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OPEN SOCIETY FORUM
Policy Fellowship Program's
Handbook
Policies, Procedures and Information 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT OSF. 2
Mission and Priorities OSF staff Staff Contact Information
POLICY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
. 7
General Information Fellowship Areas Eligibility Announcement/Selection Procedures Training and Mentorship Quality control Fellowship results Fellowship particulars
DEADLINES. 10
GENERAL POLICY PAPER GUIDELINES. 11

APPENDIX
RESEARCH PROPOSAL GUIDELINES…………………. 14 Mission and Priorities

Open Society Forum is a new initiative of the Mongolian Foundation for Open Society. The goals of the Open Society Forum are to provide both physical and virtual space for high-quality policy research and analysis, broad public access to information resources on policies, laws and regulations, and a venue for public engagement in the policy formulation and implementation monitoring process. Open Society Forum aims to influence the Government and donor policies in areas that reinforce and support open society values. The Board of the Foundation has selected three broad themes to guide the work of the Open Society Forum over the next three years: Governance, Economics and Social Policies. MFOS Board:
Dr. Tuvdendorj Galbaatar tgalbaatar@magicnet.mn Mr. Dambadarjaa Jargalsaikhan djargal@yahoo.com Mr. Saha Meyanathan Ms. JambalsurenNarantuya mnnarantuya60@yahoo.com Ms. TserenpilAriunaa ariunaa@artscouncil.mn Mr. Purevjav Tsenguun ptsenguun@altantaria.mn Mr. LkhagvajavTur - Od Executive Director:

Erdenejargal.P jargal@soros.org.mn
OSF Staff

Office
Tel.
Jamyan Gun Street 5/1 Fax (976-11) 324-857 Sukhbaatar District Email: osf@soros.org.mn Ulaanbaatar Website: Mongolia – 210648
Open Society Forum staff:
1. Dorjdari.N – Open Society Forum Manager on Land Reform and Shadow Economy
2. Munkhsoyol.B - Open Society Forum Manager on The Future of Nomadic Pastoralism and Role of Media in
Election Campaign
3. Nyamkhuu.Ts - Open Society Forum Manager on Social Sector Privatization and Ethical Norms of Politicians
4. Bayartsetseg J. - Open Society Forum Manager on Transparency
5. Onon.P - Open Society Forum Public Events Manager
6. Gantuya.D - Open Society Forum Web-portal Editor-in-Chief
7. Baljid.D - Open Society Forum Information Resource Manager
8. Enkhbat- Open Society Forum TV program director & moderator
9. Ganbold.Ts - Open Society Forum TV program general manager
10. D.Tserenjav-Open Society Forum TV program editor
11.Amarbayar.M - Open Society Forum TV program editor
12. Narantuya.B - Open Society Forum TV program studio manager
13. Ijilmurun.Ch - Open Society Forum Information Resource Assistant
14. Badamragchaa.P - Open Society Forum Assistant
15. Khatanbold.O - Open Society Forum Assistant
16. Binderya.G - Open Society Forum Assistant
Staff Contact Information Extensions
Small Meeting Room 31-90-16
31-81-49
31-90-15
31-61-83
31-90-42
31-97-46
Fellowship Program

General Information
The Open Society Forum annual policy fellowship program is intended to support and develop analytical policy research and provide fellows with professional development opportunities and capacities in writing professional policy papers and effectively advocating policies. The program aims (i) to deliver high quality policy research and analysis to advance priority topics of the Open Society Forum, and (ii) to build capacity in the policy studies and analysis within the policy community that includes policymakers, implementers, analysts, researchers and other stakeholders. Fellowships Areas The fellowships fall under the Open Society Forum's core topics: - Governance - Economic Development - Social issues In the sphere of governance, the OSF prioritizes civic involvement in the formulation of public policy conducive to the strengthening of principles of good governance: transparency and accountability. In economics, the OSF concerns itself with encouraging the public input in the policy discussion on the ways of facilitating sustainable economic growth and improving efficiency of Mongolia's economic performance under market conditions. At the same time, the OSF pays incessant attention to social issues and encourages civic participation in the policy formulation in such areas as poverty reduction, improvement of quality and accessibility of healthcare services and education, assuring equality of rights for all Mongolian citizens. Research papers completed under this program facilitate policy-makers' understanding of relevant policy issues; it is the policy-maker (for example, Member of Parliament) who stands to benefit the most from carefully and competently conducted research on issues pertaining to policy-formulation. Eligibility Both Mongolian and foreign nationals are eligible to apply for the fellowship. Ideal applicants are representatives of local and central governmental agencies, civil servants, members of advocacy groups or professional associations, policy researchers, analysts and advisers. Advanced degree from recognized Western universities, professional experience in policy formulation, advocacy, implementation, and analysis will be preferred. Knowledge of foreign languages, especially English and Russian, and of computer applications will be important. Availability of fellows to devote a significant time to the fellowship is a must. If the candidate's current work does not allow doing so, or is not directly related to the scope of work for the fellowship period, the candidate will not, in general, be considered. Knowledge of Mongolian conditions and interest in relevant issues in this context are important. Announcement/Selection All fellowships are announced openly. Selection and awarding of fellowships is carried out on a competitive basis. A selection committee is established and consists of representatives of the OSF Board, OSF manager, and outside experts. This committee meets and agrees upon criteria for selecting fellows, both in general terms and in relation to specific topics. The Open Society Forum is free to recruit fellows from overseas through the Soros network and other channels. In case more than one qualified candidate applies for a single fellowship (topic), the Selection Committee can choose to award fellowships to more than one candidate with the condition to work as a team or teams, if the individuals agree to it. The requirements are identical to those for individual applicants. Candidates can choose to apply for the fellowship in small teams. However, the roles of each team member shall be clearly defined in the application. Procedures Candidates are required to submit proposals and budgets for their research projects along with the application. Selected candidates will be invited to sign contracts with the Open Society Forum. The contract will specify requirements, terms and conditions of the fellowship and shall cover the whole fellowship period and activities related to the fellowship. Research proposals must be relevant to the OSF policy fellowship topics, have a practical policy-orientation, be creative, display a good knowledge of theoretical base and a grasp of factual data. The requirements to the quality of work and participation in fellows-related activities will be the same for both individual and team fellows. The OSF encourages fellows or teams of fellows to develop complementary or compatible research agendas. Fellows are encouraged to work with all stakeholders on a given issue, including the Open Society Forum team, national and local government officials and advisers, donor organizations, and other local interest groups and civil society organizations. Fellows will be required to be in residence with the Forum, and be ready to travel to the sites related to their fellowship work. Training and Mentorship One of the primary expected outcomes of the fellowship program is to create a pool of national cadre of policy researchers and analysts. During the fellowship period the Open Society Forum will organize a series of training and mentorship activities for the selected fellows. The OSF also will provide local and international mentors during the fellowship period. These mentors will supervise fellows' research work in specialized fields. Training will likely include policy paper writing, policy analysis, research and advocacy components. Attendance in training is mandatory for the fellows. In addition, each fellow/fellow team will be paired with a local mentor and an overseas mentor. One mentor will guide all fellows at the methodology and policy analysis level. Other individual mentors will provide guidance from content angles in conducting policy-related research. After completion of the research report, each fellow will present a research paper as recommended by mentors. The OSF will consider mentors' evaluations of fellows' research activities. Quality Control Training and especially mentorship will be the key elements for quality control during the fellowship. Policy fellows shall: Submit a research plan/proposal, which should include major objectives, detailed empirical resources to be explored, the major circles of decision makers or policy actors to be consulted, the major genre of writing etc. • Attend orientation workshop/training. Here advisory committee for each topic can clarify the expectations toward content and the format of the research/policy paper. • Submit interim reports. This is important to ensure there are no major differences between the expectations and research capacities of fellows. This is especially important for long-term research. • Amend paper drafts in light of the comments provided by advisors/mentors. Attend monthly events for policy fellows at the OSF, compete monthly progress report questionnaires (due by the end of each month of fellowship) • Submit their work to peer review, actively participate in public events hosted by the OSF, host public discussion round tables pertaining to the fellowship topics, participate in research skill workshops • Acquaint the public with the results of their research through the OSF's online portal and effectively communicate with local and international mentors as well as other fellows. More specific requirements might be specified in the grant letter depending on a given topic and the OSF's needs. Fellowship results As a final product, fellows will submit a research report that includes specific recommendations and policy options and that is an informative policy document based on recent literature, policy research findings, and analysis of practical situation and opportunities. Fellows working in teams are expected to submit a joint report concluding their results. The OSF may choose to publish research work and opt to fund and implement proposed policy recommendations. Fellowship particulars The OSF will award successful applicants with a stipend and workspace for the period of research work. All expenses related to research and other costs specified in contract will also be covered by the OSF. All payments are to be paid upon fulfillment of requirements specified in the contract. The OSF intends to have these rules strictly implemented and reserves the right to unilaterally terminate contracts with those fellows who fail to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. In such case, fellow(s) may be liable for expenses incurred by the OSF in connection with the fellowship(s). The term of fellowship may be short and long depending on a given topic and needs of the Open Society Forum activities. Fellowships within the topics of Open Society Forum will work under supervision of related Open Society Forum managers. Deadlines

Description of the program
Responsible
Announce through media Hold an information session Submission of applications Screening of applications Applications are reviewed and short list Interview of short listed candidates International mentor is identified and recruited (on Methodology) Individual working plans and budgets drafted and reviewed by OSF managers Training 1: Research Methodologies
Research Proposal finalized Erdenejargal, Onon Fellows contracted and started their work at OSF meeting1 and presentation Training 2: Analysis and Paper Writing
Jul. 14-16 OSF managers, First draft of policy research submission and Mid of Review of first draft (in terms of both content and writing style including Second draft of policy paper and public presentation for receiving comments and Policy research paper finalized for November OSF managers submission and presentation Training 3: Advocacy training
OSF managers and Provide full and complete interim and final financial reports accounting for the expenditure of all the grant funds. Evaluation on program
Jan, 2006
Reviewers
1 Note: It is mandatory for all fellows to attend monthly semi-formal information exchange
and progress report meetings at the Open Society Forum.

Policy Paper Guidelines

These guidelines have been prepared for fellows to assist them in writing their respective policy research and analysis proposals. The proposal shall consist of the following components: 1. Statement of research topic The topic for policy research can be slightly modified from the one that was initially proposed by the OSF. If modification is done, it should be agreed upon with mentors and OSF Managers. 2. Objectives for policy work Briefly describe what (realistic) objectives the fellowship work aims to achieve. 3. Start and end dates of policy work and major milestones These dates are not the fellowship period date, which will start from April 3 (with inclusion of three day orientation meeting, the actual work for fellows will start after signed a grant letter). The start date here is for the actual research work planned in the current proposal, and shall begin before or around the time of the approval of the topics by OSF, and last approximately 3 months (depending on the specifics of subject). If fellows anticipate their research to last more than 3 months, they should discuss and come to an agreement with respective OSF managers. 4. Total cost Please state only the total cost of the project. 5. Background for the problem/Agenda setting A brief description of the problem, background to the problem (or the ‘policy puzzle') shall be given in as much succinct a way as possible. Please also proceed to describing the agenda for the policy research and analysis and explain how it is set. 6. Description of methodology to use Working hypothesis: Hypotheses shall be deduced for the working purposes of the fellowship policy research and analysis. Unit of analysis: Select the unit/s of analysis that is/are most relevant and adequate for the policy fellowship. Selection will depend on the level/s of analysis a fellow chooses. Case selection: Fellows will decide on appropriate cases pertinent to their research and analysis. Identification of relevant concepts: These concepts serve as main ideas that fellows will build upon in their research and analysis. Selection of variables: Operational concepts shall be identified as variables that can be measured in a reliable and cost efficient ways. Data collection and analysis: Here fellows will identify ways to collect and analyze the data for measuring the variables. Research methodologies: Here both quantitative and qualitative methodologies that the fellow intends to use shall be described. Writing methodologies for policy analysis memoranda: Strategies to develop policy analysis from the policy research work should be described. These might include policy problem statement, analysis of current policies, identification of policy alternatives, development of evaluative criteria, evaluation of alternatives, stakeholder analysis, policy advice, etc. Policy design worksheet: This worksheet shall be completed to support some of the issues described above. 7. Expected outcomes/Products Describe what the main outcomes of the policy research and policy analysis work will be, and list the products that will result from the fellowship, including advocacy materials, presentation and communication of the results, etc. 8. Research and fieldwork plans Describe in as much detail as possible how the research and fieldwork will be carried out. 9. Detailed budget The budget shall include research related expenses that are reasonable and well justified. These might include local travel expenses, purchase of research materials and data, etc. Purchase of books and international travel shall not be included in the budget. 10. List of books and other resources needed and justifications Fellows should include list of books and other resource materials that are important for the fellowship work. Fellows shall prioritize the list and indicate which are of most importance. The books will be purchased and placed in the OSF resource center, subject to their availability. 11. Expected schedule of working at the OSF office Fellows shall indicate what days of the week, and what hours he/she intends to spend at the OSF office, on average. Also, how much time in general one expects to spend on the project per week shall be indicated. Fellows will be provided with needed space from about the beginning of April 2005. Proposals shall be written in Mongolian or in English and should be no longer than eight pages, Times New Roman-12 font. Based on the proposals submitted, the OSF will sign individual contracts with each fellow. For any questions/clarifications, please come and get a guideline at the Open Society Forum. Appendix: Research Paper Guidelines
Prepared by Dr. Yasmin Lodi
Civic Education Project - Mongolia
Beginning a research project is usually a daunting task. These guidelines, giving a step by step
description of the research process, should help you through the process.
Briefly, most academic writing requires asking a question worthy of an intellectual exploration,
which in turn requires intensive reading on the issue. Then, through a rational assessment of the
literature and on the basis of field research the answer is discovered. This informed opinion should
be presented as an argument in a paper using an acceptable format. A step by step description of
the stages of research are given below:
I. Posing the good questions:
A researcher needs to narrow the focus of his/her attention to an interesting aspect of the broad
area of his/her interest. Choosing something interesting makes the research process exciting. This
is one type of attitude that a researcher brings to the research problem (Type A). However, there is
an alternative. Some researchers (Type B) enjoy solving problems. Such researchers should seek
the most puzzling aspect of the broad area of research and focus their attention solely on it. Both
types of researchers then need to note down the basic questions they are seeking to answer through
their research. For example, the two types of researchers might develop the following sets of
questions on the attitude of the British towards the European Union:

I. 1 Type A set of Questions:

1. What are the attitudes of the ordinary British citizens to the European Union? 2. Why are the British split into two opposing groups or more whenever the issue of becoming part of the European Union is raised? 3. Will Britain continue to consolidate its position in the EU or will it eventually fall out of it?
I. 2 Type B set of Questions:

1. Why are the British Euro-skeptics when they are one of the leading member nations of the 2. What were Britain's historical relations with other European countries? Does that have anything to do with their Euro-skepticism? 3. Do the British believe they can continue to have a dominant voice in European affairs without consolidating their position in the EU? As researchers start reading they will either need to narrow down their focus and/or their questions.
II. Reading for Research:
Searching for sources in any field is a difficult task, especially since it involves accessing a diverse
variety of sources, such as printed matter (encyclopedias, books, academic journals, magazines,
newspapers, and brochures and newsletters of organizations), audio-visual material (public
lectures, radio coverage, television reports, educational movies, etc.) and the electronic medium
(Internet, CD-ROM, etc).
The first step is to systematize the search process. List all possible sources of information. Make sure to write down all the bibliographic information you will need to cite the sources, such as the author's full name, complete title, date of publication, publisher's name, the place of publication, etc. Collecting, reading and comprehending the material is insufficient in itself. Good note-taking is a necessary skill to have. II. 1 Note Taking
Note taking is not copying everything from a book, magazine, or a lecture. Note takers need to
comprehend information and ideas quickly, sort and analyze them into distinct groups of ideas and
theories and only then put it all down on paper. This is an essential skill and needs to be carefully
cultivated.

II. 1. a
The first step in note taking is to read carefully each book or article and then to write down
the major idea or thesis and the main points of the argument that support the thesis.
II. 1. b Next, look for contradictions and note them down if there are any.
II. 1. c Note the authors' attempt to overcome opposing views.
II.1. d Look out for summaries, conclusions of the authors own ideas or the summaries of
opposing viewpoints by the author. These can give a clue on how to manage and organize the
differing opinions, theories and arguments.
II. 1. e When you find an extremely well written definition or conclusion, write it down exactly as
it is. You can use that as a direct quotation to strengthen your argument.
II. 1. f Whenever you find relevant facts, write them down. A collection of facts from different
sources will come in handy when you begin to write your paper.
Please be cautious in your note-taking – make sure that whenever you take down a concept, phrase,
sentence, or a paragraph verbatim that you put it within quotation marks and properly credit the
author for the idea and words. Failure to do so will result in a charge of plagiarism against you, i.e.,
you would be cheating yourself, your institution, and the author.
II. 2 Reference Works

Most researchers begin to get information systematically. The first step is to gain general
background information which is possible by reading an encyclopedia. Encyclopedias provide a
birds eye view of the topic.
Make sure to look for additional or related subject matters in the encyclopedia. Often, at the
beginning or end of the chapter that you read in an encyclopedia, the authors suggest which related
topics to read for further information. These are valuable suggestions by the authors. Look up
their suggestions and read the chapters.
The article will also be followed by a short bibliography. From this overview and bibliography of
your topic, you can proceed to more detailed works on different parts of your topic.
II. 3 Books and Articles

Specialized books and articles are often difficult to digest. You may have to read them more than once to fully comprehend them. Take the time to do so. You will be amazed at how much more you can grasp after a second or even a third reading. For taking notes make sure to look for the authors' definitions, facts, summaries, and arguments. Some of these will become the foundations of your paper, and others will be the obstacles you will need to overcome to persuade your reader that your argument is the better one. So, pay close attention to these definitions, facts, summaries and arguments, and use them to your advantage. III. Analyzing the Collected Information

A particular problem of a sympathetic reader is that all the different authors seem to be making a
good argument. Sorting these different arguments takes patience and organizational skill. Pitting
one argument versus another requires checking the facts that the authors used, to see if they used
the same facts from the same sources or from different sources and how that effected their results.
Since we all use facts selectively, we often ignore facts that contradict our ideas, and this sloppy
work weakens our theories. Check to see if any of your authors have done that. If they have done
so, it does not immediately follow that their arguments are wholly false or discredited. It should,
however, raise questions (red flags) in your mind and you should try to figure out how seriously
the missing facts undermine the authors' arguments.
A simple solution is to create a matrix for tabulating all the information. List all the authors in
column and thus you will create several rows. Make several other columns to note down the titles
of the books/articles, date of publication, key definitions, key facts used, and the type of argument
used, etc. Such a matrix will provide you some basic tools for analysis. See, for example, Table
III. 1,
a hypothetical one, given below:
Table III. 1
Authors'
Brief Titles of Publication Books/Articles Date slow integration of the 70s-80s to the faster pace of the 90s- present 2001 Supranationalism is the first step in construction of a of understanding (MOU) Skinner, European of Hyper-critical superficial unity against the union the near future is programs, CEE between not viable for the expectations of arguments countries and would be detrimental for the Union
With this matrix, it is now possible to see the differences in perspectives, facts used, ideas, and
theories at a glance. It allows you to see the gaps in the literature you have covered and to select
the issue you would like to focus on. It also gives you facts and figures to use as evidence in your
own argument. It is important for you to develop an understanding of what the scholars in the field
have to say about your topic. So, try to categorize the literature by perspective or by paradigms
used by the scholars. This will become useful when you begin to write a review of literature.

IV.
Developing your Argument

Given the collection of facts and ideas you now have at your disposal, it is time to develop your
own ideas and argument. A simple strategy is to develop your argument step by step.
IV. 1. Main ideas

Write down your main ideas and try to order them by some criteria that you establish for yourself.
A good way to proceed is to check your own reactions to your ideas. What seems most significant
to you should come first and what seems of lesser importance to you should come later.
IV. 2. Match the Ideas with Facts
Look at all the facts you have collected and match as many of them with your ideas. The facts will
be the main evidence for your argument.
IV. 3. Match quotations from expert authors
Look up all the quotations you have from your sources and see if any of them are relevant to your
main ideas. Can they help you develop an argument? If they can, use them to bolster your
argument.
IV. 4. Overcome Contradictions
Look out for contradictory facts, ideas, arguments, and face them head on. State the opposing
argument fairly and simply, and then offer a stronger counter argument. In other words, do not
ignore the opposing ideas but write them down and find facts or a rational argument to justify
discrediting the opposing idea or fact.
IV. 5. Drawing your Conclusions together
Your argument duly supported by facts and expert opinions should eventually lead to a few
conclusions. The strongest of your conclusions then becomes your thesis. It is around this thesis
that your research paper should be constructed, and secondary conclusions should be arranged to
offer support to the main thesis.
V. Writing the Research Paper

A research paper is basically a report on why and how you conducted your research on a particular
topic and what were your results of that research. It necessarily retraces your path of research on
the topic and clarifies to your reader the choices you made in seeking to understand the topic of
your choice.
When making your argument you will need to support it with facts. Facts strengthen your argument
since they tie abstract thought to reality. When you do not have acts to support your argument an
alternative way to strengthen your argument is to quote a well known scholar whose statement
supports your idea. Whenever you quote another person's words, you must put it within quotation
marks and give a proper citation. Please take a look at the sample of a student paper.
V. 1. Title
The title of your paper is the first thing a reader sees, and hence it must give the reader a good idea
of what your paper is about. Most researchers start with a working title that is revised after the
paper is all done so that it reflects the conclusions that the researcher has arrived at. Indeed, it is a
reflection of the thesis that you have arrived at. Make sure that the title does not exceed 12 words.
For example, you might have started out with a working title of the "European Union
Commission," but might have ended up with "Striking a Balance Between Bureaucratic Functions
and Decision-making: The Commission of the European Union." The first title is necessarily
brief, but it clearly lacks originality or any clue of the conclusions you have drawn on the topic.
The second title is clear and indicates the direction your paper will take but it is too long.
The final title might actually look something like this: "The EU Commission: Striking the Right
Balance Between Bureaucratic Functions and Decision-making."
V. 1. a Title Page
A title page is the cover page of your paper. It must not only contain the title, which should be
centered but also contain your name, also centered, the date of completion, and the person or
institution you are submitting your paper. The title page does not have a page number and is not
counted as a page. However, it is an essential element of your report/ research paper.
V. 2. Introduction
Often introductions are poorly written because the writer is under a compulsion to write everything
she or he knows about the subject. It becomes necessary, therefore, to cut down the unnecessary
ideas and sentences in the introduction. In an academic paper, the role of an introduction is to
focus the attention of the reader quickly and efficiently on the topic and ideas at hand. It must
introduce the main results of the research: the thesis the writer has arrived at. The writer may then
proceed to explain the consequences of the thesis: why and how it is significant and briefly by
what manner of analysis it was arrived at.
An additional paragraph explaining or defining the main concepts used in the research paper is
another necessary element. When we use words, such as democracy, which have many meanings,
confusion may arise in communication between the writer and the reader. Therefore, researchers
define the main words that they will be using a lot in their research. These words, used only in that
limited sense, are called concepts. The important point to remember is that once you have limited
the meaning of a word, you must use it only in that limited sense through out your paper. By doing
that not only have you created a concept but also you have minimized misinterpretation of your
paper.
V. 3. Review of Literature
In an academic paper, a review of materials of your topic that others have talked about is an
important element. Therefore, you need to inform the writer about your search for answers on your
topic by reading others. What did you find out from them? What facts, ideas, and theories
emerged from your readings? See if some of the materials fall into the same categories and
analyze them. Do a comparison of the different sets of scholars. Why do they differ? How do they
differ from each other? Who emphasizes which facts? What are the sources of their facts? How
does that have an impact on their perspectives? In answering all these questions you will not only
give your reader a better understanding of the fundamentals of your topic but you too will learn in
depth the topic you are writing about.
V. 4. The Method of Analysis and/or Research
Basically, most research methods in the social sciences fall into two categories: qualitative and
quantitative. Qualitative methods include participant observation, interviews, focus groups, and
case studies, while quantitative methods are heavily dependent on questionnaires, surveys, and
statistical analysis.
However, you should know that in any academic paper you will be expected to be conscious of the
type of analysis you do. You would also be expected to justify the type of analysis you used for the
particular topic you had chosen. Types of analysis include literary, comparative, historical,
interpretative, etc.
V. 5. The Body of the Paper
This part of the paper is your contribution to the understanding of your topic. You must present this
part as an argument. You may use facts, quotations, and ideas from other scholars, but the main
argument should be yours and not someone else's. Make sure that you do not contradict yourself
and that you offer counter arguments against other interpretations or arguments. A strong paper
does not ignore opposing arguments, rather it opposes them with a stronger argument.
Remember reason and critical thinking should play a strong part in your argument. You should be
your own best critic when you write your argument. If you do that, you will create a strong
argument.

V. 6. Conclusion
Your conclusion will naturally follow from your argument. It basically offers the results of your
thinking, reading and analysis of the topic you focused on. Some scholars summarize their findings
in their conclusion, and others reiterate their thesis. In either case, make sure that your conclusions
match your thesis as stated in the introduction. You may also indicate here what areas in your topic
need further research and what direction that research should take.
V. 7. Bibliography or References
A bibliography is a list of all scholarly work on the topic. Please do not start the references
immediately on the page on which you have concluded your argument. You will need to list at
least five books and five articles on your reference page.
All entries in the references page should be alphabetized by the family name. Following are
examples of entries for books and articles.
V. 7. a Book by one author
Smith, John K. 1998. European Union in Transition: Disunity in Unity. New York: St. Martin's

V. 7. b Book by three authors
Smith, John K., Jane K. Smith, and Barbara T. Kane. 1997. European Union in the Making. New
York: St. Martin's Press.
V. 7. c Book by more than three authors
Smith, John K. et al. 1997. European Union Politics: Negotiations and Compromises. London:

V. 7. d Article in a Journal
Smith, John. K. 1999. "Why are the British Such Euro-Skeptics?" in The Journal of the European
Union. 74: 651-75.
V. 7. e Chapter in a Book
Smith, Jane. K. 2000. "Whither European Union?" in European Union and the Rest of Europe. Ed.
James Winters. New York: Macmillan Publishers.
V. 7. f Videotape
National Geographic Society (Producer). 1999. In the Shadow of Vesuvius. Washington, DC:
National Geographic Society.
V. 7. g Government Document
Government of Mongolia. 1999. Statistical Year Book of 1998. Ulaanbaatar: Mongolian Government Printing Office.
V. 7. h Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
Smith, Jane. K. 2000a. "Whither European Union?" in European Union and the Rest of Europe.
Ed. James Winters. New York: Macmillan Publishers. Smith, Jane. K. 2000b. The Future of the European Union. New York: Penguin Books.

Source: http://www.openforum.mn/pdf/announce/Fellows%20Project%20Design%20Guidelines.pdf

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