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Annals of Software Engineering 13, 163–201, 2002  2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.
OPEN Process Support for Web Development
BRIAN HENDERSON-SELLERSFaculty of Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123 Broadway,NSW 2007 Australia DAVID LOWE and BRENDAN HAIRE Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123 Broadway, NSW 2007 Australia Abstract. We evaluate the efficacy of an established OO/CBD development process (OPEN) in web devel-
opment and propose new and amended Activities, Tasks, Techniques and Roles that should be included in
OPEN in order to fully support the new demands of website construction and the delivery of business value
on the web. Sixteen new Tasks are identified together with one new Activity. Four subtasks of particular
relevance to the interface based on Usage Centered Design are also advocated. Seven Techniques and ten
Roles (some modified rather than new) are also added to the OPEN repository and some example tailoring
matrices introduced as examples of process instantiation and tailoring for B2C and B2B.
Web development often appears not to use, nor to require, any formal process. But in-creasingly it is being realized that a smart idea, a new dot.com company and a blindfaith in prototyping and "webtime" development will not provide a business environ-ment that can be sustained. For serious software developments to support a successfuland growing commercial enterprise, the same rigour of business and software develop-ment process is required in webtime development as for any other commercial-strengthinformation system.
In this paper, we investigate the applicability of (and required adaptations to) an existing object-oriented (OO) process to the support of web development. The processselected is OPEN; which stands for Object-oriented Process, Environment, and Nota-tion. It is a process-focussed methodological approach to software-intensive systemsdevelopment useful for both OO and CBD (Component-Based Development) systemsdevelopment (and, indeed, also useful for business modelling). It is the longest es-tablished of the third-generation OO approaches and covers the full lifecycle. OPENwas developed and is maintained by the not-for-profit OPEN Consortium, an interna-tional group of over 35 methodologists, academics, CASE tool vendors and develop-ers. OPEN was initially created by the merger of earlier methods: MOSES, SOMA,Firesmith, Synthesis and more recently enhanced by state of the art ideas from BON,Ooram, UML etc. It is documented in a series of books (e.g., [Firesmith and Henderson-Sellers 2002; Firesmith et al. 1998; Graham et al. 1997; Henderson-Sellers et al. 1998;Henderson-SUNCORRECTED PROOF ellers and Unhelkar 2000]) and in many journal articles, particularly, in the VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 1 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE journal JOOP. Many of these shorter articles are to be found on the OPEN website athttp://www.open.org.au.
Here we formulate the necessary web extensions for OPEN and, in so doing, create a "dialect" of OPEN to be known as Web OPEN. The extensions are derived primarilyfrom a combination of an analysis of current literature on web development processesand an analysis of two case studies [Haire 2000] undertaken in web-focussed softwaredevelopment companies, one in the commercial domain and one in the standards domain.
Web development literature
It is often claimed that web development is inherently different from standard appli-cations software development [Bieber and Isakowitz 1995, Burdman 1999, Overmyer2000]. Yet web development in its current incarnation goes far beyond the "promotionalbrochures" and "eye candy" of the first generation of websites and is concomitant withnormal software development in a business environment plus a number of issues relatingto usability (users can rapidly switch to a competitor's site if your website is too arcane),bandwidth (high volume of concurrent users) and graphic artistry (at least in the field ofB2C). Web pages are often read in much the same way as brochures, usually scanned forimportant information and rarely completely read by the user. Web development projectscreate forms of consumer media with videos, sound clips and sometimes entire movies.
In addition to this, there is also the traditional software aspect to web development withwebsites quite often containing sophisticated back-end systems that help sort, organiseand maintain the site. Timescales for website development are also often short and sitecontents extremely malleable.
Web projects tend to be very visible in nature; systems that face the outside world have no room for error. The consequences of errors and downtime in web systems thatinterface to customers or suppliers are often major and simply cannot be tolerated. Thisresults in the need for systems and upgrades to be right first time, every time. Possi-bly even more significant, from a development perspective, is the lack of certainty inthe system domain and the volatility in the requirements of the system – which invari-ably evolve considerably as the system design emerges [Lowe 2000]. Indeed, for manycommercial developments, the requirements process can be viewed as design-driven re-quirements management. In other words, the design process is explicitly used to reducerequirements volatility. This has a fundamental impact on the overall process that isadopted.
2.1. Architecture The architecture of a web project is extremely important to its long-term success. Thearchitecture typically merges a number of separate aspects. Specifically, it covers bothan information architecture and a technical architecture. The information architecturecovers aspects such as the underlying content, the way this content is structured andmanaged, UNCORRECTED PROOF together with a link between the information and the business model that is VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 2 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT being supported. The technical architecture of web systems typically has a thin, highly-customised client front-end, a substantially component-based middleware layer linkedtogether with appropriate "glue" code and a customised back-end that links the systemtogether with legacy systems.
One feature that must be highlighted in the project's architecture is that it must be adaptable. Technology within the web development field is changing so quickly that thearchitecture must be designed in such a way that it can easily change with technology.
The importance of a project's architecture is often overlooked and many people assumethat, since the system exists and has been built, then it must have an architecture. Thisis not true. Recently the re-use of system architectures within the web developmentcommunity have been gaining support. Large companies such as IBM, Sun, HP andMicrosoft have begun long-term projects that deal specifically with web projects andtheir architectures [Butler 2000].
2.2. Component based development The software industry is approaching a stage within its development where softwarepackages, called components, can be used to assemble systems, similar to the way youwould put electronic components together on a printed circuit board. Generally, somecustom coding still needs to be completed in order for the components to interact witheach other. These components are continually becoming more advanced and the amountof coding needed is becoming more limited. This component-based development is alsovery apparent within web development projects. Web developers can assemble appli-cations using a combination of remote services and local services. The nature of suchcomponent-based development differs slightly from traditional OO development and sonew processes for development must be sought. The adoption of a component-based ap-proach in web development is also reflected in the emerging web design notations such asWebML [Ceri et al. 2000] and Conallen's work on the adaptation of the UML [Conallen2000].
2.3. Content management Central to the idea of web development is the idea of an information architecture. A keyaspect of this is content management. The rate of change within traditional softwareprojects does not compare with the rate of change within today's web projects (particu-larly change in content). Websites where the content is updated several times an hour arecommonly found. Website architectures must be adept at handling this ever-increasingrate of change within systems. Although various content design approaches have beenemerging (such as OOHDM [Schwabe and Rossi 1995] and WebML [Ceri et al. 2000])these support only very limited consideration of the way in which the information archi-tecture relates to the technical architecture of a system. Typically, these are developedand represented using quite disparate approaches and the understanding of how to linkthese is only UNCORRECTED PROOF just beginning to emerge. Without this understanding, it becomes difficult VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 3 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE to ensure that aspects such as the content management system are effectively embeddedwithin the overall systems architecture.
2.4. Interfaces The interface wars have now entered the web. The level of communication betweenprojects is increasing as the Internet becomes faster and more reliable. Businesses areusing the Internet to rid themselves of paper-based processes and to improve their sys-tems. The emergence of a new power player, XML, within the Internet has emphasizedthe importance of a standardised communication language. The value of data is knownand more time is being invested in its ability to adapt. Many organisations have beenthrough the painful and expensive process of converting or interfacing to legacy systemsand do not want to repeat the process. This extra attention to the data within a systemaffects the process used when developing web projects.
2.5. Requirements engineering and high level design The development of prototypes or white sites seems to be common practice within anumber of web development organisations. At the recent Object World 2000 confer-ence in Sydney, a number of companies described their production of white sites inthe requirements elicitation phase of development, estimating the requirements phase torepresent 15–20% of the total effort expended on a project.
What is important is that the architecture is developed during the requirements phase. This is the solution to the fact that requirements within web development projectsare extremely volatile. This can often be because the client is unsure of what can beachieved, changing technology, or any range of situations. This is not a surprising at-tribute of any project, although it is more apparent in web development. Perhaps this isbecause the Internet is a relatively new technology, even within the context of softwaredevelopment. The production of a white site, and therefore the high level architecture,solves this problem by leaving the final contract of the systems specification to later inthe development cycle. Figure 1 depicts what commonly happens in web developmentprojects. What is interesting about this diagram is that there is no separate design phasethat is presented to the customer. Rather it has been broken into two: high level designconcerned with the architectural structure of the solution and lower level detailed de-sign concerned with the design of the architectural modules. The first of these two, thehigh level architectural design, has been incorporated into the requirements elicitation oranalysis phase of development. The latter of the two, detailed design, has been movedinto the production or build phase of development. This makes the distinction betweenanalysis and design hard to identify within web projects. The majority of analysis tech-niques used today in web development tend to point towards design decisions. Use casesare considered an analysis tool, yet there are a number of design decisions made whileusing them, UNCORRECTED PROOF as pointed out by Constantine [1995].
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 4


OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Figure 1. Contractual phases against the development process.
2.6. Web development processes Although there has been an emerging consideration of specific design approaches forweb systems as well as certain aspects of the process such as handling of requirements,the overall process has barely been considered. In particular, there has been little atten-tion given to how conventional approaches need to be adapted to suit web projects. Forexample, although there has been some consideration given to using lightweight devel-opment processes for web development [Angelique 1999; Fournier 1999; Haggard 1998]the consideration of web-specific issues has been superficial. One of the approaches re-ceiving the most attention is the use of XP (eXtreme Programming) [Beck 2000]. Whenused in conventional software development, it has been claimed that XP is particularlyeffective for projects that are initially ill-defined – a characteristic of many web projects.
As a result, many of the proponents of XP and similar approaches see it is an ideal ap-proach to be adopted for web development. There are, however, certain problems thatrestrict approaches such as these to web projects. The first is that a number of studies(see, for example, [Martin 2000; Siddiqi 2000]) have shown that approaches such as XPonly work effectively for projects that have cohesive development teams – something of-ten not true with web teams due to their multi-disciplinary background which combinesboth technical and creative design elements. XP can also result in a brittle architec-ture and poor documentation, which makes ongoing evolution of the system difficult –something t UNCORRECTED PROOF hat is important for web systems. Finally, and perhaps most fundamentally, VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 5 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE XP utilises partial solutions to resolve uncertainty in requirements but does not inher-ently handle subsequent changes in these requirements (i.e., requirements volatility) asthe system evolves. This creates problems for web systems, where the emerging designresults in an evolving client understanding of their needs – and hence volatile require-ments [Lowe 2000].
A starting point for a web development methodology: OPEN
3.1. OPEN's current architecture The unique aspect of OPEN is that it is not a process but a configurable family ofprocesses, defined in terms of a metamodel (also known as a process framework: theOPEN Process Framework or OPF). This metamodel contains a number of major ele-ments (figure 2) which can be multiply instantiated. From these instances of the processfragments (stored in the OPF repository), organizationally-specific processes can bereadily constructed.
Although there are many metaclasses in the OPF, they mostly cluster into five groups: Work Units (with major subtypes of Activity, Task and Technique), Work Prod-ucts and Producers with support from Stages and Languages (figure 2). Instances ofthese form a component library for OPEN (figure 3) from which individual instances areselected and put together, constructor set fashion, to create a specific instance of OPEN.
This is called process construction. Since the development organization has selectedthese components, they are readily seen to conform fully to that organization's require-ments. In addition, the way these elements are put together is also the decision of the UNCORRECTED PROOF components of the OPEN process framework (after [Firesmith and Henderson-Sellers 2002]).
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 6


OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Figure 3. OPEN is a framework defined in terms of a metamodel plus a library or repository containing instances generated from that metamodel (modified from [Firesmith and Henderson-Sellers 2002]).
organization or development team. For example, to adopt and use a fully iterative, incre-mental and parallel (IIP) lifecycle model, the supplied Assertions are used to sequenceelements of the process to express the needs of IIP. On the other hand, if a waterfall ap-proach is preferred, then this too is easily constructed using more stringent constraints onthe ordering of what are known as Activities (representing goals to be achieved) withinthe OPF. Activities, along with Tasks and Techniques, are all kinds of Work Units de-fined by the OPF. Activities state what needs to be done but not how. Tasks are similarlyaimed at the "what" not the "how" but in this case are finer grained. They can be ac-complished by a single developer or a small development team in a relatively short timeand can be adjudged by the project manager to be complete or not complete. Makingthese goals (of Tasks and Activities) achievable requires actions of an individual or ateam, referred to as a Producer in the metamodel of the OPF. Producers may be humanor non-human and may be individuals or teams. They work utilizing one or more Taskswith the Techniques in order to produce the Work Products.
Thus, the focus in OPEN, as shown in figure 2, is the synergistic interaction be- tween Producers (typically people), the things they do (Work Units) and the things theyproduce (W UNCORRECTED PROOF ork Products). For a software development organization, it is generally the VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 7 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE last, Work Products, for which they get paid! – although this would not be possiblewithout the Producers and some knowledge of how to build software (as described inthe various Work Units). The OPF defines a useful set of Work Product types, each ofwhich has a number of instantiations in the OPEN library or repository (figure 3). Whilesome are diagrams documented with a modelling language like UML or OML, a largenumber are textual.
Outside the main trio, Stages and Languages (figure 2) provide additional support.
There are various kinds of stages, such as phase, life cycle and milestone, which are usedto give largescale organization (often in time) to the development process. On the otherhand, languages, be they natural languages, modelling languages or coding languages,are needed as "tools" by which to help document many of the work products. OPENsupports both the UML notation, the OML notation and any other good OO notation ofyour choice in order to document the work products that the OPEN process produces.
The componentized nature (afforded by the metamodel) of OPEN thus permits the scope of the approach to be extended whenever new technologies arise – or rather, when-ever the development context changes, thereby requiring changes to the developmentapproach. Two such examples of changes are the emergence of component-based devel-opment and web engineering (although there is in fact significant overlap). Extensionsto OPEN to support CBD are given in [Henderson-Sellers 2001]. In this paper, we focusinstead on adding support for web-based developments, firstly by asking what supportalready exists in OPEN and then what is missing and therefore needs to be identified (orcreated), described and defined for addition into the OPEN framework.
3.2. Existing support in OPEN for web development We have discussed the differences that exist between web development and traditionalsoftware development, but there is also a lot of commonality between the two fields.
Therefore, many of the Activities, Tasks and Techniques in the OPEN framework, arestill relevant to web development. Here, we evaluate existing, new and modified Activ-ities and Tasks needed to create Web OPEN as a web-enabled "dialect" or instance ofOPEN.
If we consider the similarities between regular and web development at the gran- ularity of OPEN's activities, the tasks relevant to the activities of Project Initiation,Implementation Planning and Project Planning will remain relatively unchanged. Theseactivities and tasks are the same for any project. Business approval must be obtained,feasibility studies must be undertaken and other general tasks must be completed. Ac-tivities such as Requirements Engineering and Build will be most affected, since this iswhere the project domain affects the process. Illustrated in figure 4 is OPEN's coverageof lifecycle issues. As OPEN is a full life cycle process model it takes into accountbusiness, training and personnel issues. The Activities, Tasks and Techniques associatedwith these issues may vary but will not be considered in this paper. Rather we will focuson the t UNCORRECTED PROOF echnical aspects of the process.
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 8 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Figure 4. OPEN's coverage of lifecycle issues.
There is no need to create a new set of Activities and Tasks to mimic the ones already in OPEN. Most of the Activities, Tasks and Techniques are generic enough tobe used in web development, e.g., Code can be used to signify the coding of objects orthe actual writing of HTML pages. Some activities become less critical in web develop-ment, or more critical (such as configuration management [Dart 2000]), but the existenceof the Activities is not affected. Changes could, however, be made to make the Activi-ties, Tasks and Techniques more specific to web development. For example, UndertakeArchitectural Design could be renamed Undertake Web Architectural Design for a webenvironment. However, since this renaming does not really add value to the Task, weconsider it to be unnecessary.
The Tasks and Techniques relating to the development of objects will still be useful within the Web OPEN framework. Their importance may be reduced, however, as acomponent-based development process becomes more prominent.
Extending OPEN support for web development
In this section, we outline the various Activities and Tasks (section 4.1) that are pro-posed as additions and modifications to the OPEN framework to better facilitate webprojects. The full details of each of these Activities, Tasks and Techniques are givenin the figures. We also discuss affiliated roles (section 4.2). These proposed additionsare based on the literature analysis described in section 2 and validated using two casestudies [Haire 2000] of web development projects. We analysed the extent to which theprocess that was followed contained activities, tasks or techniques that would not havebeen appropriate in a non-web project.
Many web development techniques are isomorphic to those used in regular appli- cations development. Consequently, many of the relevant techniques are not unique todevelopment for the web. Some are generic techniques that were just never included inthe OPEN framework, "Checklists" is a good example of this, being added to OPENmore recently [Henderson-Sellers 2001]. The new techniques proposed here for addi-tion to the UNCORRECTED PROOF OPEN framework are: "Branding"; "Development Spikes"; "Field Trip"; VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 9 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE "Reuse of Graphical Components"; "System Metaphors"; "Web Metrics"; and "WebTemplates". These are discussed in the relevant subsections below.
4.1. New Activity, Tasks and Techniques In this subsection we discuss the various new activities, tasks and techniques which wehave identified (from both the literature and our industry case studies) as being neces-sary additions to the process component repository of OPEN (figure 3). Each activ-ity/task/technique thus identified is defined in a separate figure following the standardformat defined in the OPEN books [Graham et al. 1997, Henderson-Sellers et al. 1998].
4.1.1. New Activity: Website ManagementThe whole area of web engineering requires a significant new focus in the form of an ac-tivity that is proposed as "Website Management". Website management brings togetherall the issues regarding the development, maintenance and management of a corporatewebsite which may or may not include access to back-end transaction processing sys-tems. The objectives of the website management Activity include creating a high qualitywebsite; keeping the website up to date; and ensuring that site standards are met as thewebsite evolves.
The website management Activity involves a number of new OPEN Tasks, which are introduced in the subsections below. A number of more general management Tasksrelate to defining standards and strategies.
As part of managing a website, it is important that the acceptance criteria for de- livery to the client be clearly established (figure 5), particularly since website are somalleable entities. Quality levels must also be established, particularly in terms of howthe website will actually be tested against client requirements (figure 6).
To end users, consistency is highly sought together with confidence that the site is understandable and will function the same way on repeat visits. Thus an important taskis "Define website standards" (figure 7).
Focus: Quality. Predetermining criteria for evaluation of website.
Typical supportive techniques: Critical success factors; Envisioning; Acceptance testing; Us-
ability testing.
Explanation: Websites are often created for the client by third party companies. In delivering
the completed website to the client, it is important to know on what basis it will or will not be
deemed acceptable. This task focuses on agreeing the acceptance criteria early in the creation of
the website so that they are unambiguous and easy to interpret. They will also guide the early
stages of the site design.
The acceptance criteria will typically describe the underlying business model and outcomes and
the key tasks to be supported by the site.
Producers for this task include Project manager, web designer.
Post-conditions for this task might include an agreed set of acceptance criteria.
UNCORRECTED PROOF Figure 5. Define acceptance criteria for website.
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 10 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Testing.
Typical supportive techniques: Beta testing; Package and subsystem testing; Regression test-
ing; Unit testing; Usability testing; Web metrics.
Explanation: Unlike most (though certainly not all) conventional software systems, web sys-
tems are usually directly accessible to users from outside the client organisation. Indeed they
often become the primary interface between the client and their customers. Hence, it is critical
that the system be fully operational from initial release and not suffer performance or usability
problems. This will often be complicated by the fact that the user base is only poorly known
and potentially huge, as well as from diverse social and cultural backgrounds. This means there
will be a multitude of assumptions in the users' minds as they use the site; and many unforeseen
navigational paths through the site are likely to be realized.
It is therefore critically important to thoroughly test the website before release. The testing must
be rigorous and as complete as feasible. To do that, standards for testing must be pre-determined
and an overall testing strategy devised in much the same way as such a strategy would be created
for non-website developments.
Producers for this task include System tester, Project manager.
Post-conditions for this task might include a defined strategy for testing.
Figure 6. Define website testing strategy.
Focus: Quality and consistency.
Typical supportive techniques: Web metrics; Usability testing.
Explanation: Users like a website that has consistency – consistency within the website and
consistency with other websites; consistent user functionality such as they might expect from
buttons, scroll bars, etc. both in terms of their location and functionality. Since there are no
internationally recognized standards for websites, it is important that a website owner consolidate
a set of site-specific standards and stick with them. That way users can come to know what to
expect and thus are more likely to keep returning to the site.
Producers for this task include web designers, System/site administrators.
Post-conditions for this task might include a set of standards for both the usability aspects (UI)
and functional aspects of the proposed website.
Figure 7. Define website standards.
As mentioned above, there are also some new Techniques introduced here for sup- porting the use of OPEN in web developments. Two general techniques, the first primar-ily applicable in web developments but the second more generally useful, are Develop-ment Spikes (figure 8) and Field Trips (figure 9).
4.1.2. Components and frameworksWeb projects tend to have at least one level of their architecture that is component-based.
The OPEN framework detailed in "The OPEN Process Specification" [Graham et al.
1997] does not include adequate support for component-based development (CBD).
There does, however, exist an extension to the OPEN framework that allows for CBD.
This ex UNCORRECTED PROOF tension can be found in more detail in [Henderson-Sellers 2001] and will not, VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 11 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Minimising risk, solving unknowns.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Develop and implement resource allocation plan; De-
velop software development context plans and strategies.
Technique description: A development spike can be thought of as research. The aim of the
technique is to minimize areas of high risk by diving right in and starting development within a
certain technology. The idea is that once development has begun, a greater understanding of the
problem will be obtained and risk and time assessment will be more accurate. The development
done within development spikes can be used as a reference but should never be used in the actual
final development of the project. Development spikes are particularly useful in web development
due to the rapidly changing nature of technology within this field and the poor client understand-
ing of their own needs.
Technique usage: Areas of high risk are identified and code is quickly created (hacked) to gain
better knowledge of a certain technology and/or problem. Development spikes are ideally suited
to obtain quick answers regarding specific technologies. A typical development spike might start
with the question, "Can I connect to a MySQL database using ASP?" As stated in the description,
the work produced within a development spike should not be part of the final solution. eXtreme
Programming – or XP [Beck 2000] – provides a good example of the use of development spikes.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): A small working example that demonstrates an
answer to the particular question posed.
Figure 8. Development spikes.
Focus: Examining the current business environment and final place of deployment of the system.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: all tasks associated with requirements engineering.
Technique description: This technique is really quite self-descriptive. It serves the same pur-
pose as school field trips or field trips in the natural sciences or the engineering professions. By
actually visiting a site, a greater overall understanding of the problem is gained. This technique
is useful in isolating implied (or assumed) user requirements. It is more effective when coupled
with techniques such as user focus groups.
Technique usage: A time should be arranged for the development team to go to the physical site
of business operations and be given a tour.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): No explicit deliverables, although this technique
helps to identify implied user requirements. A list of these may form the post-condition.
Figure 9. Field trip.
therefore, be discussed any further here, while noting that the nature of web develop-ment projects, and their component-based architecture, means this extension would beuseful when implementing a Web OPEN framework.
4.1.3. Content management and personalizationAnother major factor within web development is both the idea of content managementand personalization. These both represent functionality that must be included in the ma-jority of web projects today. It can be debated as to the level of which these factorsshould be r UNCORRECTED PROOF epresented in the OPEN framework. Since these issues can be considered to VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 12 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT play an intricate part in the architecture of the solution, three new Tasks are proposed.
Two of these are at the planning stage: "Design and implement content managementstrategy" (figure 10); and "Design and implement personalization strategy" (figure 11);and one at the enactment stage of project management: "Undertake content manage-ment" (figure 12). These Tasks can often be component based and so could often runparallel to the new activity of "Component selection".
4.1.4. Architecture and architectural patternsIn recent times there has been much discussion on architecture and patterns within soft-ware development. This is also the case in the web development community. Creating asolid architecture is seen by many as the most crucial component of a successful systems Focus: Incorporating a content management system into the project's architecture.
Typical supportive techniques: Review; System metaphors; Project planning.
Explanation: The power of most web application and web projects lies in the ability of users to
be able to access up-to-date information quickly. Without a mechanism for keeping the informa-
tion within a web project up-to-date this advantage is lost.
The purpose of this task is to design and incorporate a system to allow the content within a project
to be updated both easily and quickly. The extent to which this affects the overall architecture
of the solution depends on the type and extent of content to be updated and the method used to
update it.
Producers for this task include Requirements modellers, web designers, System architects and
Editors.
Post-conditions for this task include a documented content management strategy.
Figure 10. Design and implement content management strategy.
Focus: Incorporating a personalization system into the project's architecture.
Typical supportive techniques: Project planning; Impact analysis; Impact estimation table.
Explanation: As web projects can often deal with a large range of target users, it makes the task
of designing a usable interface difficult. Each user has different expectations about the size, the
color, the shape and where particular bits of information should be, as well as functionality that
will support them in achieving their goals. To overcome this problem, the notion of user adap-
tation or personalization has been created. Details about the user (or class of users) are stored
and the system adapts the content, structure, presentation and/or functionality to suit the specific
user. This concept also covers the idea of portals.
This task looks at defining the level of personalization allowed for the system. It looks at the
type of user profile information that will be stored and the method used to do so. The extent
to which this affects the overall architecture of the solution depends on the type and extent of
personalization and the method used.
Producers for this task include Requirements modellers, web designers and System architects.
Post-conditions for this task might include documentation for personalization (technical and busi-
ness aspects).
UNCORRECTED PROOF Figure 11. Design and implement personalization strategy.
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 13 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Managing the actual content (rather than the form) of material on the website.
Typical supportive techniques: Configuration management.
Explanation: Content on a website can change rapidly, sometimes daily. Managing this content
is a change management challenge. Because pages are hyperlinked together and often to other
sites (to and from) nothing is more frustrating than to try to follow a link that ends in a cul-de-
sac or results in stale out-of-date information. Good content management would obviate such
problems.
Producers for this task include Editor, Project manager.
Post-conditions for this task include a stable process for maintaining the quality and integrity of
the content on the website.
Figure 12. Undertake content management.
Focus: Creating an architecture for the website that will last.
Typical supportive techniques: Concept maps.
Explanation: Websites tend to evolve constantly during their lifecycle. This evolution is
often very incremental and fine-grained. Without a solid architecture, it is likely that this
evolution will result in a system that rapidly deteriorates in quality. This task focuses on
creating such an architecture including considerations of security, usability and function-
ality.
While websites are continually changing as owners update both content and func- tionality, it is important to permit this flexibility within an overall strategy (the architec-ture).
It is also worth noting that the architecture needs to encompass not only the technical structure,but also the information architecture – how the content will be managed, organised, etc. Atpresent, architectural modelling approaches do not handle well the integration of these variousaspects.
Producers for this task include System architects. Post-conditions for this task includes a docu-mented architecture for the proposed website.
Figure 13. Design website architecture.
development. In the case of web developments, we introduce specifically a task called"Design website architecture" (figure 13).
A number of large organisations have done a significant amount of work in de- tailing architectural patterns that emerge for different web applications. Some of theseinitiatives link in closely with their corresponding component frameworks (e.g., Sun'sinitiative, Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition Blueprint focuses on the development anddeployment of applications using the J2EE platform); others, however, focus more onthe architectural side of the solution and separate this from the implementation layer ofdevelopment. The most notable of these is the work done by IBM in their "Patterns for e-business" project [Butler 2000]. This all points to the need for choosing an architecturalpattern depending on the type of web development. These architectural patterns are re-ally a form of domain modeling in the OPEN framework. To facilitate this choice withinthe OPEN framework a new task "Choose architectural pattern for website" (figure 14)has been UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 14 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Choosing an appropriate architectural pattern for the project domain.
Typical supportive techniques: Domain analysis.
Explanation: The majority of projects that are undertaken have some relation to projects that
have already been completed. Projects can be classified into domains depending on their particu-
lar characteristics (B2B, B2C, etc.). Good use can be made here of previous experience, perhaps
encapsulated in patterns. In order for patterns to be of use, a certain degree of domain analysis
must have taken place. Domains can usually only be identified after a number of projects have
been completed, these projects reflected on and grouped roughly according to their characteris-
tics. Web development is currently reaching the stage in its evolution where this is possible.
There are a number of organisations that have completed patterns analysis emerging in the field
of web development. Some of these include Sun's Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE),
Microsoft's work revolving around the Duwamish Books and IBM's work on "Patterns for e-
business." IBM's work currently stands out as it focuses on separating the actual architecture of
the solution from the technology used to implement the solution.
Currently IBM has a number of separate architectural patterns in the following 6 business ar-
eas: User to Business; User to Online Buying; Business to Business; User to User; User to
Data; and Application Integration [Butler 2000]. Further detail on these patterns can be found
at the IBM website for the application framework for e-business (http://www.ibm.com/
framework).
The purpose of this task is to minimize both design time and risk by selecting and adapting an
architectural pattern that has already been developed and tested. This pattern can then act as a
starting point for further development. An unfortunate problem with selecting an architecture is
that it is often restricted by the choice of a component framework. For example, it would be more
time consuming to implement anything else but a Microsoft architecture on a .NET framework.
It is for this reason that it is recommended that this task runs parallel with the task "Choose ap-
propriate component framework".
Producers involved in this task include Requirements modellers and System architects.
The pre-condition of this task is a domain analysis of the project. The post-condition is an archi-
tectural framework to use as a starting point for the architectural design of the system.
Figure 14. Choose architectural pattern (subtask of "Create a system architecture").
An interesting technique, borrowed from XP [Beck 2000] is that of system metaphor (figure 15). Here the developers try to find a useful analogue for their ar-chitecture, often in the business world. For instance, on an e-commerce site, we mightdesign the architecture in terms of one to support a suupermarket analogy or metaphorwith shopping trolleys and checkouts.
4.1.5. Content developmentWithin web projects there is a large amount of rich content that exists as part of the userinterface. In traditional software development, the user interface contained a number ofvarious simple controls such as combo boxes and edit bars. The user interface with webdevelopment projects consists of almost anything imaginable, from rich text, streamingaudio, to even actual applications within the user interface. This content must be care-fully UNCORRECTED PROOF prepared much the same way that an editor reviews a newspaper before its final VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 15 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Conveying the system architecture in an understandable non-technical language.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Identify user requirements; Undertake the architectural
design.
Technique description: A technique originally used in the Extreme Programming (XP)
process [Beck 2000] for naming classes and methods. It was designed in order to keep the
entire team thinking along the same lines when it comes to naming. However, this is also an
important technique when discussing an architecture of a system. It is important for the entire
development team as well as the client to have an overall understanding of the architecture of the
system being produced. As web development teams tend to have a wide range of producers from
varying disciplines, the use of a system metaphor is a good tool to communicate across these
platforms.
Note that this use of the idea of metaphors is different from the way the concept is used in user-
interface development. In this latter case, a metaphor is often used as the basis for the design so
that users have a known (and consistent) model of interaction. For example, the "supermarket"
concept of searching for goods and then adding them to a shopping cart that is then "checked out"
is widely used. An alternative metaphor used for e-commerce applications may be an "exclusive
boutique" where items are presented to a user for consideration, rather than the user having to
search for them.
In effect, the first use of metaphors (the focus of this technique) is to provide a basis for develop-
ers to understand the system during development. The second use is to provide a basis for users
to understand how to interact with the system.
Technique usage: Choose a system of names for your project that everyone can relate to. Ide-
ally it should be related to the business area for which the system is being designed (i.e., not
the system itself); decide on the style of commercial interactions (transaction processing) that is
desirable on the website. The example used in the XP process was for the Ford Car Sales system
where the naming was structured as a bill of materials. Naming conventions within this system
contained metaphors like "production line".
There is also a metaphor known as a naïve metaphor that is based on the system itself. The
XP example of this is a system to control a coffee maker. As everyone is familiar with a coffee
maker, they decided to use a naïve metaphor based on the system itself. A naïve metaphor should
not be used unless it is very simple.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): A naming scheme for the architecture.
Figure 15. System metaphors.
print. The preparation of images, editing and layout of text, and obtaining copyrightclearances all must be completed. There is no existing Task that deals with these kindsof things within the standard OPEN framework. The addition of such a task is essentialfor a Web OPEN framework. The name chosen for this new OPEN Task is "Create con-tent (on website)" (figure 16). In addition, much reuse can be made in creating content.
Thus the Technique of "Reuse of graphical components" (figure 17) is also introduced.
One particular form of reuse is that provided by "Web templates" (figure 18) which isalso a highly useful technique.
After this content has been carefully prepared, it must then be combined with the UNCORRECTED PROOF ace. This is an ongoing task that must be done to bring together the worlds VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 16 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Reviewing content. Editing and formatting.
Typical supportive techniques: Review; Reuse of graphical components; System metaphors.
Explanation: The purpose of this task is to finalize the content that will eventually be incor-
porated into the user interface. It parallels what an editor might do in the production of any
print media. Copyright clearances should be obtained for any information to be displayed. The
content should be edited to maintain a consistent feel. The overall relevance of the information
should be reviewed for fitness for purpose.
In many case the content will not just be textual but involve multiple media forms. As such this
task may also involve aspects such as audio and video editing, image manipulation (cropping,
resizing, etc.), construction of animations. It will also involve ensuring the overall consistency
of this content.
The producers for this task can vary depending on the scale of the web development. In largescale
web projects there may be a separate editor while in smaller operations the majority of this work
can be done by the actual customer. In general, the producer for this task must have a good
overall feel for the project's higher business purpose as well as excellent communication skills.
Other producers involved include Graphical designers and web designers, as well as specialists
in managing non-textual media.
Post-conditions for this task include content that has been formally edited and reviewed. All
copyright clearances and legal issues relating to the content should have been resolved.
Figure 16. Create content (on website).
Focus: Generating re-usable graphical components.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Prepare content; Integrate content with user interface;
Optimize reuse (‘with reuse'); Optimize the design.
Technique description: This technique is more good practice than an actual technique. It is
based around the concept that browsers cache pictures and therefore reusing a number of pic-
tures will improve a site's performance and therefore its quality. This technique also focuses
on minimizing the size of graphics without losing a significant amount of picture quality. What
signifies a significant amount of picture quality depends on the purpose and use of the graphic.
Technique usage: Identify common graphical components within a system. Focus on re-using
these graphical components where possible. Identify large graphical images within the site and
experiment with different file formats (GIF, JPG, etc.) as well as picture resolutions to minimize
the file size.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): A library of optimized graphical components to be
used within the user interface.
Figure 17. Reuse of graphical components.
of print media and software development. On one side there is a team of creative typepeople coming up with all sorts of new ideas. On the other side are technical peoplewho must facilitate a method to integrate these ideas with the current navigation, usageand content management of the site. A new OPEN Task of "Integrate content withuser interface" (figure 19) is thus proposed. This task is responsible for combining thecontent with UNCORRECTED PROOF the method being used to present that content to the user. This task is also VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 17 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Generating standardised web templates for common user interface pages.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Prepare Content; Integrate Content with user interface;
Optimize reuse (‘with reuse'); Optimize the design.
Technique description: This technique focuses on isolating common areas of content so they
can be displayed in a consistent format. It also assists in the maintenance of a system by provid-
ing appropriate templates to use when adding new content to the site. The technology used to
implement web templates can vary. Templates generally come with some kind of validation sys-
tem that verifies that all the appropriate content has been entered. Some commonly used methods
include Microsoft Word documents with embedded Visual Basic to validate the content, or online
Active Server Pages (ASP) that allow administrators to update and validate new content online.
The main advantage of using web templates is that it allows people with a lower level of technical
experience with the system to do the majority of the work to create new content. This reduces
the effect of any bottleneck that may occur with the site administrator. Web templates can also
ensure that standards are met by forcing the collection of information such as metadata for in-
dexing.
Technique usage: Divide the content into logically grouped areas that are to be displayed in
the same style. Determine what aspects of the content need to be validated and any additional
information that needs to be collected (e.g., metadata for search indexing). Design the structure
of the web templates and a procedure for using them. Note that this step will be influenced by
architectural and design decisions.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): A variety of web templates and a procedure for
using them.
Figure 18. Web templates.
important within the Web OPEN framework as it highlights the difficulties that occurwhen combining two different cultures together within the same project.
4.1.6. User interfaceThe user interface within a web project constitutes a large portion of the overall project.
It is vital in determining the success or failure of the project. OPEN already has a tasknamed "Design user interface". This task needs to be somewhat more emphasized forweb development projects. It does not warrant being labelled as an activity under theOPEN framework, yet deserves a number of relevant subtasks. These subtasks havebeen taken from Constantine and Lockwood's [1999] work on Usage Centered Design(UCD), which is more appropriate than the significantly different User Centered/CentricDesign [Norman and Draper 1986] given that it is often not possible to conduct effectiveuser centred design. "Usage-Centered Design focuses on the work that users are tryingto accomplish and on what the software will need to supply via the user interface to helpthem accomplish it" [Constantine and Lockwood 1999]. It is also important to recallthe comments made in the introduction about the role of design within web develop-ment. In particular, design-driven requirement elicitation is significantly different fromconventional design. This highlights the significance of UCD, which allows designersto focus on potential patterns of utilisation and therefore helps resolve the uncertainty inthe requirem UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 18 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Combining the prepared content to be displayed by the presentation layer of the system.
Typical supportive techniques: Robustness analysis.
Explanation: This is the task of bringing two varying worlds of different disciplines together.
The creative design team involves graphical designers and editors, whereas the software
engineering team consists of web developers, software architects and programmers. The varying
traits of each team can be summarized as follows:
Creative Design Team: • Based around intuition not a formal process;• Artistic in nature.
Software Engineering Team: • Architecturally bound;• Logical in nature;• Focus on functionality; and• Process orientated.
During this task, an agreement must be reached by both teams as to the content that is to bedisplayed and the method used to display it. In effect, there will be a trade-off between what isdesirable from a creative perspective and what is technically feasible.
Producers involved in this task would be the web designers, Graphical designers, Editors andbackend System developers.
Post-conditions for this task include a prototype and functional website.
Figure 19. Integrate content with user interface.
The three sub-tasks that have been added to supplement the original "Design user interface" task are "Create the UCD role model" (figure 20); "Create the UCD taskmodel" (figure 21); and "Create the UCD content model" (figure 22). The last of thesesubtasks links in well with the new task "Integrate content with user interface" as itstarts to identify the relationships between the content and the user interface includingnavigation maps (new Task: "Create navigation map for website" (figure 23)). All threesubtasks identify how the site is to be used (hence the name Usage Centered Design) andalso help to tie the user interface to the web projects requirements.
Once the interface has been designed and perhaps partly constructed, a new task of "Prototype the human interface" (figure 24) should be executed in order to get early userfeedback and thus improve the ongoing interface development.
4.1.7. White sites (the web prototype)A task often completed in web development projects is the construction of what is termedin the industry as a "white site". A white site consists of no rich graphical content andusually only represents a portion of the entire website. In web development, the whitesite is responsible for a number of key factors that lead to a successful project: • it provides valuable client confirmation that the developer has interpreted the systems requirem UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 19 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Modeling the various roles that will use the system.
Typical supportive techniques: Active listening; Brainstorming; Workshops; Questionnaires.
Explanation: The purpose of this task is to identify whom, in terms of roles, will be using
the system. A user role is an abstract collection of needs, interests, expectations, behaviors
and responsibilities characterizing a relationship between a class or kind of users and a
system [Wirfs-Brock 1993]. User roles generally relate to humans or more specifically to the
roles that the humans assume while using the system.
A user roles list must be created during this task that identifies the needs, interests, expectations,
behaviors and responsibilities that characterize and distinguish the different roles.
appropriate questions to consider while constructing the role model include [Constantine andLockwood 1999]: • Who would or could use the system? • What is the general class or group to which thay belong? • What distinguishes how they would or could use the system? • What characterize their relationship to the software? • What do they typically need from the software? • How do they behave in relation to the software, and how do they expect the software to The development of the user role model also includes identifying focal roles and creating a userrole map.
Producers for this task include the Prototype developer and the Graphic designer.
The post-conditions for this task include a list of User Roles and a User Role Map.
Figure 20. Create the UCD role model (subtask of "Design user interface").
Focus: Modeling the various tasks that the system will be required to complete.
Typical supportive techniques: Active listening; Brainstorming; Workshops; Questionnaires;
Videotaping; Essential use cases.
Explanation: The purpose of this task is to identify the nature of the work that is to be completed
by the system. OPEN techniques such as videotaping are useful for this task since users will often
tell you what they are meant to be doing rather than what they are actually doing.
The creation of essential use cases and a use case map are central to this task. Constantine and
Lockwood [1999, chapter 5] present significant further detail on the process of creating a UCD
task model.
The producer for this task is the System tester.
Post-conditions for this task might include a set of essential use cases and/or a use case map.
Figure 21. Create the UCD task model (subtask of "Design user interface").
• it integrates the change management strategy, the usage and the navigation of the site all together in a visible working solution; • it works as a communication tool to display the site architecture to the client and the development team.
Strictly speaking, creating a white site is a form of prototyping, which is already covered in t UNCORRECTED PROOF he OPEN framework. However, the usefulness of white sites, in the design VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 20 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Modeling the various contexts that work takes place in.
Typical supportive techniques: Active listening; Brainstorming; Workshops; Questionnaires.
Explanation: Efficient user performance takes place in a context in which the necessary tools
and materials are immediately available [Constantine and Lockwood 1999, p. 125]. Thus, in
order for a system to be effective and user friendly, the appropriate tools and information must
be available in the correct areas. The identification of these areas is dependent on the roles the
user is playing (the role model) and the type of work that is being performed (the task model).
To present a scenario to understand this concept better, you would go into your garage acting as
a mechanic when you wanted to fix your car. In this scenario the role would be the mechanic,
the task would be to fix the car and the context of the work would be the garage. This therefore
makes the garage an obvious place to store all the tools you require to fix a car for ease of acces-
sibility and improved efficiency. This scenario highlights the need to identify these interaction
spaces within the user interface in order to improve efficiency and usability.
The content model is an abstract representation of the contents of the various interaction spaces
for a system and their interconnections [Constantine and Lockwood 1999, p. 126]. To commu-
nicate this a content model with supporting navigation maps is used.
The producer for this task is the System tester.
Post-conditions for this task might include a content model which satisfies UCD principles.
Figure 22. Create the UCD content model (subtask of "Design user interface").
Focus: Finding way around a website.
Typical supportive techniques: Concept maps; Complexity measurement; web templates; Sys-
tem metaphors.
Explanation: Many of the earliest websites just grew without any planning. One immediate
consequence is that the user rapidly gets lost and disoriented when using the site because there
is no navigational logic to the site. In this task, we purposefully design the navigational struc-
ture of the site. A representation of this is often accessible within websites via a button labelled
something like "site map".
This task will often be complicated by the existence of dynamically changing content, the ap-
pearance of the same data in multiple places, the complexity of the "work-flows" that may be
supported by the site, and the diversity of users for a system. A number of design languages (such
as WebML) and methods (such as OOHDM – Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Model) have
appeared that directly support navigational design.
Producers for this task include System architects, Systems modellers, web designers, System/site
administrators.
Post-conditions for this task would include documentation describing the navigational structure
of the website plus an endorsement of its high quality.
Figure 23. Create navigation map for website.
and requirements engineering phases of web development, warrants the existence of aseparate Task. In addition, we note that there exist a number of various Techniques relat-ing to how to create white sites, which points to it being a Task rather than a Technique.
The name c UNCORRECTED PROOF hosen to represent this new Task in OPEN is "Build white site" (figure 25).
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 21 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Usability.
Typical supportive techniques: Simulation; Throwaway prototyping; Usability testing; Dia-
logue design in UI; Reuse of graphical components; System metaphors.
Explanation: Since the value of most websites is in terms of attracting users and then getting
them to return to the same website later, usability is a key issue for website designers. The hu-
man interface is thus critical and, as part of building a white site, an important task is to trial or
prototype the human interface.
Producers involved in this task would include Requirements modellers, Graphic designers, Pro-
totype developers and System testers.
Post-conditions for the task include a user-interface prototype, an evaluation of this prototype
and knowledge on how to improve the usability of the website in the next iteration.
Figure 24. Prototype the human interface.
Focus: The production of a visible solution incorporating the architecture and user interface of
the system.
Typical supportive techniques: Use Cases; Robustness Analysis; Throwaway prototyping.
Explanation: This task is intended to provide feedback on the requirements of the web project.
As Internet technology is constantly changing, it is often the case that either the client or devel-
oper (or both) are unfamiliar with the technology at hand. The early production of a prototype
allows for increased estimation and risk assessment for the remainder of the project. The proto-
type most often developed in the web industry consists of a series of web pages with rudimentary
content (graphical imagery is usually left out or remains in a very early stage of development)
that sits on top of a simulation of the final architectural design. This type of prototype has been
labelled a "white site" within industry.
A white site incorporates all of the major architectural components of the design without worry-
ing about the lower level details. It typically would include a rough change management solution
(or at least an example of how it would work) as well as sample pages of content incorporated
with the navigation maps. The site will typically not provide full functionality, but will at least
indicate what this functionality will be.
Pre-conditions for this task include draft navigation maps, a set of user requirements, and a pro-
posed architectural solution.
As "white sites" are often used as a tool to help distinguish the system requirements the produc-
tion of a white site is best served in the very early phases of development. Most web development
organisations will charge the client for a definition phase in which the white site is created. This
effectively moves the analysis and high level design of the problem into the same invoice.
The white site once developed may or may not be maintained for the duration of the project de-
pending on the nature of the project and the client's requirements.
Producers for this task include the Web Designer, Graphic Designer, System Architect and Re-
quirements Modeler.
Post-conditions for this task include a visible working prototype of the solution and an evaluation
of this prototype. The white site should include all aspects of the solution that are considered to
contain high risk factors. The prototype can then be used to further freeze user requirements as
well as acting as an architectural base for the rest of the development team.
UNCORRECTED PROOF Figure 25. Build white site.
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 22 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Developing standards for the data within the system.
Typical supportive techniques: Web metrics.
Explanation: The importance of the data within a project cannot be underestimated. The prob-
lems apparent with many of today's systems result from old legacy databases that are not adapt-
able enough to be able to handle changes and modifications. We cannot afford to make this
mistake in the future and so the data collected and used within web projects must be extensible,
scalable and preferably follow an appropriate standard in order to be compatible. There are in-
dustry standards that are being developed that can act as an excellent starting point. Some of
these include the W3 Consortium's industry standards for XML tags. A well thought out data
standard ensures that the system can be replaced with changing technology without affecting the
data within the system.
A subsidiary aspect of this task is the adoption of suitable meta-data standards and formats, as
well as procedures for ensuring their maintenance. Meta-data can be critical in supporting effec-
tive indexing, searching and control and management of the data.
Producers for this task would typically include Requirements modellers, System architects, Sys-
tem designers and Editors.
As the web develops further we can expect to see further system to system projects that provide
services. This idea expands on the idea of web portals.
Post-conditions for this task include an agreed data standard for the website.
Figure 26. Develop data standards.
4.1.8. StandardsAt present, the rapid pace of technological change and the growing complexity of websystems is leading to significant difficulties with regard to interfaces between varioussystem components, web systems, legacy systems and related business systems. Al-though the technology (and in particular the communications protocols and data for-mats) supporting these interfaces will stabilise – led in part by the move to XML – otheraspects will continue to evolve. As interfaces stabilise, changing knowledge represen-tations will become a major focus, so that as these stabilise changes in agent brokersmay become the focus. In other words, changing technology has become a constantfactor within the web environment. Nevertheless, the development of data standards isstill a critical aspect of web development, given the strong focus on content and the wayin which it is managed. Consequently, an appropriate new OPEN Task is introduced:"Develop data standard" (figure 26). There has been a lot of work done on developingindustry standard XML tags by the W3 Consortium and this would often provide an ex-cellent starting point for this task. The importance of this task is more noticeable in largeB2B projects than B2C projects.
4.1.9. Performance testingPerformance testing has been elevated to a new level on the web. We now see systemsthat must deal with tens of thousands of concurrent users on-line. The performance ofa web project can often be determined by its ability to deal with these large loads. Thislinks into theUNCORRECTED PROOF fact that users can quickly become frustrated from an unresponsive website VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 23 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: The performance of the project and associated processes under high usage.
Typical supportive techniques: Beta testing; Package and subsystem testing; Regression test-
ing; Unit testing; Usability testing; web metrics.
Explanation: This subtask has a two-fold purpose. The first is to test the hardware configuration
and its ability to handle an appropriate level of traffic or ‘hits' as they are commonly referred to.
The second and perhaps more important aspect of this subtask is to test the underlying processes
and how they are affected by the expected maximum load on the system. There is no point in
having a e-commerce web project that can handle 1 million hits a day if the fulfilment procedure
responsible for delivering goods can only handle 100,000 orders a day.
The producer for this task is the System tester.
Post-conditions for this task include a suite of test results and their analysis together with a list
of consequent action items.
Figure 27. Undertake testing of website.
Focus: Collection of metric data relating to web development.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Evaluate quality; Undertake post-implementation
review.
Technique description: One of OPEN's strong characteristics is its attention to metrics. While
further work is needed in order to statistically verify what the most appropriate metrics are, an
initial proposal should focus on:
• Interface complexity: at a simple level this can be estimated through a page count, though this can be misleading, as a single server-side page may contain scripting that results in manydifferent client-side manifestations. A more effective metric may be interaction counts orsomething similar, though there has, to date, been little work in this area.
• Performance: this can be estimated initially through number of hits per page per unit time – determines the general usage of a page and indicates where optimization would best be served.
• Access: total size of pages (including graphics) – a useful quality measure in terms of speed • Maintenance: rate of change of content – a metric useful for indicating when a site or page has become stagnant.
Some of the metrics are relevant to the development process and some related to the maintenanceaspect of web projects. In addition to these extra metrics supporting web development, theoriginal metric techniques within the OPEN framework are still relevant.
Figure 28. Web metrics.
and quickly move on to another. The OPEN repository does not currently have a taskrelating to this kind of performance testing. The inclusion of a new Task "Undertaketesting of website" (figure 27) highlights the importance of performance testing withinweb development projects. (Tasks and Techniques already exist in OPEN for usabilityand interface testing and evaluation, e.g., Technique: Usability testing and the newlyproposed Task: "Define website testing strategy" (figure 6). An allied technique herecould be e UNCORRECTED PROOF lements of the newly proposed Technique: "Web metrics" (figure 28).) VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 24 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Focus: Determining market description.
Typical supportive techniques: Active listening; Workshops; Questionnaires.
Explanation: The purpose of this task is to determine market share and sector characteristics.
Market research is a huge industry and, if any significant research needs to be undertaken, it is
recommended to outsource this particular task.
This task is useful in requirements engineering as it helps identify the usage of the system. It
should provide information that better refines the requirements as well as affecting the overall
design of the system. Things that should be looked into include average hardware profile of
users, software most used for browsing, as well as non-technical issues such as the most com-
mon reason users might visit the site.
If this task is not being outsourced it is best performed by the Requirements modeller and/or
anyone in the team with market research skills.
Post-conditions for this task include data and analysis of current and potential users and/or
clients.
Figure 29. Undertake market analysis.
4.1.10. Market researchThere are many tasks that are borderline between being classified as dealing with the en-gineering side of software development and the business side of software development.
In web development this tends to be somewhat more evident. A new OPEN Task of "Un-dertake market analysis" (figure 29) is heavily associated with the upper business level,since there must be some understanding of the target audience before the organizationdecides to embark on a web development project. Unfortunately, with the state of affairsrecently, this does not seem to be the case in practice. Many organisations simply wanta website, almost for its own sake or "for appearances", and they will find out who theyare targetting later. Also there is a significant amount of information that web developersneed to know about their target audience with which the upper business levels would notbe concerned. For example, an initial market research project may cover the disposableincome of web users, their age range, etc. Web developers will want to know quite dif-ferent things such as "What system are they using?" or "How fast is their connection?"The importance of this task is more noticeable in web projects that fall into categoriesthat deal with customers (e.g., B2C). It is still important in other web projects (suchas B2B, or B2E) but the information is generally easier to obtain and does not alwayswarrant a separate task.
As part of market research, it is likely that the creation of a brand identity will be a major element. For Web OPEN we therefore propose a new Task: "Develop a brandidentify" (figure 30) supported by a new Technique: "Branding" (figure 31).
4.2. Roles Essential to the OPEN metamodel is the existence of work products and producers thatare responsible for creating these work products. So, when creating Web OPEN, it isimportant to UNCORRECTED PROOF discuss the producers that exist within the field of web development. In VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 25 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Focus: Image.
Typical supportive techniques: SWOT analysis; Branding.
Explanation: Branding can often be highly lucrative. A product with a brand can sell for signif-
icantly more than an equivalent unbranded product (and vice versa). In terms of websites, brand-
ing the products and the website so that it is immediately recognizable worldwide takes patience
but is an important part of many dot.coms these days. Websites such as www.amazon.com
have entered the general parlance and thus can be counted as successful branding forays.
Producers for this task include Project manager, Marketer, Graphic designer.
Post-conditions for this task include both a strategy to establish a brand and an identifiable brand-
ing or logo.
Figure 30. Develop a brand identity.
Focus: Creation of a brand identity.
Typical tasks for which this is needed: Develop brand identity; Communicate the brand iden-
tity.
Technique description: Web development is increasingly less about software development and
more about marketing and developing a market identity or brand. This is a combination of the
product and the way that the product is portrayed on the website (and other media – which are
of less interest to us here). Brand strategies must be developed, an overall artistic and market-
ing agreement made as to what constitutes the "brand" and ways to attain widespread brand
recognition. An example here in early web commerce was www.amazon.com. A number of
high-profile e-commerce failures (such as Boo.com and ValueAmerica) have resulted, at least
in part, from a lack of effective branding.
Technique usage: Identify the product to be branded; evaluate the website possibilities; investi-
gate new logos or new ways of using old logos; register the website on as many search engines
as possible.
Deliverables and outputs (post-condition): Recognition (as demonstrable by editorials in the
media); identified relationship to existing branding strategies and competing brands.
Figure 31. Branding.
the following subsections, each of the relevant producer roles is briefly described, asidentified during two industrial case studies [Haire 2000].
4.2.1. Requirements modellerThe requirements modeller is responsible for the collection and maintenance of systemrequirements. They play an intricate role in the business domain modelling of the sys-tem. They are concerned with "what" is to be built and not so much with "how" it isto be done. Ideally, they would only be concerned with the "what", although in prac-tice the "how" often slips into the systems requirements. Requirement modellers needgood communication and modelling skills. A general technical knowledge of systemsis also an advantage. One significant difference that typically exists between a web re-quirements modeller and a modeller for a conventional system is the relationship to thedesign UNCORRECTED PROOF process. Most web development takes place within the context of rapidly evolv- VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 26 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT ing technology, a poor client understanding of the consequent changes to their businessmodel and an overall lack of understanding of their own requirements. Typically, the de-sign artifacts, or even partial solutions, are used to drive the elicitation of requirements– leading to an increased need for requirements modellers to understand how to utilisethe design activities to facilitate clarification of requirements.
4.2.2. System architectThe system architect constructs the structure on which to build the entire web project.
Without a good architecture it will be difficult to expand the system in the future. Every-one within the team should have a good understanding of the system architecture, but thesystem architect should have an excellent understanding as well as in depth knowledgeas to why the architecture is the way that it is. The strength of a system's architecture is akey element in the success or failure of a web project. Due to the speed of change on theInternet (few web projects remain unchanged for more than a couple of months), a soundarchitecture is needed to allow for further system development. The skills required forthis role include excellent modeling skills as well as plenty of experience with varioussystems and their design. Developing a good system architecture can often be a trickybut important task – especially given the poor current level of understanding about howto integrate aspects of the business model with the information architecture and with thetechnical system architecture.
4.2.3. System developerThe system developer fills in holes and connects the framework together. They are re-sponsible for integrating components, developing new components and conducting thedetailed design of the system. This is the role that produces most of the final functionalityof the system. System developers should be logical thinkers with strong programmingskills.
4.2.4. Web designerThe web designer needs to have a general skill level in a wide variety of areas. Ideally,they have some artistic ability for creating things such as simple graphics as well asgeneral programming experience. The web designer helps to bind the gap between theartistic world of print media and the programming world of software engineering. Theywork with the graphic designer as well as the system developers to make the proposedcontent and layout a reality. Skills in HTML, Java Applets, Javascript, XML and manyother web-based technologies are a necessity.
4.2.5. Graphic designerDue to the amount of rich content that goes into many web projects there is a need forthis role of a graphic designer. Their responsibility is to help prepare the content andlayout for the final system. This can include photographs, music clips, video clips andmuch more. The graphic designer needs to be artistic and imaginative and possess strongskills in UNCORRECTED PROOF creating and altering computer media.
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 27 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE 4.2.6. Editor (optional)This is an optional role for many web projects. It is often left as the responsibility ofthe client to ensure that the content provided has been correctly edited and reviewed. Inmany cases, this role is not explicitly named but the tasks associated with the role aredivided amongst the team, in particular, between the web designer and graphic designer.
In projects with a large amount of content, it is a good idea to assign someone to thisrole more permanently.
4.2.7. System testerThis is another generic role from software development. The system tester is responsiblefor verifying and validation that all the components of the system meet their require-ments. They work closely with the requirement modeller and system developers. Thesystem tester should be methodical and have an eye for detail.
4.2.8. System/site administratorAs web projects gain their strength from their ability to provide up-to-date information,there is a need for constant maintenance of the content (as distinct from maintenance ofthe system technical components). This role can be completed by the team building thesystem, in-house by one of the client's team, out-sourced to an external team or somecombination of these. The skills required are highly dependent on the system that is tobe administered. Skills usually required include a high level of computer literacy, withbasic programming skills being an advantage but not a necessity.
4.2.9. Project managerThis is a standard role in any project. They are responsible for the organisation andcoordination of the team, ensuring things get delivered on time and on budget. Skillsrequired are those of any project manager including things like leadership, communica-tion, organisation and so on.
4.2.10. Prototype developerAlthough the role of prototype developer is useful for application developments, it isincluded in OPEN with a web focus. The prototype developer is the role played bythe person who is responsible for creating and testing the white site, i.e., the prototypewebsite which does not yet have the full rich textual content necessary in the completedwebsite.
4.2.11. A quick analogyThe following analogy portrays the roles and responsibilities of web producers in a morefamiliar environment. To use an analogy of building a room: • the requirement modeller decides what type of room you need;• the system architect provides the foundation and framework;• the s UNCORRECTED PROOF ystem developer provides the brick walls; VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 28 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT • the web designer provides the plaster over the brick walls;• the graphics designer paints the plastered walls;• the system tester makes sure the room will not fall over and that it is the room that was originally asked for; • the system/site administrator is responsible for changing the pictures hanging on the wall; and finally • the project manager (a.k.a. foreman) can be thought of as the ceiling that oversees everything and makes sure it comes together in a square (unless of course you arebuilding a round room).
Some example OPEN process instances
The relationship and timing between activities forms the basis of the process for an or-ganisation. The structure of this is dependent on both the organisation's business struc-ture and the project at hand. The number and type of intercommunication paths betweenindividual pairs of activities follows smoothly from the specification of contracts in termsof preconditions and postconditions on the activity objects.
Here, we examine in more detail the way that these activity objects are linked through to more fine-grained Tasks and Techniques. This is accomplished by a pair ofdeontic matrices which define the possibility values of each pair of Activity/Task andTask/Technique. For each of these two matrices (figure 32 illustrates schematically theone for Activities versus Tasks), possibility values are entered for a specifically con-structed and configured process instance. In the OPEN approach [Graham et al. 1997;Henderson-Sellers et al. 1998; Henderson-Sellers and Unhelkar 2000] these are selectedfrom one of five values: M = mandatory; R = recommended; O = optional; D = dis-couraged; and F = forbidden. The inclusion of optionality in the choice of Tasks andTechniques permits an organization or a project to select tasks and techniques speciallysuited to local conditions – including skills sets of project members, resource availabil-ity, level of criticality/safety requirements and so on. Having said that, however, weanticipate that for most organizations, these specific characteristics will remain static forthe duration of the project (and often longer) so that the majority of the values in bothdeontic matrics are likely (our conjecture only) to tend towards becoming bimodal, i.e.,using only M and F values.
Here, rather than the five alphabetically-encoded values, we use a simpler scale of (0–1) with an incremental value within the range of 0.1. A value of 0 is equivalentto a forbidden task and a value of 1 is equivalent to a mandatory task. A value of 0.5implies that this task is likely to be carried out but with a lesser emphasis (it is consideredto be optional). We also do not attempt to tailor these deontic matrices for a specificorganization or a specific project but rather to offer guidelines and "rules of thumb" forspecific categories of web developments; notably small/medium business-to-customer(B2C), large UNCORRECTED PROOF business-to-customer and business-to-business (B2B).
VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 29 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Figure 32. Schematic deontic matrix linking OPEN Activities and Tasks. Values in the matrix indicate possibility values (here labelled with one of five values – see text for details).
Within Business-to-Customer web projects there is more of an emphasis placed on themarket research aspect of the requirements engineering than in business-to-businessprojects. Small to medium projects tend to have less of an in-depth analysis and de-sign phase. However, this adds to the overhead of the project which then constitutes alarge percentage of the overall cost if the project budget is small. Larger B2C projects,on the other hand, are more concerned with analysis and design phases, since in complexsystems mistakes or errors early in the system are costly. Larger projects also tend totry and optimize reuse more as it can significantly reduce the development costs. TheseB2C considerations are reflected in the deontic matrix between Activities and Tasks. Thetables associating activities to tasks for small/medium business-to-customer projects canbe found in figure 33. These values were derived from two in-depth case studies atcommercial sites in Australia in late 2000 [Haire 2000].
Within Business-to-Business web projects there is more of an emphasis placed on thebusiness processes of the two organisations and how they will interact. Requirementsengineering is more concerned with defining what needs to be communicated in orderto improve and add value to the business processes. The process also tends to be moredocument-oriented since the system must be designed to work across two organisations.
This is reflected in the deontic matrix between Activities and Tasks (figure 34).
6.1. Conclusions As part of a research project to extend process support for web development, we haveutilized the UNCORRECTED PROOF OO/CBD (Object-Oriented/Component Based Development) process known VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 30 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Obtain business approval Undertake feasibility study Identify source(s) of requirements Conduct Market Research Create White Site Develop Data Standard Identify user requirements Define problem and establish mission and objectives Establish user requirements for distributed systems Establish user DB requirements Analysis and model refinement
Analyze user requirements Create White Site Undertake architectural design Choose Architectural Pattern Design & Incorporate content management strategy Design & Incorporate personalization strategy Develop layer design Establish distributed systems strategy Select database/storage strategy Develop and implement resource allocation plan Obtain business approval Screen the candidate list of component frameworks Evaluate the potential component frameworks Choose appropriate component framework Screen the candidate list of components Evaluate the potential components Choose appropriate components Construct the object model Create and/or identify reusable components Figure 33. Deontic matrix values for Activities and Tasks for B2C. Tasks which do not appear are not required, i.e., their possibility value is zero.
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 31 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Construct Frameworks Optimize for reuse Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Build – Evolutionary development
Develop Data Standard Integrate Components Design and implement physical database Operational and performance design Performance evaluation Design user interface Create the role model Create the task model Create the content model Integrate Content with User Interface Determine initial class list Identify persistent classes Refine class list Map logical database schema Map roles on to classes Perform acceptance testing Perform class testing Perform package/cluster testing Perform regression testing Performance Testing Undertake usability design Build – User review
Analyze metrics data Evaluate usability Review documentation Build – ConsolidationOptimize the design Figure 33. (Continued).
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 32 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Maintain trace between requirements and design Optimize the design Write manuals and prepare other documentation Model and re-engineer business process(es) Build context (i.e., business process) model Build task object model Convert task object model to business object model Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Undertake feasibility study Develop and implement resource allocation plan Choose project team Decompose programs into project Develop education and training plan Develop iteration plan Develop timebox plan Identify project roles and responsibilites Set up metrics collection program Specify individual goals Specify quality goals Use dependencies in the BOM to generate first cut project plan Develop software development context plans & strategies Develop capacity plan Develop contingency plan Develop security plan Establish change management strategy Establish data take-on strategy Integrate with existing, non-OO systems Tailor the lifecycle process Model and re-engineer business process(es) Figure 33. (Continued).
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 33 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Build context (i.e., business process) model Build task object model Convert task object model to business object model Create and/or identify reusable components Undertake architectural design Manage library of reusable components Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Optimize the design Use of system
Deliver product to customer Undertake in-process review Undertake post-implementation review Write manuals and prepare other documentation Figure 33. (Continued).
as OPEN. OPEN is defined by a meta-level architecture or framework that containsseveral metaclasses (figure 2). Instances are then created of these metaclasses and, eitherdirectly or from the repository (figure 3), are selected and configured.
Web projects must be developed with the emphasis being on how services can be improved and not on the technology involved. Success on the Internet is more than hav-ing the fastest computers and the biggest databases; it is about complete fulfilment ofthe business processes. This includes issues such as customer query handling, productdelivery and tracking, as well as service guarantees and speed of connections. It is alsoimportant to note that these business processes themselves are changed by the introduc-tion of the new systems – so we end up with a system that by its very nature will modifyits context and thereby require further changes in order to remain effective.
This emphasis is reflected in Web OPEN with the addition of tasks relating to the analysis of the data and how they will be used within the final system. This empha-sis also needs to be represented within the user interface for successful web projects.
This has been completed in Web OPEN by the inclusion of tasks and techniques takenfrom Usage-Centered Design [Constantine and Lockwood 1999]. Usage-centered de-sign focusses on how the user interface will be used in order to improve the underlyingbusiness need of the system, rather than on who will be using it, as would be the case inuser-centred design.
A number of other smaller modifications have been made to the OPEN framework that are particular to web development, including testing, market analysis and the de-velopment a UNCORRECTED PROOF nd review of content. OPEN's strength in the field of metrics is maintained VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 34 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Obtain business approval Undertake feasibility study Identify source(s) of requirements Create White Site Develop Data Standard Identify user requirements Define problem and establish mission and objectives Establish user requirements for distributed systems Establish user DB requirements Analysis and model refinement
Analyze user requirements Create White Site Undertake architectural design Choose Architectural Pattern Design & Incorporate content management strategy Design & Incorporate personalization strategy Develop layer design Establish distributed systems strategy Select database/storage strategy Develop and implement resource allocation plan Obtain business approval Screen the candidate list of component frameworks Evaluate the potential component frameworks Choose appropriate component framework Screen the candidate list of components Evaluate the potential components Choose appropriate components Construct the object model Create and/or identify reusable components Construct Frameworks Optimize for reuse Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Figure 34. Deontic matrix values for Activities and Tasks for B2B. Tasks which do not appear are not required, i.e., their possibility value is zero.
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 35 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Build – Evolutionary development
Develop Data Standard Integrate Components Design and implement physical database Operational and performance design Performance evaluation Design user interface Create the role model Create the task model Create the content model Integrate Content with User Interface Determine initial class list Identify persistent classes Refine class list Map logical database schema Map roles on to classes Perform acceptance testing Perform class testing Perform package/cluster testing Perform regression testing Performance Testing Undertake usability design Build – User review
Analyze metrics data Evaluate usability Review documentation Build – Consolidation
Optimize the design Maintain trace between requirements and design Optimize the design Write manuals and prepare other documentation Figure 34. (Continued).
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 36 OPEN PROCESS SUPPORT FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT Model and re-engineer business process(es) Build context (i.e., business process) model Build task object model Convert task object model to business object model Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Undertake feasibility study Develop and implement resource allocation plan Choose project team Decompose programs into project Develop education and training plan Develop iteration plan Develop timebox plan Identify project roles and responsibilites Set up metrics collection program Specify individual goals Specify quality goals Use dependencies in the BOM to generate first cut project plan Develop software development context plans & strategies Develop capacity plan Develop contingency plan Develop security plan Establish change management strategy Establish data take-on strategy Integrate with existing, non-OO systems Tailor the lifecycle process Model and re-engineer business process(es) Build context (i.e., business process) model Build task object model Convert task object model to business object model Create and/or identify reusable components Undertake architectural design Figure 34. (Continued).
UNCORRECTED PROOF VTEX(P) PIPS No:5091760 artty:ra (Kluwer BO S5091760.tex; 14/06/2002; 8:46; p. 37 HENDERSON-SELLERS, LOWE AND HAIRE Manage library of reusable components Optimize reuse (‘with reuse') Optimize the design Use of system
Deliver product to customer Undertake in-process review Undertake post-implementation review Write manuals and prepare other documentation Figure 34. (Continued).
with the addition of tasks relating specifically to web metrics.
In this paper, we have described new and extended definitions for several instances (in the repository) of Activity, Task, Technique and Role. All instances were identifiedfrom two industry case studies, one in the standards domain and one in the commercialdomain, both extensive users of website development approaches.
6.2. Further work Web OPEN is a starting point for further research into web process development. Fur-ther work could be completed on the task Integrate components. The importance ofthis task will continue to escalate, as components become more developed and widelyused. A significant amount of work on component integration has been completed by theCatalysis team [D'Souza and Wills 1998] and would prove beneficial to the Web OPENframework. Component integration is complemented by component creation. There isno reason why organisations cannot produce their own custom components and includethis within their development process. Further work towards merging, with OPEN, fur-ther ideas from usage-centered design is also under way.
The metrics that are specific to the web development process need to be fur- ther looked at, evaluated and statistically verified. Much the same way where goodquality objects were shown to have less than 10 methods and 3–4 lines of code permethod [Haynes and Henderson-Sellers 1996], similar web metrics must be obtained.
Once these appropriate metrics have been produced, we will be able to better measurethe quality of web projects.
There will always be constant need for review and modification of the Web OPEN framework as technology and the development environment changes. Further workcould also incorporate varying development methodologies such as artificial intelligenceor agent technologies.
This is Contribution number 01/08 of the Centre for Object Technology Applicationsand R UNCORRECTED PROOF esearch (COTAR).
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Source: http://services.eng.uts.edu.au/~dbl/archive/2002-Hen02a.pdf

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Main Rupatadine References Contents: Main Rupatadine References Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics Dual effect of a new compound, rupatadine, on edema induced by platelet-activating factor and histamine in dogs: Comparison with antihistamines and PAF antagonists. Queralt M, Merlos M, Giral M, Puigdemont A. Drug Dev Res 1996; 39 (1): 12-8. The antihistamine-H1 and antiplatelet activating factor (PAF) activities of seven compounds, including rupatadine, a new antiallergic drug, were studied in healthy beagle dogs using a new experimental model that allows simultaneous testing of PAF and histamine reactions in the same animal. The method was based on the measurement of wheal area induced in dogs' skin by intradermal injection of PAF (1.5 mug) or histamine (2.5 mug). Rupatadine and the H1-antihistamine drugs cetirizine, levocabastine, and loratadine, administered orally at doses of 1 or 10 mg/kg showed similar maximum potencies (75-85% of wheal inhibition) 4-8 h after treatment. Levocabastine was the longest-acting compound (55% and 69% inhibition 24 h after administration of 1 or 10 mg/kg, respectively). Rupatadine, loratadine, and cetirizine behaved similarly, showing 34% and 58% inhibition at 24 h at the same doses. Dual PAF and histamine antagonist SCH-37370 exhibited mild anti-H1 activity, the maximum effect being 27% at 10 mg/kg. Pure PAF antagonists WEB-2086 and SR-27417 showed no effect against histamine-induced wheals. Only rupatadine, SR-27417A, SCH-37370, and WEB-2086 showed PAF antagonist activity, whereas pure antihistamines were inactive. The most potent PAF antagonist was SR-27417A, with a maximum effect of 56% and 80% at 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Rupatadine and WEB-2086 antagonized PAF-induced wheal response, although they showed less maximum effect and shorter duration of action than SR-27417A. SCH-37370 exhibited only slight PAF antagonist activity at 10mg/kg. Overall, the histamine- and PAF-induced wheal model in dogs proved useful for independent evaluation of histamine and PAF antagonist properties of the tested compounds, as pure antagonists blocked the effect of only one of the mediators. Rupatadine was the only one of the seven compounds studied that showed potent dual activity against PAF and histamine. Protective effect of rupatadine fumarate in experimental conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. Ferrando R, Giral M, Balsa MD, Merlos M, Garcia Rafanell J, Forn J. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1996; 18 (Suppl B): 140. XX Congress of the Spanish Society of Pharmacology and the IV Spanish-French Meeting on Pharmacology. Granada (Spain), September 18-20 1996. The topical antiallergic activity of the novel histamine (H) and PAF antagonist rupatadine fumarate (RF; UR-12592 fumarate) eyedrops was evaluated in comparison with loratidine (LOR) in a model of H-, PAF-or ovalbumin (OVA)-induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. From the results it was concluded that RF could be useful in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. (conference abstract). Conjunctivitis was induced by topical application of H (400 ug) or PAF (10 ug) in naive animals or OVA (140 ug) in actively sensitized guinea pigs. Drugs were administered as eye-drops (20 ul) 15 min before agonist or antigen provocation. Inflammation was scored (0-10 point scale) at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after induction. RF (0.001-0.01 % w/v) strongly and dose-dependently inhibited H-induced conjunctivitis, being about 20-fold more potent than LOR (IC50 values at 30 min were 0.0015 and 0.034% for RF and LOR, respectively). RF (0.05-0.2%) also inhibited PAF-and OVA-induced conjunctivitis, e g. mean scores (at 30 min), PAF: 6.8 and 4.2 for control and 0.1% RF, respectively; OVA: 7.2 and 3.8. LOR, at the same concentrations, inhibited OVA-, but not PAF-induced conjunctivitis.

Effectiveness of different interdental brushes on cleaning the interproximal surfaces of teeth and implants: a randomized controlled, doubleblind crossover study

Nardnadda Chongcharoen Effectiveness of different interdental brushes on cleaning the interproximal surfaces of teeth and implants: arandomized controlled, double-blindcross-over study Authors' affiliations: Key words: Circum® brush, efficacy, implant dentistry, interdental brushes, interproximal Nardnadda Chongcharoen, Martina Lulic, Niklaus cleaning, oral hygiene, periodontology, plaque removal