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Medical Care



Les antibiotiques sont produits sous des formes pharmaceutiques telles que des pilules antibiotiques en ligne.

elles permettent d'injecter la quantité de préparation strictement nécessaire.

Microsoft word - online vet nurse conference cover page

Hill's Pet Nutrition
Thirst for Knowledge Webinar Series
"Behaviour and Gastrointestinal
With Dr. Amanda Cole
Proudly brought to you by Hil 's Pet Nutrition (Australia), and supported by Vet Education Pty Ltd STRESS IN DOGS: TRIGGERS, SIGNS AND MANAGEMENT FOR STRESS RELATED GI SIGNS:
As veterinarians we treat viruses and we vaccinate against them, we prophylactical y treat for external andinternal parasites, but rarely do we think about vaccinating against stress - emotional, and its consequentialphysiological stress. As with prophylaxis for any il ness, we first need to be able to identify the clinical signs,triggers, and pathophysiology of the condition to be able to identify "at risk" animals that require our intervention.
We have known for a long time that one can be scared "s****less", but now we are putting that science touse to provide a more holistic approach to the diagnosis and management of stress and gastrointestinaldisease. In the last few decades, scientific inroads have recognised the link between the health of the brainand the health of the gut, recognising that emotional stress can result in, and or exacerbate, gastrointestinal dysfunction and vice versa.
Is an emotional and physical response to a threat.
Is an emotional and physical response to a perceived threat or an inability to control a situation.
1. Social Stress:

Presence of unfamiliar animals Presence of unfamiliar people Absence of familiar animals Absence of familiar people 2. Environmental Stress:
Novel environments Changes in routine 3. Physical Stress
Adoption and re-homing Changes within the household dynamic (new animals, new people, new home) Prolonged confinement (orthopaedic surgeries) Storm or firework seasons Anxiety disorders (generalised, separation) WHAT ARE THE FOUR BASIC BEHAVIOURAL REPRESENTATIONS OF FEAR AND ANXIETY:
The Four F's are a reflex, immediate, subconscious behavioural response to stress. There is no input from
the higher centres of the brain in these responses, they are automatical y triggered and can occur within
0.03 sec of amygdala activation.
This is the dog equivalent of ‘playing dead'. Via evolution, ‘freezing' by standing very stil , may have been away of indicating that a dog was not threatening, or helped it to hide from a predator. Some dogs expressthe freeze response by walking very slowly, as if they are in slow motion or swimming through jel y.
Many dogs wil flee from a situation if given the opportunity. This may involve moving away, or hiding.
Subtle signs can include moving away from a person/object/stimulus the dog finds threatening, or moving
towards something which makes a dog feel safe, eg their family or a crate.
Aggression is a common expression of fear. The ‘fight' response is just another expression of distress. An
animal who is running away (‘flight' response) and an animal who is trying to bite (‘fight' response) is
experiencing the same level of fear emotional y; it is simply expressed in a different way.
These behaviours are displacement behaviours, are behaviours which are normal, but inappropriate or out
of context of the situations. Human equivalents are laughing at a funeral, twiddling your hair or thumbs,
biting your fingernails, or constantly checking your phone.
These ‘fiddle' signs are often one of the earliest signs of discomfort. Different dogs may ‘fiddle' differently.
Yawning when not tired Lip licking when no food is present/not hungry Shaking off when coat is not wet Mounting (animals, people or objects) when desexed Hypervigilance; constantly scanning the room when nothing has altered.
Scratching when not pruritic Checking their ano-genital region when they haven't recently toileted Penile crowning/Erection when not engaged in intercourse WHAT ARE THE COMMON PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPRESSIONS OF FEAR AND ANXIETY:
When an animal experiences emotional stress the limbic system initiates a cascade activating the HPA axis
to cause physiological changes including:
Increased heart rate Increased respiratory rate Tense muscles (facial grimace, furrowed brow) Vomiting, diarrhea TREATMENT OF FEAR AND ANXIETY:
1. Recognise when an animal is stressed 2. Reduce exposure to stress triggers 3. Reduce the intensity of stress triggers 4. If the animal is in its ‘Danger brain' (Amygdala) use kindness and treats to bring it back to its ‘Thinking brain' (Pre-frontal cortex).
5. If needed correct the chemical imbalance of anxiety disorders via medication 6. Address any physical factors that may be contributing to emotional stress via pain relief, GIT protection etc.
7. Change the animal's emotional response to triggers via counter-conditioning Never do the fol owing when treating anxiety: 1. Never ignore an animal's expression of fear or anxiety 2. Never make the threat/stimulus bigger when an animal is afraid or anxious 3. Never blame or label a behaviour as dominant/naughty/cranky or spiteful - it is simply fearful.
4. Never use punishment THE BRAIN:GUT AXIS (BGA):
The BGA is a bidirectional feedback loop between the GIT tract and the CNS, whereby neurochemicalchanges in the brain affect the GIT and microbiota changes in the GIT affect the brain. Emotional stress hasbeen linked to: Increased gut motility Changes in the bacterial flora Delayed gastric emptying Increased permeability Increased pain sensitivity Release of pro-inflamatory mediators If we know that stress is inevitable (boarding, orthopaedic surgeries etc) what should we do to help protect Short-term anxiolytics (benzo's, trazodone) Pheromone therapy Hil 's prescription Diet™ i/d Stress 1. Bécuwe-Bonnet V, Bélanger MC, Frank D, et al. Gastrointestinal disorders in dogs with excessive licking of surfaces. J Vet Behav 2012;7(4):194-204.
2. Blanchard EB, Lackner JM, Jaccard J, Rowel D, Carosel a AM, Powel C, Sanders K, Krasner S, Kuhn E. The role of stress in symptom exacerbation among IBS patients. J Psychosom Res2008;64:119-28.
3. Frank D, Bélanger MC, Bécuwe-Bonnet V, et al. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting. Can Vet J 2012;53:1279-1284.
4. Guseva, D Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor is critical y involved in acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract Inflamm Bowel Dis. September 2014;20(9):1516-29 5. Hyland NP, O'Mahony SM, O'Mal ey D, O'Mahony CM, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Early-life stress selectively affects gastrointestinal but not behavioral responses in a genetic model of brain-gut axisdysfunction. Neurogastroenterology and Motility : the Official Journal of the EuropeanGastrointestinal Motility Society. 2015 27: 105-13 6. Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ. Stress and the Gut: Pathophysiology, clinical consquences, diagnostic approach and treatment options. Journal of physiology and pharmacology2011, 62, 6, 591-599.
7. Mason G, Rushen J. Veterinary and pharmacological approaches to abnormal repetitive behaviour.
In: Stereotypic animal behaviour. 2nd ed. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI, 2006:;286-384.
8. Mayer, EA The neurobiology of stress and gastrointestinal disease Gut 2000;47:861-869
9. Motari, L. Stress in veterinary behavioural medicine. In Horwitz DR and Mil s DS, editors. BSAVA
Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. Gloucester, England: BSAVA, 2009:136-145 10. Overal KL, Dunham AE. Clinical features and outcome in dogs and cats with obsessive-compulsive disorder: 126 Cases (1989-2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221(110):1445-1452.
11. Palestrini C, Minero M, Cannas S, Bertesel i G, Scaglia E, Barbieri S, Caval one E, Puricel i M, Servida F, Dal 'Ara P. Efi cacy of a diet containing caseinate hydrolysate of signs of stress in dogs. JVeterinary Behaviour 2010, 5, 309-317.
12. Plourde, V. Stress-induced changes in the gastrointestinal motor system Can J Gastroenterol. March 1999;13 Suppl A(0):26A-31A.
13. Stamm R, Akkermans LMA, Wiegant VM. Trauma and the gut: Interactions between stressful experience and intestinal function. Gut 1997 40:704–709.
14. Ostojic,L, Tkalcic, M, Clayton, N.S. Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed? Behavioural Processes 2015 111: 97-100


Ajph129353 1.6

Published Ahead of Print on August 13, 2008, as 10.2105/AJPH.2007.129353 Cost Savings From the Provision of Specific Methodsof Contraception in a Publicly Funded Program Diana Greene Foster, PhD, Daria P. Rostovtseva, MS, Claire D. Brindis, DrPH, M. Antonia Biggs, PhD, Denis Hulett, BA, and Philip D. Darney, MD Unintended pregnancies occur increasingly Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods

4.4 Welche Krankheitsstadien gibt es? Stadium 1: Die Krankheit entwickelt sich aus einem normalen Leistungsniveau. Stadium 2: In der Folge nimmt die/der Betroffene leichte Störungen wahr. Die Merkfähigkeit und das Gedächtnis sind beeinträchtigt. Namen und Termine werden vergessen. Bei manchen Situationen fehlt die Erinnerung und öfters werden Dinge verlegt.