha knowledge of Four Noble Truth, Eightfold Noble Path, and the Dependent Buddhism was introduced in his country with the introduction of Guna Karanada Origination (Pratitya Samutpad). These are truly the light of the Buddha. Vyuha Sutra and a golden Chaitya as holy cultural present from Nepal. Antiques-
Thirty two shops of Sigachhen:
Several antique reminds us the deep relationship that existed between the people of As mentioned above Jhikhachhen in Nepal Bhasa means ten houses, Sigachhen in the two countries. The tympanum of the main door of Ratna Chaitya dated 960 NS Tibeten language, popular name in Nepali Digrcha. In the seventeenth century, (1840 A.D.) was renovated by Shakya Bhikshu Rajmuni of Kiritpunya Mahavihara during the time of Pratap Malla there were thirty two shops and ten Palas Lagan, Kathmandu. The traders of Sigachhen pay homage and consecrate the (Community organizations organized for common interest). Among them, five Palas Chaitya once a year.22 are there at present according to the Nepali Envoy's statistics. The names of the shops of traders of Sigachhen are as follows. Phawa Gumba of Kerung of Phagpa Buddhist Vihara
Thaya Chhong Khang Merchants of Sankhu Buddhist tradition believes that princes Bhrikuti of Nepal while going to Lhasa had Shiling Chhong Khang Merchants of Om Bahal ,Kathmandu passed Via Kidhog (Kerung) in Monguel province. She had taken shelter in Pangsing Tyakastu Chhong Khang Merchants of Naghal Tole, Kathmandu village made by Yarung Bhapo (Newars of Patan). The Bhikshus of Phagpa Buddhist Chhamshhang Chhong Khang Merchants of Naghal Tole, Ktm. Vihara and many elder citizens of Monguel province believe that Avalokitesvara Yola Chhong Chhong Khang Merchants of Lagan Tole, Ktm. Karunamaya's image taken by Bhrikuti was installed there. The Vihara is known as Mukhangsar Chhong Khang Merchants of Itumbahal, Ktm. Cherisi Chungla Khang or Phagpa Gumba. Later Buddhist scholar Khhemendra wrote Syu Shhad Chhong Khang Merchants of Onta Bahal (Lagan) that an image of Avadanakalpalata was in the Gumba. The image was made of Merchants of Koliti Tole Astadhatu (eight kinds of metals). To the east of the Gumha an inscription existed (no Atusomagy Chong Khang Merchants of Nabahil, Katm. longer exists now). It mentions the account of Bhrikuti's journey and names of (Pala the Supporting Committee of the community) Nepali craftsmen who built the Gumba.23 The Phagpa of Kerung also ordained the 10. Nebu Chhod Khang Merchants of Nabahil Buddhist monks of Nepal, the Buddhists of Tibet and their Nepali counterparts 11. Chwang Khang Chhong Khang Merchants Sarunani, Patan. venerate the four Avalokitesvaras of Nepal and Kerung. There are Avalokitesvaras of 12. Jandu Chhong Khang Mmerchants Sarunani Janabahal, Bungmati, Nala and Kerong. 13. Nesi Chhong Khang Merchants of Tahabil 14. Dhinchyo Chhong Khang Merchants of Nag Bahal Introduction of Buddhism in Tibet.
15. Gyachho Chhong Khang Merchants of Nag Bahal24 Tradition mentions that Aa-thi-Chyampo was the first king of Tibet. His sixth successor was Logu-la-chyanda. During the time of King Lha-tho-Tho-ri Chyang. Nechoo Gumba
Under the bottom of the hill to the eastern side of the compound of Dhepung Gumba, 23 Harsa Muni Shakya "Bhot Ra Nepal Bichko Dharmik Sambandha" (Relation between Nepal and 24 Harsha Muni Shakya, "Buddha Dharmako Vikar ma Shakyaharuko den (Contribution of Shakyas in the Tibet) Lalitpur; Buddha Jayanti Golden Jubilee Souvenir- 2606 A.D. pp.35. promotion of Buddhism) Kathmandu; The Shakya foundation Nepal, 2006 A.D. p.35. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha a big Nechoo Gumba is located. Near the Gumba there is a pipal tree. It is stated that Fahie 406 A.D., Chi-Meng (Chinese monk) 424 A.D., and Hiuen Tsang (629 A.D) on the branch of the Pipal tree, there is an image of a pigeon. It is a popular belief visited Lumbini and Kapilvastu.27 that the pigeon flew from Nepal. This Gumba with golden roof includes the image of Bhimsen. The Bhikshus worship this Gumba. About 500 Buddhist Bhikshu live in this Buddha Bhadra and Advaya Vajra's contribution to China in the translation of Gumba. In the famous Gumbas of Lhasa the great Dhamis (Shamanists) live . There Buddhist scriptures and texts indicates the close relationship of the scholars in the are many such Gumbas in Lhasa. The Nechoo Gumba is the most embellished one. Newars living in Tibet pay homage to Bhimsen every day at Muratimba Gumba of Bhakar for successful transition of their trade. They established the image of The seventh century A.D constituted a watershed in Nepal-Tibet relations.28 The Bhimsen at their shops too. The Bhimsen of Tibet is said to be Dharmapal, conceived matrimonial relationship between Nepal and Tibet cemented the bilateral by Padmasambhava. Every year the Jyapus of Subahal Bhimsensthan go to Tibet as relationship. Princess Bhrikuti had taken Acharya Sheel Manju and images of per tradition maintained by their ancestors. The elders of 10 Palas (business Akshobya, Tara and Buddhist tests to Jokhang Bahi of Lhasa. Sheel Manju, the great community) and merchants of 32 shops welcome them. The domicile Nepalis of scholar of Nepal contributed a lot in the awakening of Tibet with Buddha teaching. Lhasa go to welcome them. They offer golden Kikimpa ( Silver Leaf) to Bhimsen raising funds. A great feast is organized on the arrival of Bhimsen. It shows that the Frequent Visits of Chinese Monks to Nepal
Jyapus worked as porters in the trade with Lhasa. It shows the interactions between The frequent visits of the Chinese monks and some Korean monks shed Buddhist the two countries and it thus constitutes people to people relations.25 light in the Nepal-China relationsip. Hsuan Chao entered Nepal in 654 A.D. Chinese princess Wen-Ching financially helped him for his journey. The Chinese envoy Wang Pligrimage to Lumbini: The Birthplace of Lord Buddha
Hsuen-tse met him in India. On their way back they arrived in Nepal where the The Buddhist holy Sutras mention that the Buddist got merit in making pilgrimage Nepali ruler helped Hsuan Chao to proceed towards Tibet.29 Tao-fang came to to Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha. Lumbini was regarded as the most holy Nepal settled in a Vihara in the Kathmandu Valley around 650-655 A.D. Mathsimha pilgrimage shrine. To refer Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Lord Buddha had described of Shih-hui went to India with the monk Pieu to study sanskrit. Hsuan-hui came to Lumbini as a place with contemplative virtue. He has advised all his faithful Nepal on his way back from China. Wu-kung, a Chinese monk visited Lumbini in followers and deveotees to visit Lumbini from the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. 764 A.D. in the Tang period. Lumbini remained the holiest of all holy sites among Chaturamahasthanani (four pilgrimage sites)26. It is attested by the archaeological remains of Lumbini Nativity Nepali Monks Visit to China
Site. Lumbini was inscribed in the World Heritage sites of UNESCO in 1997 A.D. The Vimoksasena and Subhakarashimha went to China in the sixth and eight centuries Chinese Yuch Chih monk of the Tri Dynasty (256-420 A.D.), Seng-Tsai (265-420 A.D.), respectively. They translated Buddhist texts into Chinese. Vimoksasena was a 25 Harsha Muni Shakya, "Bhoat Ra Nepal Bichko Dharmik Sambandha," (Religions relations between Tiber 27 Manandhar f.n. No. 5 pp. 19-21. and Nepal) lalitpur; Buddha Jayanti Golden Jubilee Souvenir, 2006 A.D. p.33. 28 Prem Raman Upreti, Nepal-Tibet Relations, 1850-1930. Kathmandu;Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1998 A.D. 26 Babu Krishna Rijal, "Archaeological Activities in Lumbini 1975-77" Kathmandu, Department of Archaeology, Ancient Nepal No. 30-39, 1975 A.D. p.38. 29 Manandhar, f.n. No. 5, p. 44. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha Shakyan prince of Kapilvastu, Nepal. He went to China with Gautam Prajnaruchi, a The Siddhas, Preachers and Vajracharya Gurus Maintained Cultural and
Buddhist scholar of Banaras in 516 A.D. He translated a number of Buddhist texts Intellectual Hot Line.
into Chinese. Subhakara Simha, a son of the royalty of the Shakya family of Nepal claimed descent from King Amrotodana, the uncle of the Buddha. He studied in the The Siddha, the Preacher and Vajracharya Gurus maintained cultural and Buddhist Univesity of Nalanda. He went to China with a large collection of Sanskrit intellectual hot line between the two countries. The Siddhas and preachers from (8th manuscripts and presented to Chinese Emperor Huuan-tsuang. He translated to 14th centuries) maintained a cultural hot line between Nepal and China, via the Mahavairochana Sutra. He was a teacher of Itsing (683-727 A.D.)30 present Tibetan autonomous region. In the early medieval period many Viharas were constructed in Nepal. Nepali traders greatly benefited by the trade with her Agrahara (land tax) Allocated for Sending the Porters to Tibet
southern neighbor. As a result, many Viharas were constructed in ancient and early To quote the inscription of Shiva Deva II of Lagan Tole, five porters were sent to medieval periods. During the time of Narendradeva 21 Viharas were constructed in Tibet with the expense of government revenue every year. It is known as Bhotga the South Koliyagram (lowerpart of downtown Kathmandu). Many Viharas Visit: (tax on land as levy by government). The inscription dated 119 N.S. (999 A.D) emerged in the Kathmandu Vally. Nepal served as a training ground for interaction makes provision of allocating land tax for facilitating trade with Tibet every year.31 between the scholars of India and Tibet. The Tibetan scholars learnt Sanskrit in Towards the end of the 10th century, Nepal's trade with Tibet flourished. The Nepal before going to India. The Indian scholars also got accustomed in the commodities constituted of cultural goods. It has already been discussed earlier Himalayan region of Nepal before going to Tibet. Before going to Tibet, Padma that the trades of Kirti Punya Mahavihara of Lagan Tole and other Vihars of Dakshin Sambhava lived in Pharping grotto for six years and practiced Vajrakila Sadhana Koliyagram were involved in trade with Tibet. The traders and craftsman of Nepal (austere practices). Dipankara Shree Jnana Atisha lived in Bikram Sheel Mahavihara were skilled in metal crafts. It is also clear from the accounts of Christian missions. at Thamel. During the Licchavi period (1st to 9th Century) Leela Vajra (741 A.D.), one The income of the trade with Tibet was spent to make Vihars and temples. Besides of the eight four Siddhas, initiated Namasagiti (text relating to Pancha Buddha and this, the venerable Lamas of Tibet had made different temples and Vihars in the Vajra Sattava). He was one of the teachers of Virkramasheela Mahavihara at Nalanda religious sites. It had strengthened friendly relations with Tibet. Moreover, the University. He made Sikhomu Vihara of Kathmandu. Marpadopa was the disciple of religious rites and rituals were performed by Lammas and Vajracharayas in each Vagisvara and Kanakshree, brother of Phamthinpa. Tibetan scholar Marpa was other's country. Svayambhu (Sansgun-holy place ) Mahabaudha, Namobudha are initiated in Ratnakara Mahavihara of Gabahal, Patan. Rwa Vajrakiriti, rival of Marpa equally sacred and powerful shrines to all Buddhist of this region. These shrines are had education from Guru Bhro (Vajra Bhairu Acharya).32 Many Tibetan scholars taken as the centres of pilgrimage. To give a cursory glance at the inter-cultural came to learn Sanskrit with Nepali Vajracharyas. Dharma swami's (1197-1264 A.D.) relationship between Nepaland the autonomous region of Tibet, and China it is accounts of Nepal are taken as accounts of Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang, Fahien, obvious that the cultural relationships between them was promoted for centuries. and Itsing. His account of the festival of Matsyendra Nath is an eye witness account of the 13th country. 30 Ibid f.n. No, 5 p.p. 44-48. 31 Dhana Vajra Vajracharya; Licchavi Kalka Abilekh (Inscription of Licchivi Period) Kathamandu; 32 K.M. Shrestha, History of Buddhism in Nepal with Special reference of Vajrayana Buddhism, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, 1990 A.D. pp.514-518. Kathmandu; Kamala Devi Shrestha, 2008 A.D. p.p. 217-220. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha Arniko's Contribution for the Promotion of Buddhism in China
(N.S.507)36 during the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), which succeeded During the 13th century, Phagpa, the monk of Sakya monastry of Tibet was the Guru the Mongols managed to establish diplomatic relations with Nepal. The Ming (Teacher) of Mangol Emperor Kublai Khan of China. During that time, Nepal was Emperor Hung Wu had deputed a Buddhist monk Tung-lo (1318-1391 A.D) with the centre of interaction between the countries of South East Asia in Buddhism.33 his embassy of 30 people. 37 In 1390 A.D. (510 N.S), the envoy attended an The craftsmen and the artists of Nepal commanded respect in Tibet by their art inauguration ceremony of Taitravar Mahavihara at Kavre Palanchowk where works. Emperor Kublai Khan had made Arniko, a prominent figure in his court. Vajrasana Bhattarak was installed by Jaitra Laxmi, spouse of madana Sima Ram Arniko influenced the life and culture of monks in Wu-tai-shan of China. To quote P. Vardhana, brother of Jaya Simha Ram Vardhana. Jaya Simha Ram Vardhana London, there is still a structure remotely resembling Boudhnath and welcomed the Chinese mission led by Bhikshu Tunglo or Zhiguan. Since then Nepal Svyambhunath at Wu-tai-shan. Manjushree is the guardian deity of China, and had diplomatic relations with China. 38 Tirtha Prasad Mishra writes-" Nepal Arniko had influenced the Chinese Emperor by his masterpiece art works. Arniko dispatched altogether eighteen quinquennial mission to China in between 1792 to first influenced the Phagspa by making a golden pagoda in the Sakya monastery. It 1906 A.D.39. On 1st August 1955, Nepal and China established diplomatic relations. was on the recommendation of Phagpa, the spiritual teacher of the Emperor, Arniko The basic principle of bilateral ties was based on Panchasheel. The Panchasheel was invited to China. He established his credibility there by making a White Pagoda or Stupa, within two years, the Emperor was highly impressed by his skills in metal casting. He repaired many icons in Beijing and his paintings excelled. He left an a) Respect to each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity. imprint of Nepali Buddhist art over there.34 b) Non-aggression. Non-interference in each other's internal affairs economically, politically Suspension of Sino-Nepal Relationship
and ideologically. Vijay Kumar Manandhar writes-"The collapse of the Tang dynasty at the beginning d) Equality and mutual benefit and of the 10th century led to the suspension of Nepal-China relations for about two e) Peaceful co-existence.40 hundred years".35 In 1956 Tanka Prasad Acharya, the then Prime Minister of Nepal visited China. An extract of the annals of Ming gives an account of Nepal-China relationship in the During that time diplomatic relations with China had been renewed. The Buddha 14th century. The rulers of Rama Vardhana family of palanchowk took the title of light thus has strengthened the tie of friendship in cultural prospective. Wang (King) from Yanglo, the Emperor of China. The Chinse Mission, in 1387, 36 Shrestha, f.n. No 31 p.281. 33 Shrestha, f.n. No 31 p.255. 34 Harsha Muni Shakya, "Bharat Ra Nepal Bichko Dharmik Sambandha," (Religions relations between 38 Shakya f.n. No, 23. p. 24. Tiber and Nepal) lalitpur; Buddha Jayanti Golden Jubilee Souvenir, 2006 A.D. p.33.Manandar f.n. No. 39 Tirtha Prasad Mishra; "Nepal's Quinquenial Mission to China" Kathmandu; 1986 A.D. p.p76-78. 40 Hiranya Lal Shrestha, "Political Aspect of Nepal China Relations" Nischal N. Pandey ed. Nepal-China 35 Manandhar, f.n. No, 5 p.50. Relations. Kathmandu; Institute of Foreign Affairs, 2005 A.D. pp.1-2.

Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Golden Jubilee of .…. rs Rajeev Kunwar Conclusion
The Nepal-China relationship is based in the principle of Panchasheel (five principles). The Buddha preached Panchasheel to his followers. The teachings of Buddha highlight moral and spiritual aims of sentient beings. The Panchasheel principle envisaged in the diplomatic relations between Nepal-China relations is based on spiritual and ethical and political principles. The monks, nuns and laities take vows of Panchasheel in the beginning of any religious ceremony. The First World Buddhist Summit held in Lumbini in 1998 A.D. (2055V.S) has recommended that Lumbini be developed as a Foundation of World Peace and Lord Buddha be taken as an Apostle of Peace and Lumbini Buddha University be promoted as Centre of Intellectual Interaction among the Buddhist scholars of the world . The Chinese monastery constructed in the monastic Zone of Lumbini is fostering Bodhicitta (Buddha way of life or awakened mind). Pure land Buddhism has been the main motto of Chinese Buddhism which aims at welfare of all sentient beings of the world. China which remained as the Celestial Empire in the remote past has developed spiritualism, which illuminates the minds of all. Nepal appreciates that the Buddha light has strengthened the ties of relationship between Nepal and China. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar Nepal: A Bovine in between Elephant and Dragon
The daunting task in post-political transformation in the least developed country - Rajeev Kunwar like Nepal is to buttress the ideas underpinning the solid foundations of liberal democracy. It requires an appropriate sequel to the political reform in the country Metaphorically contemporary India and China with their politico-economic which is an economic advancement of its inhabitants who are in pursuit of peace, structural strengths and weaknesses can be depicted as a rising elephant and a happiness and prosperity. Nepal is fortunately surrounded by two Asian Gullivers soaring dragon respectively. Nepal's national animal is a cow, and by nature this who are persistently in the quest of socio-economic development and the status of bovine is slow-moving, dull, docile, placid and gullible. Foreign powers take no major power in international relations in the 21st century to be reckoned with. Their chance in to press the udder to milch the cow, and once a hermit kingdom before mutual density of interactions in the post-Cold war era underlines civilisational 1950s has in the new millennium embraced a political nomenclature or identity in interdependencies in finding the conceptions of contemporary state, society and most cases similar to India. international relations in Asian perspectives. Despite their differences in ideological moorings - Marxism with Chinese characteristics and social democracy with Nepal is a classical case of small state in Asia which is sandwiched between two admixture of liberalism and idealism in the Indian context, both colossi are duly mega-states or major powers of the 21st century – India and China. As an idea of nurtured in the political thought of the Occident. It is difficult to extricate from transit state had been floated in 2005 by the Royal régime, Nepal could reap benefits universal values espoused by two different schools of thought in their internal from economic prosperity of India and China, their growing rapprochement, and dimension of the political systems. geo-economic regionalism which have now outmoded the old balance of power concept. However the cautious optimism will be in the air about the outlook of two In its external dimension, the political treatises of Kautilya (Arthashastra) and Sun Asian powers with their legacy of political history – the one being freed from the Tzu (The Art of War) germinated realist perspectives before Machiavelli (The Prince), colonial rule, and the other being the resurgent one party communist state Alberico Gentili {De Jure Belli (1598)} and Clausewitz delved into statecraft, the laws transformed from the republican system by ending the effete (Qing) dynastic rule. of war and strategies of war and peace. The rich culture and diversity in their social Their common objective is to ameliorate living standard of their inhabitants which set-up fields many formidable questions to reduce the emerging region purely into comprise 1/3rd of humanity. the balance of power prismatic form whereby extra regional powers like the US, Russia and Europe form alliances with them suiting their national interest. Amidst the ‘rising India' and ‘peaceful rise' of China how Nepal can carve out its Nonetheless, the simplistic containment theory can be debunked, and as its niche in maintaining good neighbourly relations with both not even thinking of repercussions in geopolitics in the history felt like ripples in neighbouring countries. playing the games of using one against the other, maintaining harmony, solidarity However, the immanent nature of Asian countries and ironically their people to and peace in Asia and reducing poverty to extirpate allied pernicious political and mutually recognize their esteem and to live with peaceful-coexistence defies any socio-economic ills. major outbreak of inter-state war among them. Except some theatres became conflict prone thrusted by quasi-imperial and extra-regional interests such as Afghanistan, Mr. Kunwar, a First Class First Rank holder in Politics and International Relations from India, is Adjunct the Middle East, India-Pakistan, Indo-China region (Vietnam) and Korean peninsula Professor of Political Theory at the Kathmandu School of Law. in the post-war world of 20th century. It continues to dissuade forging ties based on mutual trust and friendship. The future of Asia lies in reducing mutual suspicion Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar among its countries and establishment of a just and egalitarian society based on suicidal rates among farmers are very high. After neo-liberal economic reform in popular sovereignty. 1990 put into action by the incumbent Indian Prime Minister, "to become rich is glorious" in rising India. India after six decades continues to grapple with poverty, The trajectory of liberal democracy in Nepal would be incomplete without reference illiteracy, ignorance, and female foeticide, lack of health and oppressive nature of to India. India's predominance in Nepal and in the region can not be nullified even society. Some also correlate the persistent underdevelopment besides heirarchisation by courting other power centers as the pangs of proximity dictates the democratic of society in rural India due to zamindari system of land ownership. Unless the norms and values in the country. country resolves agrarian reform to disentangle stymied land reform and revamp redistributive mechanism, it falters the country to materialize the lofty principles of Enchanting India and China
"socialist, secular and democratic republic." India presents diverse shades and contrasts. It is a canvas of people inhabited since ages in spite of its formidable hues to create a picture of a just and egalitarian society. On the other hand China which started economic reforms by implementing open The West is pleased to designate this independent country for 62 years as the world's door policy in 1979 has shown unparallel coexistence of one party leadership and largest democracy and some natives see it as the "burden of democracy" (Prof. economic growth and development. Its prosperity owes special thanks to overseas Pratap Bhanu Mehta) or "crisis of governability" (Prof. Atul Kohli). Though its Chinese and entrepreneurs who think relentlessly about developing it. Moreover democracy has survived even in the Cold War rivalry at the expense of one party about wiping out poverty and spreading happiness. Deng Xiaoping's dictum holds dominant system, it is a young nation with archaic red taped ex-British Raj true even today wherein the modern architect of the country said to all the institutions striving to achieve major power status in international arena. countrymen "to keep cool head, do not take lead and keep low profile." It sounds humbleness, perseverance and action rather than rhetoric and cosmetic words. If The country boasts of 30 per cent middle class people out of 1.5 billion inhabitants. China has overtaken Germany by occupying 3rd largest economy of the world and They are bulwark of democracy and according to some they form consumer-citizens competing neck and neck with Japan it is not surprising at all. The country where of twelfth largest economy in the world. But the functioning democracy in thousands of flowers bloom, a creative and positive energy of the people do bring a developing societies much depends on who is at the foci of power and the future of great quantum leap change in the modern society. politics lies in emancipation of backward groups and marginalized communities as they have themselves become agents of change. On the other hand, middle class Though analysts clinically compare India with China in terms of growth rate and people are absorbed by the free market and burgeoning civil society organizations, forecast similar scale of economic development it is not smooth for India with its lest depoliticisation and new age identity politics. elephantine bureaucracy to shed interests of common people. The interests of powerful Babudom do not favour in minimising the role of it in ameliorating the India also entices and enchants foreigners as it is one of the two parliamentary living standard of common people. Infact China started economic reform measures democratic countries in Asia (other being Japan). Despite of shortcomings and decade before India and has sacrificed which nowadays result in dissent in rural dominance of one party Indian National Congress (INC) since 1950 to 1977 its China. Pandit Nehru said "at the stroke of midnight hour when the world sleeps democracy is vibrant, lively and full of paradoxes. India will awake to life and freedom." In the same tone India's journey into new The avowed aim of championing the cause of teeming poor is no longer adhered as millennium is fraught with difficulties as well as opportunities. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar It is the primacy and dictum of trade rather than aid that should direct the political The double digit growth in the neighbourhood must allay fears that both economy of the country. Sound economic policies and robust economic growth are mega-states are interlocked in territorial disputes since 1962 war. They have started leverage that allows wide maneuverings in Nepalese foreign policy and wider rapprochements in all spheres of bilateral relations. Their interests are to be great international relations. On the other hand immutable geo-politics of the milieu powers of 21st century and they are. And not even the West can match their human coupled with geo-economics and geo-culture shape the minds of policymakers resource and capacity to shift the balance of power at present trailing heavily in responding to the futures of international society. A tightrope diplomacy as some favour of the US (the West) to Asia. It must be also our interest to work with these scholars point out as outmoded practice must be overhauled. Nepal need to exploit partners in all-round development of Asia, protect our cultural values and maintain potentials of two mega-states in its favour keeping in mind ameliorating living durable peace in the region. standards of common folk of the country. The country is sermonized and advised much but the political leadership is yet to find a common voice and choices put forth Geo-political Contours of India-Nepal-China Triangle
by intelligentsia, bourgeoning middle class and crème de la crème of knowledgeable Pirthvinarayan Shah's foreign policy in the form of yam theory in the light of Divya human resource. More it is preoccupied with non-development issues or moreover a Upadesh (Divine Counsels) is as relevant as ever for the maintenance of peace, primacy of politics takes precedence of socio-economic development endangers the stability and friendship vis-à-vis two giant neighbours. Nepal is a pigmy, puny and country at the brink of collapse. Lilliputian state vis-à-vis two giant neighbours. "The position of Nepal was, of course, rendered delicate, not by mere juxtaposition with such powerful neighbours. Economic Diplomacy has become a buzzword since 1995 in Nepal and has occupied It was the complex problem of trade from the north and the south, joined to the as a vogue in discharging additional important function apart from traditional problem of divergent spheres of influence and the expansionism of the East India diplomacy. Though liberal internationalism has gained ascendancy and has been Company." 1 A noted late historian further writes that the founder of Nepal fashioned after the end of the Cold War, the free market doctrine it espouses has understood the problem in all its ramifications and indicated in the corpus "the need encouraged the idea of precedence of trade over aid in terms of reaping dividends of for a healthy fear of the British." Some scholars have maintained that both India and an open market economy. Economic diplomacy needs to be conducted to harness the Nepal are democracies in the making of mutual trust. Of late the internal economic prospects and potential bilaterally and multilaterally. However economic sovereignty of a small country has been under constant threat from "too much diplomacy has been overshadowed time and again due to an excessive concern" shown by democratic countries that frequently exchange words with and preoccupation of political issues in bilateral relations mainly with India. Other counsel directly to the head of state cum government. Whether is it their genuine reason attributed to it is an elusive internal political stability and an absence of concern for consolidation of infant democracy in Nepal or the allegation of leftists in national consensus in forging and prioritizing trade ties. This has serious India and Nepal of their strategic interests to "encircle" and counter-balance the repercussions in bourgeoning national industries and home grown entrepreneurial northern neighbour remains to be objectively examined? However the economic activities which have recently been hostage to and captive of radicalized trade interdependence of China and the West, the US in particular, further complicates if unionism. But the urge of private sector to boost economic and commercial ties to the option available to tame the soaring dragon is to form alliance of democratic the expanding huge markets of the world which lies either next to our doorstep requires calculated strategic study to reap benefits for the common people of the L.F. Stiller, S.J., Pirthwinarayan Shah in the Light of Divya Upadesh, (Kathmandu: Himalayan Book Center, 1989), p. 47. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar nations in Asia (Japan, India and Australia). Can we assume at face value that stressed on multilateralism and policy of non-interference in internal affairs of a America's growing interest in South Asia by recognizing preeminence of India's role sovereign country. This does not hold true for a country which considers itself as a in the region is independent of America's relations with China or is it the correlation beacon of freedom, human rights and democracy. Such a bastion likes to exert of considering China as a strategic competitor as compared to the world's largest paramount influence against the interest of self-governed intra-state system in neutralizing opposing views which is implicitly and explicitly associated with redefining their relations on an even keel in the inter-state system. Another historically important reminder of Nepal's relations with India can be With recognizing difference, and furthermore, routing any form of resistant to the summarized as maternal home of Indians. The point is that Nepalese are maternal power-centers on any part of the globe. The deliberative method has been uncle and aunty whereas Indians are sons and daughters of Goddess Sita of overshadowed and illusions have been created in the minds of public that the only Janakpur married to a noble king Ram of Ayodhya. Nepal therefore acts as an after option available is employing the monopoly of violence against non-state actors maternal care to the southern neighbour. By the way our relations with China are by without probing into the root causes of genuine dissenting voices. It is applicable no means ahistorical. Tibetan King Tsrong-Tsam Gampo had married Chinese equally to the facets of internal conflict surfacing in a sovereign country with Princess Wen-Cheng and Nepalese Princess Bhrikuti. Therefore Nepal is also a external dimension and to the larger spectacle of a scourge of terrorism and its maternal home of Tibetans and Chinese, the offspring of these two Princesses.2 This reaction thereof, the "war on terror." is an interesting note that Nepal's position vis-à-vis two Asian neighbours which is cardinal and crucial in spreading amity, friendship and peace based on trust, The level of involvement of international community need to be curtailed in Nepal compassion and understanding. but genesis of it goes back to the rise of insurgency and ultra-left clamouring to be providing nationalist agenda are nonetheless ones who have invited or provocated However it is doubtful to ascertain the chequered relations amongst Asian nations for neo-colonization of uncolonised country. The "political seduction," 3 as I will be unspoiled by power politics if the neo-conservative military strategists designate to the appeal and penchant of everything western including values, mores outweigh in decision-making of South Block by playing second fiddle to Foggy and norms, is taking place in two ways or non-reciprocally with much harm to the Bottom. The progress towards India-China "strategic cooperation" has not totally recipient poor Asian country. The scenario emerging from "domestic political eliminated Chinese concern at the growing India-US "strategic partnership." immaturity," more preferable than to use word "crises," is negativistic feelings and animosity towards southern neighbour which is pursuing its legitimate interests in Political Prescriptions of the Region
Nepal and it will not wither away sooner or later. The other neighbour to the north is India has to be reborn as a champion of non-alignment in the South and of the voice deeply worried about the ramifications to its Tibetan Autonomous Region. But of voiceless rather than imitate double standard evinced by the US in political Nepal is embroiled in pessimistic image of daily political activities and has not developments in so-called "sphere of influence." It is soft power strategy and embarked on yeoman task to lift the country out of poverty and inflation. The public diplomacy that is likely to woo more friends than mere show of hard power and sanctions. And China has cultivated friendship among disadvantaged nations, Rajeev Kunwar, "On Political Seduction: An Inquiry into the Nature of Politics in the Least Developed Asian Country with an Analysis and Illustration from the Case of Nepal," Working Paper, Read more Rishikesh Shaha, Heroes and Builders of Nepal, (Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1965). Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar external strategy of the country is to push, mobilize and execute economic agendas juxtaposition to colossi neighbours. A small state like Nepal has succeeded in in the statecraft to build a strong economic nation-state. surviving for more that 240 years in its present configuration in an often very adverse political environment. Nepal's present independence, external sovereignty, Thus the interactions of awakened giants for the development, peace and security of stability and prosperity can only be secured by economic development in the their people and neighbourhood will be of immense interest to any Asian scholar. neighbourhood and how it can capitalize benefits from both giants. The Nepal has conducted its foreign policy and diplomacy with two large neighbours of commemorations of the unified nation-state could not bridge the gap between the Asia - a region whose political history and economic fate was for several centuries abstract ideal of the independence of the small nation and the reality of the determined by things that happened somewhere outside of Asia. "We have now unavoidable compromises imposed by a brook in country's sovereignty through crossed over into a period in which things happening in Asia, opinions formed in various means. The country is essentially – though not – preoccupied by its dealings Asia, and decisions made in Asia, will largely determine the course of events with India and there are limitations to its maneuverability and implementation of its elsewhere in the world."4 It is pertinent to quote a westerner's views about Asia external policies. According to an expert on foreign affairs Nepal's rise in the which has become, instead, "a testing ground for all our theories and ways of doing international arena has been historically a slow and arduous process. The country things. Failure in Asia would doom our hopes for a cooperative world order. Success operated as a part of an international subsystem with its external relations confined in Asia would prove the survival value of the post-war world order toward which to its immediate neighbours. 7 Other Nepalese intellectual and foreign policy we are working."5 thinkers dwell on Sinophilic manner and some scholar have portrayed third boulder in the yam theory that is the US, an extra-regional power in the emerging The interdependency of the western world and the orient can not also be denied in geo-strategic field. the post-Cold War era on the backdrop of the end of grand ideology to counter so called universal values of democracy, rule of law and human rights. It has also The genius of India is evinced in the exercise of democracy in 2009 and how well the spawned new relationships, new strategies and new national political identities. A country manages diverse multicultural society and multiple issues cropping up in small country Nepal has shed its old national identity which was maintained to the political society as well. India and China have equal stakes in Nepal but it seems evince difference with regard to its neighbours, and there from what implications our ties with India which is intricate and entangled in many dimensions underline does it hold for the future of the country.6 It can be either an anachronistic fairly tale India's special relations to Nepal. It exacts tactfulness and diplomatic finesse to act as Himalayan paradise or a laboratory of new ideas. a bridge between them for Nepalese statesman and officials. It is a cacophony if too many people harp on the same subject matter vaguely ‘Small' has been and will remain the epithet attached to any description of Nepal. without providing some compelling and lucid accounts. One can not deny the role Demography, territory, GNP, military resources: all objective parameters point to the of the state despite mushrooming growth of civil society and non-state actors category of the small-sized. Some might tempt to think ‘mini' or ‘extra small' in influencing international relations. The onslaught of globalization may have Owen Lattimore, Solution in Asia, (London: The Cresset Press, 1945), p. 1. Sridhar K. Khatri, "Nepal in the International System: The Limits of Power of a Small State," Anand Aditya (ed.), The Political Economy of Small States, (Kathmandu: Nepal Foundation for Advanced Prakash A. Raj, Crisis of Identity in Nepal, (Varanasi: Pilgrims Publishing, 2007). Studies and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2nd Print, 2001), p. 12.

Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Nepal: A Bovine . …. rs Rajeev Kunwar diminished the state sovereignty and lurched from one financial crisis to another. An essence of any nation's foreign policy is centered on national interests and pursue as a nation-state a "strategy of survival" or "struggle for existence." It is the exclusive preserve of the state in formulating, implementing and executing the foreign policy and international relations as it is the centre of negotiating body to diffuse and dissipate international norms and values in a domestic political society. Pundits of Nepalese bureaucracy have to manage pugilist, cunning and shrewd brown sahibs of Indian babudom on the one hand and taciturn thinking and lukewarm responses of mandarins of Chinese one party state on the other. According to Vidur, Minister of King Dhritarasthra - "Pundits are those who are adept at their self-character, laborious, abide by dharma in trying circumstances. They do not aim for rare objects, are not worried about lost items and unwavered in times of difficulty and calamity (p.15)."8 A wiseman becomes a fool sometimes and if a shrewd person hoodwink a weak and fool, he/she is not to be considered a seer or erudite rather a mean cheater with trivial-mindedness. To recapitulate, it is an economic prosperity that matters most along with an undisputable democratic political framework which holds future for maintaining democratic peace in the region and beyond. Analysts can figure out it is the age of Asians who were suppressed in modern history until the Second World War. They are the genuine movers and shakers of international relations and making pluralist society at work for the benefit of mankind. More about kingship, governance, advisors and forts, see Vanmali Subedi (ed.), Vidurniti, (Kathmandu: Pravesh Prakashan, 2059 B.S.), pp. 9-38. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities constitution was incorporation of word "socialism" and "secularism" done by Prime Seminar on "Constitution Making Process of Nepal and its Minister Indira Gandhi. He said similar demands made by Sheikh Mujiban Rahman in Pakistan were not A seminar on "Constitution Making Process of Nepal and its challenges" was recognized. The Indian constitution provides an independent judiciary and has organized by Nepal Council of World Affairs on November 17, 2009 in association central list, concurrent list and state list. with the Indian Embassy and B.P. Koirala India-Nepal Foundation. Gajanada Agrawal said the real problem is how much power should be given to The chief Guest was Hon'ble Dr. Minendra Prasad Rijal, Minister for Federal, Madhesh. Shambhu Rana said one major problem is Nepal is lack of coalition Constituent Assembly, Parliamentary and Cultural Affairs. The keynote speaker was Dr. Mushirul Hassan, former Vice Chancellor, Jamia Milia University, Delhi. Ambassador Sood said Nepal is now is transition. The decision to negotiate 12 or 20 Hon'ble Minendra Rijal said some qualitative change in the present political point accord should rest with Nepal. India had supported holding of election in situation is needed if constitution were to be written in the current time frame. He Nepal for Constituent Assembly and hoped for a logical end to peace process. also talked about honest disagreements between political parties on mandate of Nepal's Constitution makers should be sensitive towards people's will. constituent assembly including property rights, rule of judiciary and form of government. He also experessed concern that some Maoist leaders have talked about Narayan Prasad Mishra asked if federalism was essential in democracy and if it were banning certain political parties. practical in Nepal. Prof. Hassan said members of Constitution Assembly who know the reality of their country should decide on it. There should be a vision to reduce Excellency Rakesh Sood, Ambassador of India welcoming Prof. Mushiral Hassan inequalities. Replying to a question by Badri Das Shrestha, Prof. Hassan said Nepal talked about his work in identity politics. He mentioned how Indian constitution needs a new Constitution to re-order Nepal's priorities. Hemanta Kharel commented was written 59 years earlier with a vision to face challenges. He said about ties of the reason why India become a federal state was due to colonialism and history, geography, and business that bind the two countries. "unmanageable geography". He said Nepal had to give more autonomy to local Professor Mushiral Hassan, Former Vice Chancellor, Jamia Milllia University said a bodies. Prof. Hasan said each country must make its own model taking into account Constitution represents collective aspiration of individuals in a society. While citing topography and geopolitics and to ensure that it is accountable. the case of South Africa he said the constitution writing process was done under the Rajeshwor Acharya asked about India's experience in sharing water resources and leadership of Nelson Mandela and the main task was peace and reconciliation. revenue between states. Prof. Hassan talked about several commissions founded Conflict solution was done through individual and collective initiative. The Indian since 1950's to look into center-state relations. There are tribunals in Karnataka and experiences of writing constitutions was done against the background of partition. He said democracy, secularism and pluralism survives in India as the constitution provides a package for all. He said the centre has granted more autonomy to the Sajan Ram Bhandari asked if Nepal could establish federalism as in India and the US. states in recent years. According to him consensus is not unanimity. The way to Did the political parties had right to declare Nepal as a secular state ? In his opinion achieve grater degree of consensus is by debate and discussion. He said consensus in such issues should have been decided by referendum. Prof. Hassan disagreed that the context of India was popular will. Two important things is the Indian state restructuring and federalism are different issues. Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities Mahesh Agrawal asked about constraint of consensus and solving issue of India. On the other hand, what was approved is not in accordance with inclusivity. Prof. Hassan Said the constitution could be amended if no consensus independent judiciary. According to the approved provision a committee in the could be reached. If a Constitution were to be devised for providing social justice it Parliament should recommend the appointment and dismissal of judges. Parliament will work Large sections of people of India regard the Indian Constitution as should recommend the appointment and dismissal of Judges. What could be done is custodian of their interests. to make judicial hearing more effective and reject the recommendation even if one member disagrees. Disputes between states should be decided by courts and not by Parliament. There is also an opinion which says that such disputes should be The second session
decided by Constitutional Courts. Chaired by Mr. Tirtha Man Shakya
When the Indian Constituent was being promulgate, these were such personalities Judicial provision on Constitution by Radheshyam Adhikari
as Ambadkar, Nehru, Patel, Kalam and Rajendra Prasad who played decisive roles. There were towering personalities which the US Constitution was being discussed. The first paper presented at the Second Session of Seminar was by Radheshyam During promulgation of 1990 constitution in Nepal we could depend on support of Adhikari. The session was chaired by Tirtha Man Shakya. The paper dealt with Ganesh Man Singh and Krishna Prasad Bhattarai. Judicial Provision in the Constitution. There were comments by Sushil Shrestha and Surendra Mahato. Mr. Adhikari said there was no separate judiciary during the Rana regime. The first Mulki Ain was introduced after Jung Bahadur returned from Britain in 1854. it was Suhil Shrestha asked what would happen if constitution could not be written by not actually rule of law as the ultimate power to decide a case was with the Rana May 14th. The mandate received in Jana Andolan II in 2006 does not exist anymore. Prime Minister. Separation of power was introduced in 1958 when Judicial He said judicial appointments could be made by political parties. Administration Act was introduced. It made a provision for four tiers of judiciary. Surendra Mahato said we need federalism in which power has to be given to During Panchayat era, four tiers of courts were introduced. Judicial review was provinces. Judiciary has to solve disputes between different states, between states introduced in the period 1961 to 1981. however, the residual power was the King and and persons and between persons. We need judges in the Court who adopt and it was also abused in his name. adapt changes. Judiciary in Nepal should be made inclusive. The present Supreme After promulgation of 1990 Constitution, jurisdiction of Court was increased and Court is very conservative. Reappointment of Judges should be made within three Public Interest Litigation (PIL) brought changes in the interest of women and weaker months after parliamentary elections. He said be did not favour appointment of section of society. However, no judges were impeached during this period. judges by public hearing. High Court Judges should be appointed by provinces. The first meeting of Constituent Assembly (CA) passed the provision of "Federal There was a question and answer session after presentation of paper and comments. Democratic Republic of Nepal" However it was not explained what was included Prakash A. Raj asked if Constitution Assembly has the right to extend deadline of in it. There have been arguments that there should be three tiers in judiciary, The writing Constitution and also about decisions made by People's Court (Jana Adalat) Supreme Court, High Court and District Court. Agreement was reached on of the Maoist and about judicial review. Radheshyam Adhikari said if too much qualification of Judges. Unlike is the US where their is a parallel court system on power is concentrated on Parliament an autocratic system might emerge. Provision Federal and State level, CA Committee has recommended a system similar to that in for judicial review should be made in the constitution. Parliament should not Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities interpret the constitution. If that were to be the case, judicial review would be federalism now. Although some people might say federalism was not viable worthless. A consensus document could be produced. An extension for time for financially. He said he did not agree. writing Constitution could be demanded. Although such leaders as Gajendra There was a question and answer session after the presentation of paper and Narayan Singh had raised the issue of federalism in Nepal before 1990, it become a comments, Prakash A. Raj asked if federalism based on ethnicity is desirable for major issue all of a sudden. Answering comments and questions, Prof. Baral said the country will not be divided The second session
by recognizing Hindi. Our political leaders don't have a vision and everything is done on a contingent basis. He said he did not agree that Nepal could disintegrate Chaired -
Pradeep K Khadka
because of federalism. There should not be only one basis of federalism. Federal System of Government by Prof. Lok Raj Baral.
Prof. Pradip Khadka said he agreed about lack of vision of our leaders. He said The second session was chaired by Pradeep K Khadka A paper on Federal System of about proposals creating states including mountains, hill and the Terai. Government was presented by Prof. Lok Raj Baral. Tika Jung Thapa, President of Nepal Council of World Affairs, thanked Prof. Baral Prof. Baral said leadership plays a very important role in institution building. for his insight. Ambedkar at the time of Constitution building in India thought that a federal structure similar to the US would not work in India as it was too diverse. Self determination along the Soviet model was not applicable in India. So, India become a centralized federation. Real federalism has been practiced in India and it has also the 63rd Anniversary of been given a coalition culture. the Nepal Council of World Affairs We offer our heartiest felicitations The built in character of state in Nepal was discriminatory since Prithvi Narayan and best wishes for all success Shah. The centrality of Kathmandu was also a major factor in post-unification era. Although a lang humbler of women were in Maoist Army there were few in power. It is difficult to change character of state all of a sudden. However, it is now realigned that the era of Centralism of power from Kathmandu is now over. Contact Us
Prof Baral said he tracelled in many districts of the Terai but found that the local Hama Merchant and Finance Limited
people did not see "one Madhesh, one Province" as feasible. Tripureshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Commenting on the paper Arjun Thapa, MJF member of CA said it is important to P.O.Box : 1425
develop nationalisms within federalism. Phone :4249503,4216482, 016213290 Fax : 4250245
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The built in character of Nepal has been discriminatory since the time of Prithvi Website :
Narayan Shah. This was continued during Panchayat Period. There is no way out of Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities Activities of 2009-2010
Commission of Nepal. Similarly Prof. Dr. Lok Raj Baral, former Nepalese Ambassador to India presented a paper on "Federal System of Government"
The Council organized a talk programme on June 24, 2009 at NCWA Seminar in the second session. The paper was commented by Mr. Arjun Bahadur Thapa, Hall on "Some Reflection on US-Nepal Relations Since 2006" by Mr.
MJF (Nepal) and the session was chaired by Prof. Dr. Pradeep Kumar
Williams S Martin, Political Economic Chief of US Embassy. Khadka, Former President of the Council. The paper presenters of the sessions answered the question raised from the floor on the occasion. The 62nd Anniversary of Council was held on July 27, 2009 at the Hotel Malla, Kahmandu. Chief Guest of the programme Rt. Hon'ble Prime Minister Mr. The Council organized a talk programme on "Buddhist Light; Buddhism and
Madhav Kumar Nepal and Guest of Honour Deputy Prime Minister and Sino-Nepal Cultural Linkage " at NCWA Hall, Harihar Bhawan Lalitpur, on
Foreign Minister Hon'ble Ms. Sujata Koirala delivered their respective November 19, 2009. Prof. Dr. Khadga Man Shrestha, Registrar, Lumbini speeches on "Foreign Policy of Nepal". The Annual Journal 2008-2009 of
Buddhist University, Lumbini, elaborated his views on the subject. NCWA was released by the Chief Guest on the occasion. A talk programme was jointly held by the Nepal Council of World Affairs and An Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Council was held on August 16,
Russian Cultural Centre. Dr. Vladimir V Novikov, Counsellor of the Russian 2009 (Srawan 32, 2066) at Orchid Hotel, Tripureshwor. The meeting passed the Cultural Centre, spoke on "Federal Structure of Russian Federation" The
budget and proposed programme for the fiscal year 2009/2010 and at the same event took place on December 10, 2009 at Russian Cultural Centre at Kamal time approved Auditor's Report and Financial Report for 2009/2010 and Pokhari, Kathmandu. appointed auditor for the next fiscal year. The Council and the PEN Nepal organized a talk programme on "Minority
In association with Indian Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal Council of World Rights of Indigenous People in the New Constitution of Nepal" and a book
Affairs organized one-day seminar on "Constitution Making Process of
written by Dr. Ramdayal Rakesh and Mr. Chandra Kanta Gyawali was Nepal and its Challenges" on November 17, 2009 at Hotel Malla Kathmandu.
released by Hon'ble Mr. Pradeep Gyawali, Member of Constituent Assembly. The Seminar was divided into two sessions. Chief Guest, Federal, Constituent The paper presented by Mr. Chandra Kanta Gyawali and Dr. Ram Dayal Assembly, Parliamentary and Cultural Affairs Minister Hon'ble Minendra Rakesh was commented by Mr. Prakash A. Raj, Vice President of NCWA at Rijal, His Excellency Mr. Rakesh Sood, Ambassador, Embassy of Republic of NCWA Hall, Harihar Bhawan Lalitpur, on February 14, 2010. India and expert from India Prof. Mushural Hasan, former VC, Jamia Milia University, Delhi spoke on various aspects of Constitution during the A talk programme was jointly organized by the Council and the Center for inaugural session. Two papers were presented in the two sessions. The first Constitution Dialogue (CCD) on "Federalism in Nepal" on February 18, 2010
paper was presented by Hon'ble Radheshyam Adhikari, Member of the at CCD Hall, Baneshwor. Mr. Larry Taman, International Project Manager of Constituent Assembly on "Judicial Provision on the Constitution". The paper
UNDP spoke on the various models of Federalism on the occasion. was commented by Mr. Surendra Mahato and Mr. Sushil Shrestha. The session was chaired by Mr. Tirtha Man Sakya, former Chairman, Public Service Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities The Council organized a talk programme on "Economic Development and
Activities of 2009-2010
International Relations: Issues for Poverty Alleviation Efforts in Nepal" on
March 1, 2010 at NCWA Seminar Hall, Pulchowk. Dr Rajendra Bahadur Shrestha on expert on the economic affairs of Nepal, shed light on the said topic on the occasion. On the occasion
the 63rd Anniversary of
the Nepal Council of World Affairs
We offer our heartiest felicitations
and best wishes for all success
Ram Lal Shrestha Founder President ICTC Pvt. Ltd. , House.No. 468, ICTC Bldg., Street Hattisar, GPO
Box 660, Kathmandu, Nepal, Tel: +97714434895, Email:
[email protected], website: Nepal Council of World Affairs, 2010 Activities. . …. ff ai rs Activities


Guerrilla Entertainment LLC Midwest Drone Racing Rulebook Condensed REV2 March 1, 2016 Destwid MC.LLent mn errilGut hrigypCo Table of Contents 2016 Midwest Drone Racing Rules Condensed REV2 WORKING DRAFT RULES AND REGULATIONS Publish Date: March 1, 2016 The following rules and regulations are currently a draft working copy as of the date listed

Advances in understanding and treatment of feline inappropriate elimination

Advances in Understanding and Treatment of FelineInappropriate Elimination Meghan E. Herron, DVM, DACVB Feline inappropriate elimination is the number one behavioral reason for relinquishment of cats to shelters andhas historically been the most commonly reported feline problem addressed by behavior professionals. Veter-inarians are hence challenged to uncover the underlying motivation for this behavior so that an accuratediagnosis can be made and an effective treatment plan implemented. Before a behavioral diagnosis can bemade, underlying medical disease must be addressed, making a comprehensive physical evaluation imperative.After all medical issues have been addressed, a behavior diagnoses list is made based on detailed historicalinformation obtained from the cat owner. A distinction is first established between marking and inappropriatetoileting, according to elimination postures described by the owner and the social relevance of the sites ofinappropriate eliminations. Next, inadequacies of the litter box management are identified and subsequentaversions and preferences, including litter box aversion, substrate aversion, location aversion, substrate pref-erence, and location preference, can be diagnosed. The practitioner should be cognizant of the fact that anxietyfrom the environment and social conflict may play a major role in both marking and inappropriate toiletingbehaviors. Once both the medical and behavioral diagnoses are established, a treatment plan catered to theindividual cat, owner, and household environment can be formulated. This should include acceptable forms ofmarking when indicated, appropriate litter box management and hygiene, reduction of environmental stres-sors, including resolution of social conflict in multicat households, proper treatment and restricted access tosoiled areas, pheromone application, and, when indicated, anxiolytic drug therapy.© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.