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A Production Guidefor North Carolina North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
North Carolina State University

North Carolina State University Description and Stages of Growth . 3 General Culture . 4 Site Selection . 4 Shade Requirements . 5 Site Preparation . 5 Transplanting Roots . 7 Shade Management . 8 Fertilization . 8 Pest Management. 8 Seed Production, Harvesting, and Handling. 9 Root Harvesting, Handling, and Drying . 10 Production Economics . 11 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service A Production Guide for North Carolina
A merican ginseng
(Panax quinquefolium L.) is a shade-requiring, herbaceousplant native to the hardwoodforests of eastern North America.
Its fleshy root and short under-ground stem are perennial. Theleaves and stems die at the end ofthe growing season and regroweach spring.
Ginseng is best adapted to cool,temperate climates. Its range inNorth Carolina is generallylimited to the mountain andfoothill counties of the westernpart of the state. Rarely havenative stands been reported east ofa line connecting Gaston andStokes counties.
Ginseng is valued by people inmany nations who believe it has health-promoting properties. An Parts of a mature ginseng plant.
Asian species, Panax ginseng C. A.
Meyer, has been an important dormant through the winter. A leaf prongs, terminates in a cluster component of Chinese folk new top grows from the bud the of small, greenish white flowers.
medicine for over 4,000 years.
following year.
Green fruit, or berries, nearly the Early colonists found the North With age the plant increases in size of dogwood berries, develop American Indian using American size and complexity. Second-year from pollinated flowers. These ginseng in much the same way as plants generally have two com- ripen to a bright red in late the Chinese were using the Asian pound leaves terminating a 4- to summer, and each usually con- species. The root of American 7-inch erect stalk. The compound tains two flattened, hard-coated ginseng has been collected for leaves normally consist of five seeds (Figure 2). In the wild, ripe export to the Orient since early in ovate leaflets; the three middle berries fall to the ground, where the 18th century.
leaflets are much larger than the the seeds are covered by leaves.
basal ones. In subsequent years, The seeds must be stratified the plant may have three, four, or (exposed to low temperatures) and Stages of Growth
rarely five prongs of compound and do not germinate for 18 to 20 leaves and may reach a height of Ginseng emerges in late April in 12 to 24 inches. After the seedling Leaves turn bright yellow with much of its range, or about the year, roots may become irregu- the approach of fall, and the top of time dogwood trees bloom. A larly branched and may develop the plant dies back to the neck of first-year ginseng seedling has rings. Rings are especially notice- the underground stem, or rhizome.
three small, simple leaflets joined able on wild ginseng. A mature Ginseng growth is very slow in at the top of a 2- to 4-inch erect plant is illustrated in Figure 1 the wild. It may take several years stalk. A small, generally carrot- for a plant to develop to the two- shaped root with a bud at its Flowering occurs in late spring or three-prong stage. Counting the upper end is formed during the during the third and later years of stalk scars left on the neck is the seedling year. The foliage dies in development. An erect stalk, most reliable way of determining the fall, but the root and bud lie arising from the juncture of the a plant's age.
North Carolina State University The most favorable temperatureand soil moisture conditions forginseng production are generallyassociated with north- or east-facing slopes. Southern andwestern exposures are usually toowarm and dry for good growth.
At higher elevations and in coolerclimates, however, exposure is ofless importance. A sloped site isdesirable because good surfacedrainage is important. Wetconditions usually result in rottingof the ginseng roots.
Ginseng tolerates a wide variety of soil types, although Mature ginseng fruit and freshly extracted seed.
heavy clay or light sandy soilsshould be avoided. Ideal soils areloams with high organic matter The type and intensity of content. In wooded areas, the culture must be selected. Intensity presence of herbaceous weeds or To grow ginseng successfully it is can range from low-density, low- wildflowers, such as trilliums, necessary to provide growing input random plantings in rela- bloodroot, and mayapple or wild conditions that closely resemble tively undisturbed soil in natural ginseng, is a valuable indicator those where wild ginseng grows wooded sites to high-density, that soil moisture is adequate and well. Critical needs include suffi- high-input plantings on raised, that conditions are suitable for cient shade (75 percent or more), mulched beds in artificially ginseng. A forest floor devoid of moist but well-drained soil, moder- shaded gardens with fertilization such growth is unlikely to be a ate summer climate, and a winter and pest control programs. The season cold enough to satisfy seed cost of preparing the site, the labor Soil samples should be col- and root chilling requirements.
to care for the planting, and the lected from prospective sites and Protection from pests and reduc- yield of seeds and roots generally analyzed for nutritional status, tion of competition from other increase with the intensity of pH, and nematodes. Native plants are also important.
western North Carolina soils often Intensive culture of ginseng under natural shade.
Note the planted beds, the desirable shade pattern, and the absence of weeds, brush, and unnecessary trees.
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Intensive culture of ginseng under wood lath shade. Note the overhead lath panels, the support posts located in the center of the raised beds, and the pattern of shade on the beds.
are more acid and lower in Artificial Shade. Ginseng can be
The site should be plowed and phosphate than is required for shaded with wooden lath or tilled several times during the rapid ginseng growth. Root-knot polypropylene shade cloth summer and early fall before nematodes cause galls on roots supported over the growing area planting, especially for sites that and slow plant growth.
(Figure 4). For convenience, have been in sod. Tillage encour- moveable panels of lath can be ages decomposition of plant constructed and supported by residue and reduces populations joists on posts. Shade cloth, with of soil-borne insect pests and Ginseng cannot tolerate long, metal eyelets positioned at close weeds. Incorporating green daily exposure to full sunlight. It intervals around the margins, can manure crops into the soil is also grows best where 75 to 85 percent be attached to heavy wires or beneficial. Incorporate any needed of the sky is obscured. Excessive small cables across the tops of lime and phosphate fertilizers at light causes bronzing of the leaves support posts. The cloth must be and early death of the tops. Shade stretched tightly over well- Shade support posts should be may be provided by planting in an anchored and securely braced set 1 to 2 feet deep on an exact established wooded site or by posts to ensure a stable structure.
grid pattern that will accommo- erecting artificial shade over an Place posts in the center of beds date the shading material. A 12- open planting site.
where they will not interfere with by-12-foot spacing is normal for Natural Shade. Deeply rooted
cultural operations. (Beds usually wood lath panel shading, whereas deciduous trees such as walnut, are 6 feet wide, center to center.) a 24-by-24-foot spacing is often oak, poplar, and basswood are Artificial shade materials used for cable-supported polypro- best for shading ginseng. Solid should be at least 8 feet above the pylene shade cloth. The posts stands of coniferous or other ground, and at least 2 sides of the around the edge of polypropylene- shallow-rooted trees should be structure should be open. Clear- shaded gardens should be 12 feet avoided because they offer serious ance less than 8 feet makes apart and securely anchored with competition for soil moisture and cultural operations difficult and nutrients. Stand establishment in uncom-fortable. Enclosed sides such areas is difficult and growth and low clearance also prevent is very slow. Undergrowth, good air circulation, which is weeds, and trees that are not important in minimizing the The planting site should be needed for the required shade buildup of heat and humidity.
completely ready and the required compete with ginseng and inter- The overhead shade should mulch should be on hand before fere with air circulation and extend beyond the planted areas planting time. Preparation re- management practices. Eliminate by several feet, especially on the quirements depend on the inten- some or all weeds and under- south and west sides, so that the sity of culture and the method of growth before planting (Figure 3).
margins of the planting will not receive excessive light.
North Carolina State University Wooded sites should beselected and prepared while treesare in full leaf. Undesirable treespecies and trees not needed forshade can be easily identified andmarked at this time. Removemarked trees and all undergrowthby the spring before the fall orspring seeding. Follow a programfor destroying weeds and prevent-ing regrowth of woody plantsthroughout the summer.
For low-intensity, low-inputwoodland culture, rake the natural surface mulch aside for Dimensions of raised beds for ginseng.
seeding and then redistribute itover the seeded area. Seed may be germinate. They must be sub- Commercial seed suppliers planted 1 inch deep in a prepared jected to a long period of storage stratify seed for a year and then seedbed or simply raked or lightly in a moist medium with alternat- market it in the fall as stratified tilled into the soil surface before it ing periods of warm and cold seed. Fall-planted, stratified seed is covered with mulch. To facili- temperatures. This process is usually emerges in the following tate management, plant the seed known as stratification. Conse- spring between April and June.
in defined beds 4 to 6 feet wide quently, ginseng seed normally Stratified seed can be safely separated by walkways 2 to 3 feet does not germinate until the planted from late summer until second spring after the harvesting the soil freezes in the fall. Since For high-intensity, high-input of the berries in fall. If the fall after time of germination cannot be woodland culture or for produc- the berries are harvested is long controlled effectively, it is often tion under artificial shade, clear and warm, some seeds will unsafe to delay planting of the area of any objects that will germinate the first spring after stratified seed until the second interfere with tillage of the soil spring because weather or soil and bed formation, such as In the spring, when stratifica- conditions may prevent seeding stumps, roots, or rocks. To assure tion is complete, seed germination before germination begins. Spring thorough incorporation into the will proceed and usually cannot seeding must be completed by the soil, apply any preplant lime or be delayed appreciably, even if the middle of April, or before dog- phosphate fertilizer materials seeds are refrigerated. Germinat- woods bloom.
before tilling. After the soil has ing seeds are perishable and will Whether the seed is green or been tilled to good seedbed be wasted if not planted at that stratified, it should be carefully condition, form raised beds 6 to 9 inspected when obtained. If the inches high and 4 to 5 feet across Time of Seeding. Ginseng seeds
seeds are soft, moldy, or discol- the top with 2-foot-wide walk- may be planted any time after the ored, return them to the supplier ways between them.
berries ripen but before the seeds for replacement.
To promote good drainage and germinate. Nonstratified (green) Seeding Depth. Seeds must be
efficient removal of surface water, seeds may be planted in the soil in contact with a damp medium beds should be oriented up and immediately after the berries have both during storage and after down the slope with their surfaces been harvested. Over the next seeding. They must be covered at arched 2 to 3 inches higher in the year and a half, they will be planting with enough soil, mulch, middle than at the edges (Figure stratified naturally and emerge at or both to keep them from drying 5). A diversion ditch across the the proper time. Loss to rodents out. Plant the seeds ½ to 1 inch uphill side of the planting may be and insects, however, may be deep and cover the bed with 1 or 2 needed to control surface runoff quite high. For perpetuation of inches of mulch. For high-inten- and reduce erosion.
wild ginseng, it is appropriate to sity culture, broadcasting seeds on plant the ripe berries, or just the the soil surface and raking or seeds, when the roots are har- lightly tilling them into the Ginseng is most commonly vested. Plant stands will be seedbed is not recommended propagated by seed. The seeds, greater, however, if fresh seeds are because the seeds will be planted which must always be kept moist, stored and stratified in a secure at varying depths, usually result- require special handling to container and planted in a pro- ing in variable stands. For more tected site a year later.
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service even plant stands, it is desirable to slightly by placing them in a and the risk of damage from seed into a well-prepared seedbed refrigerator, but the gain in time is digging and planting increases as using a hand-operated garden likely to be a few days at most. In the spring advances.
seeder with adjustable seeding addition, germination of stratified If roots cannot be planted depth and rate.
seeds may be delayed for an extra immediately, they may be held for Seeding Rate. The rate of
year after the seeds are held a day or two in plastic bags in the growth of ginseng roots is affected temporarily in a refrigerator. This refrigerator. Open the bags daily by plant population; closely phenomenon, known as double to aerate the roots; check for mold spaced plants grow more slowly.
dormancy, is not understood.
and add a few drops of water if Closer spacing also reduces the roots start to feel dry. For individual root size but increases longer temporary storage, cover the yield in weight per unit area of the roots with 4 to 6 inches of soil Ginseng can be transplanted or place them between layers of For intensive culture, plant in readily, and small roots can be nonmilled sphagnum moss in a rows 6 inches apart oriented with used as planting stock for estab- container. The storage medium the long dimension of the bed; lishing a garden. Transplanting should be damp but not wet and each bed (4 feet across the top) ensures a more uniform stand the container should not be should contain eight rows. Seed- than seeding and reduces the time airtight. The roots should be ing 1 inch apart in the row will from planting to harvest of seeds stored at outdoor soil tempera- result in 24 seeds per square foot, and marketable roots. The price of tures or in a cool basement.
or approximately 800,000 seeds roots, however, is considerably If dug roots cannot be planted (100 pounds) per acre of bed greater than that of seeds; one- in the fall, they should be stored space. Common seeding rates for year-old roots may cost 12 to 16 over the winter at outdoor soil intensive culture vary from 25 to times as much as the same num- temperatures, preferably in loose, over 100 pounds per acre. For low- ber of seeds. Transplanting is also well-drained soil. Roots can also intensity, natural woodland considerably more time consum- be overwintered in damp sphag- culture, space seeds 6 to 12 inches ing than seeding.
num moss in a refrigerator. Store Roots must be planted by hand, them for 3 months or more below Temporary Seed Storage. Seeds
but the preparations for planting 45oF to satisfy the chilling require- removed from storage for ship- and the cultural needs of trans- ments for breaking bud dor- ment or for seeding must not be plants are the same as for a seeded mancy. When the chilling require- allowed to dry out and should be crop. Roots may be 3 or 4 inches in ment has been satisfied, top kept cool. In the fall, they may be length; therefore, it is important growth will commence when stored temporarily in a plastic that the soil be loose to a depth of spring arrives, even if the roots are bucket in a cool basement. Place a at least 4 to 5 inches to facilitate still in a refrigerator. Therefore, damp cloth on top of the seeds plant them as soon as the soil can and cover the bucket with a lid.
The closest practical spacing for be worked in the spring.
Every day or two, gently stir the roots, depending on their age and seeds well or pour them back and size, is 3 or 4 inches apart in 6-inch forth into a second container to rows. It is convenient to prepare a aerate them. Rewet the cloth and board with in-row spacing marks The ginseng seedbed should be replace the cover. If planting along one edge and lay it across covered with 1 or 2 inches of cannot be completed before the the bed as a guide when planting.
organic mulch immediately after soil freezes, return the seeds to a After one row has been planted, seeding. Mulch prevents packing stratification unit. (See Seed the board can be moved 6 inches of the soil, conserves moisture, Production, Harvesting, and (or other desired row spacing) to moderates soil temperatures, and guide the planting of the next row.
helps control weeds.
As spring approaches, the Carefully dig roots for trans- Acceptable mulching materials seeds may begin to germinate in planting during the dormant include weathered hardwood bark the stratification unit as early as period, preferably in the fall after or sawdust, leaves from decidu- March, or about the time maple the tops die. Plant the roots as ous trees, and small grain straw.
trees bloom. Handling the seeds soon as possible after digging or Use mulch material that is free of after the seed root (radicle) begins receiving them. Spring planting is weed seeds. Straw should be free to grow may result in some possible if done very early. The of any viable grain seeds, which damage. If spring planting must development of a new top begins could cause a serious weed be delayed, germination of very early in the spring, often problem. Oat straw is desirable for stratified seeds may be slowed before the last frosts of the season, fall mulching because young oat North Carolina State University plants are killed by freezingweather. Solarization of the strawthrough clear plastic mulch willalso kill many weeds.
Maintain a good mulchthroughout the crop cycle. Mulchshould be added, if needed, in thefall after the tops have died. Thewalkways should be kept free ofmulch and other obstacles sosurface water will drain freelyfrom the garden.
In areas where snow or ice arelikely to accumulate, precautionsneed to be taken to preventdamage to artificial shade materi-als. Polypropylene shade cloth,especially, can be weighed downby snow or ice or damaged byhigh winds. In the fall, release thecloth along one side and at both ends of each panel. Gather the Symptoms of ginseng blight on leaves.
panel and tie it securely with ropeto the cable along the fourth edge.
When snow is no longer a threat, been observed after nitrogen has reattach the cloth.
been added, but root response has Properly constructed and not been clear-cut. It is suggested Pests that are of greatest concern supported wood lath panels will that 20 to 30 pounds of nitrogen to ginseng growers include weeds, support moderate snow loads. If per acre (2/3 pound of nitrogen insects, diseases, and rodents.
appreciable snow or ice accumula- per 1,000 square feet) be applied Theft of cultivated ginseng is also tions are likely, remove the panels before emergence each year.
a serious concern.
and stack them until spring.
At present there are few pesticides labeled for use on ginseng; consult the current North Good soil moisture is needed for Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Ginseng tolerates a wide range of best growth of ginseng roots, but Manual for current registrations.
soil pH and fertility levels. Most wet soil is undesirable and will There are, however, certain native soils where ginseng grows often result in root rot.
cultural precautions that aid in in North Carolina are very acid Inadequate soil moisture slows reducing pests.
(with a pH from 4.0 to 5.0) and growth and may be one of the Weeds. Weeds compete with
contain little available phospho- causes of a longer production ginseng for moisture and nutri- rus. Research shows that in North cycle in woodland-grown ginseng.
ents, and they may harbor insects Carolina the pH required for Feeder roots of trees and other and diseases. Make a special effort optimum root growth is about 5.5 weedy plants often permeate the to control or eliminate weeds and that raising the soil phospho- soil and compete successfully for during site preparation because at rus to a moderately high level moisture and nutrients. Supple- present herbicides cannot be used, increases root growth. Use soil mental irrigation is helpful under and cultivation is not practical analysis results to make lime and such conditions. The bed mulch, after the crop has been planted.
phosphorus adjustments before the shaded environment, and the Weedy growth should be de- planting. Recommendations for absence of other competing plants stroyed periodically during the native woody ornamentals in in artificially shaded gardens help summer before seeding. Weeds North Carolina are appropriate for conserve soil moisture. Except in that are not suppressed by the ginseng. Relatively little is known unusual situations, supplemental mulch should be pulled by hand.
about other nutrient requirements.
irrigation should not be needed Insects. Only minor insect
More vigorous top growth has with artificial shade.
damage has been noted on North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service ginseng. Grubs and wireworms infected. The disease is often first air. Remove dense under- occasionally have caused damage, noticed as small water-soaked growth and weeds around especially in sites prepared from spots on the leaflets. These enlarge sod areas. Appropriate measures to ½ inch or more in diameter and • Avoiding sites with root-knot taken during site preparation will may join together. The spots nematodes or sites where help control these pests. Slugs gradually dry out and leave a tan, ginseng has been grown may hide in the mulch and papery center and a darker previously unless the soil can damage stems, leaves, and berries border. The surrounding leaf be treated to destroy disease- of the ginseng plants. Check the tissue turns yellow, and the causing organisms.
North Carolina Agricultural Chemi- leaflets and leaves wilt and die.
• Using disease-free seeds or cals Manual for chemicals that are Under epidemic conditions, the plants and handling planting currently registered for insect and entire plant top may die before stock with care to prevent slug control. Aphids and leafhop- berries are formed.
pers have been observed on a few Initial infection in the spring is • Avoiding crowding; very occasions but do not appear to be most likely to be on the stalks. The dense plantings are condu- cause for serious concern.
disease develops from spores that cive to the spread of diseases.
Diseases. Ginseng diseases
remain on debris of diseased Particularly in natural, have been more widely associated plants from the previous year. The woodland plantings, give with cultivated plantings than dark lesions may enlarge and each plant enough space for with wild ginseng and more with girdle the stem; they are the most good air movement and little high-intensity plantings than low- likely source of foliar infection.
contact with other plants.
intensity plantings. This difference The roots of most plants infected • Removing and destroying may be due partly to the greater with Alternaria survive and diseased plant parts as soon attention given to cultivated plots produce a top the following spring as they are observed.
than to native stands, making it but are undoubtedly smaller than • Planting several small areas more likely that disease problems uninfected plants.
to ginseng instead of one will be noticed. Cultivation Damping-off is a seedling large area. This separation frequently involves changing the disease caused by one or a combi- may prevent a loss of the growing conditions that favor the nation of fungal organisms entire crop to disease.
occurrence and severity of disease.
(Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and • Providing good fertility and Pythium species). These fungi soil pH. Avoid excessive cause seed decay or attack the nitrogen. Plants stressed by • greater plant densities, which stalk at the soil surface, causing too much or too little nitrogen promote the rapid spread of decay and collapse of the stem.
are more prone to some certain diseases; Damping-off is enhanced by • higher temperatures and excessive moisture at the soil humidity that are associated Rodents. Rodents are blamed for
surface or in the mulch.
with the kind, height, and destruction of large proportions of Other diseases identified on expanse of the shading some ginseng plantings, especially ginseng in North Carolina include material and the site and those located in or adjacent to botrytis blight (caused by Botrytis wooded sites where rodents are cinerea); root galls caused by the • generally poorer soil drain- normally found. Some growers root-knot nematode; mildew; age—tree roots take up large attempt to control rodents by Phytophthora, the most common quantities of water, thus trapping, baiting, constructing cause of root rot; and papery leaf effectively draining the soil; barriers around the planting, and spot, which is associated with • overfertilizing and maintaining large families of cats insufficient soil moisture.
overliming—certain root rots at the site. Rodents are thought to Cultural practices that aid in are associated with high pH.
use mole runs to get to ginseng disease control include: roots. Trapping or otherwise At least a dozen pathogenic • Selecting a site with good soil eliminating moles should reduce diseases of ginseng have been drainage or improving the ready access to the ginseng roots.
identified, but only a few have drainage of the site chosen.
been observed in North Carolina.
Root rots and damping-off Alternaria blight (Alternaria panax usually occur in wet, poorly Whetzel) is the most serious and Harvesting, and Handling
drained soils.
widespread fungus disease. The • Selecting a site with (or The native North Carolina strain most obvious symptoms are leaf arranging for) good air circu- of ginseng generally emerges in spots and leaf blighting (Figure 6), lation. Foliar diseases are May and flowers in July. Berries but the stalks and roots can also be favored by stagnant, humid ripen in September. Northern North Carolina State University strains planted in North Carolinaare two to four weeks earlier inthese developmental stages.
With vigorous growth, by thethird year, seed production may beappreciable under artificial shade.
Yields of 150 to 200 pounds per acreare possible; a yield of 500 poundsis possible by the fourth year. Sinceginseng is propagated by seed, theseeds are a valuable part of thecrop. If the seeds will not beharvested, it is beneficial to removethe flower buds as early as possible.
Development of flowers, fruits, andseeds require energy that otherwise could be used in root growth.
Ginseng seeds after a year of stratification. Note the opening of the seedcoats.
Pollination. Honeybees,
bumblebees, and sweat bees have
seeds settle for 30 seconds, and construct a wooden box 8 to 12 been observed visiting and gently pour off the liquid and inches deep with a screen bottom collecting pollen from ginseng suspended pulp. Repeat this and removable screen lid. Fill the flowers. Such activity undoubt- process several times until only container with a mixture of seeds edly affects pollination. Flowers clean seeds remain in the container.
and clean, damp sand (that will deprived of insect visits, however, Discard any seeds that float. Strain pass through 1/8-inch mesh also set a full complement of fruit.
the seeds and spread them on a screen), using at least twice as It appears that plant vibration clean cloth or screen to allow their much sand as seeds. Bury the box caused by wind may be fully surfaces to dry for a few hours in a in an area as described above so effective in pollinating ginseng, shaded, ventilated area. Do not the top of the box is only 1 to 2 but bee activity at flowering allow the seeds to dry out; dry inches below the soil surface.
should not be discouraged.
them only long enough to remove Cover the box with soil and Harvesting and Extraction of
surface water and prevent them mulch, and mark the location well.
Seed. Ginseng berries are ready to
from sticking together. The seeds Early the next spring, open the harvest when they turn red. Berries are now ready to be placed in container and check the seeds for around the outside of the cluster storage for stratification.
decay, removing any that are soft.
ripen first. Individual berries can be Stratification. As explained
Some seeds, particularly those that picked as they ripen; however, it is earlier, freshly extracted (green) were harvested first, may germi- more efficient to delay harvest until ginseng seeds must undergo nate the first spring after they are all the berries of a cluster are ripe stratification before planting.
harvested. Remove these seeds and can be removed at one time.
Stratification can be accom- and plant them immediately. Stir Although not a requirement, it is plished most easily by placing the the remaining seeds carefully to desirable to extract the seeds from seeds in a screened container to aerate them, make certain the sand the berry pulp before placing them protect them from rodents and is still moist, and rebury the in a stratification unit. When storing the container in shaded, container. If soil conditions are working with a large quantity of well-drained soil.
extremely wet or dry, check the berries, fermentation is a simple, For small quantities of seeds, stratification unit periodically.
effective extraction process. Place form a pouch of aluminum screen Many seeds will enlarge and the berries in a bucket or tub three wire large enough to contain the begin to open after a year in or more times larger than the seeds and twice their volume of storage (Figure 7). This is a good volume of seeds. Mash the berries clean, moist sand. Fill the pouch indication that the seeds are to rupture the skins. Cover and with alternating layers of sand viable. In the fall, plant the seeds place the container in a shaded area and seeds, and fasten the edges of according to the procedure or shed and leave it for five days or the pouch to prevent rodent recommended for stratified seed.
more, stirring daily, until the pulp damage. Bury the pouch securely has fermented and disintegrated.
under 4 or 5 inches of loose soil in Spray water from a pressure hose a shaded or north-facing area and Handling, and Drying
into the container to separate the cover the soil with several inches remaining pulp from the seeds. Fill of mulch. Mark the spot well.
Harvesting of ginseng roots, the container with water, let the For large quantities of seeds, whether collected from the wild or North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service from cultivated gardens, should Use a dehumidifier or ventilation information from a number of be delayed until after the berries fan to remove moisture from the sources. Please keep in mind that ripen. Harvesting earlier will drying room. Roots are suffi- these are very rough estimates for sacrifice not only the seed crop but ciently dry when they break with scenarios where everything goes also root weight.
a snap. Drying should be com- right—a rare phenomenon in any With good growth, roots may plete in three or four weeks under be harvested by the fourth year in good conditions.
For one acre of ginseng grown in artificially shaded gardens.
Packing and Storing Roots.
the woods and harvested after 6 Harvesting may need to be Carefully place dried roots in years of growth, estimated produc- delayed until the eighth year or clean cardboard barrels or boxes.
tion costs are $3,900 for seeds (60 later in naturally shaded Do not place them in plastic or pounds at $65), $26,600 for labor plantings. Yields of up to 3,000 other airtight containers because (3,800 hours at $7), $5,000 for pounds per acre (air-dried weight) mold and mildew may develop on equipment and supplies, and may be expected from successful, the roots. Store the roots in a cool, $1,500 for drying and packaging, well-managed, artificially shaded dry atmosphere until marketed.
for a total of $37,000. A total crops. Naturally shaded plantings Be sure to keep rodents and estimated income is $73,000 from of comparable cultural intensity insects out of the storage area.
200 pounds of seed ($65 per pound) are not likely to yield more than and 1,000 pounds of roots ($60 per two-thirds as much.
pound). This would provide a net Harvesting. Before harvest,
income of $36,000 per acre.
remove the tops of the plants and Despite the long history of collec- In contrast, a 4-year budget for 1 the mulch from the beds. In tion, production, marketing, and acre of intensively cultivated artificially shaded plantings, use of ginseng, there is little ginseng under polypropylene remove the shade structure.
reliable information on the shade may include production Removing the shade and mulch economics of ginseng culture. The costs of $6,500 for seeds (100 aids in drying the soil and makes great range in cultural intensity pounds at $65), $14,000 for shade digging easier.
implies a similar range in costs structure, $4,500 for equipment Exercise care in digging to and labor input. The productivity rental and supplies, $13,500 for minimize root injury. Spades or and returns are therefore also labor, and $14,500 to custom forks can be used for most likely to vary widely.
harvest, dry, and package, for a plantings. Mechanical diggers, Lowest costs and returns can be total cost of $53,000. A total esti- similar to potato harvesters, are expected when ginseng is planted mated income is $129,000 from 600 used by large-scale growers.
in undisturbed soil under natural pounds of seed ($65 per pound) Digging is easiest when the shade. In this case, the essential and 3,000 pounds of roots ($30 per ginseng is grown in raised beds.
inputs include the cost of seeds and pound). This would provide a net Gather roots promptly into the labor for clearing the site, income of $76,000 per acre.
baskets or boxes. Carefully wash maintaining it, planting the seeds Note that there are large all soil from the roots with clean or roots, and harvesting the crop.
differences in capital investment running water and take care not to Greatest inputs are required for and risk involved with both damage or destroy feeder roots or high-density plantings on formed systems. Also note that diseases, the neck of the root. Do not scrub beds under artificial shade. In weeds, rodents, poaching, and a or skin the roots, and do not addition to the considerable cost of volatile market for seeds and roots attempt to remove natural soil seeds, mulch, shade, and the labor can seriously impact the costs and stains in the skin of the roots.
required to establish and maintain returns for ginseng. Sound advice Drying. Roots must be air dried
the planting and harvest the crop, for beginning ginseng growers is for storage and marketing. Drying considerable use must be made of to start small and not to invest can best be accomplished by equipment in preparing the land more than you can afford to lose.
exposing the roots to warm, dry, and beds and in harvesting.
Ginseng production is not a It is not possible to present one quick or easy way to get rich. By Spread the roots evenly in a general budget for ginseng its very nature, growing ginseng single layer on a screen-bottom production because of the many requires great patience. There are tray to allow maximum ventila- variables involved, including level also hazards to its culture. But tion. A fan and small heater can be of cultivation intensity, root and ginseng is an unusual and myste- used to circulate and warm the air seed prices, paid labor versus rious plant, and its successful in the drying room. The tempera- unpaid family labor, and loss due culture can return a very high ture should not exceed 95oF. If the to disease and theft. Two esti- value to land and management roots dry too quickly, the exterior mates, however, are provided will darken, reducing their value.
here based on a compilation of North Carolina State University Cover photos showing ginseng berries and roots were supplied by T.R. Konsler. J.M. Davis, Extension Horticulture Specialist 3,000 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $xx, or $xx per copy.
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all peopleregardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.


Formale Betrachtung von Anfragen auf RDF Datenbanken im Fachbereich Biologie und Informatik an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main bei Herrn Prof. Dott. Ing. Zicari betreut von Dipl. Math. Karsten Tolle Bartholomäus Ende Inhaltsverzeichnis Bartholomäus Ende Matr.-Nr. 2063702 1. Kurzfassung Dieses Dokument befasst sich mit der formalen Analyse von Anfragen auf RDF-Datenbanken. Zu diesem Zweck wird zunächst eine kurze Einführung in das Resource Description Framework (RDF) gegeben.

The Commission on Higher Education in collaboration with the Philippine Normal University INITIAL RELEASE: 13 JUNE 2016 Teaching Guide for Senior High School GENERAL SPECIALIZED SUBJECT ACADEMIC - STEM This Teaching Guide was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and universities.