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The Commission on Higher Education in collaboration with the Philippine Normal University INITIAL RELEASE: 13 JUNE 2016
Teaching Guide for Senior High School GENERAL SPECIALIZED SUBJECT ACADEMIC - STEM This Teaching Guide was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Commission on Higher Education, K to 12 Transition Program Management Unit - Senior High School Support Team at k12@ched.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations.




Development Team
Team Leader: Florencia G. Claveria, Ph.D., 

Dawn T. Crisologo
Writers: Doreen D. Domingo, Ph.D., Janet S.
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Administrative Officers: 
 Stuart Bevins, Ph.D., Sheffield Hallam University Ma. Leana Paula B. Bato, Kevin Ross D. Nera, Allison A. Danao, Ayhen Loisse B. Dalena Printed in the Philippines by EC-TEC Commercial, No. 32 St. Louis Compound 7, Baesa, Quezon City, ectec_com@yahoo.com Table of Contents DepEd General Biology 1 Curriculum Guide . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 3: Energy Transformation Lesson 11: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration . . . . . . Lesson 1: The Cell: Endomembrane System, Mitochondria, Lesson 12: Forms of Energy, Laws of Energy Transformation Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, and Extracellular Components . . 9 Lesson 2: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts . . . . . . . . . 15 Lesson 13: Energy Transformation Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . 111 Lesson 3: Structure and Functions of Animal Tissues and Cell Lesson 14: Energy Transformation Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . 120 Lesson 15: Energy Transformation Part 3 . . . . . . . . . . 128 Lesson 4: Cell Cycle and Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . 36 Lesson 16: Cellular Respiration Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Lesson 5: Transport Mechanisms Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . 46 Lesson 17: Cellular Respiration Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Lesson 6: Transport Mechanisms Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . 50 Lesson 18: Cellular Respiration Part 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Chapter 2: Biological Molecules Lesson 19: ATP in Cellular Metabolism and Photosynthesis . . . 176 Lesson 7: Carbohydrates and Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Lesson 8: Amino Acids and Proteins Part 1 . . . . . . . . 70 Lesson 9: Amino Acids and Proteins Part 2 . . . . . . . . 73 Lesson 10: Biological Molecules: Enzymes . . . . . . . . 78 As the Commission supports DepEd's implementation of Senior High School (SHS), it upholds the vision and mission of the K to 12 program, stated in Section 2 of Republic Act 10533, or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, that "every graduate of basic education be an empowered individual, through a program rooted on.the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in creative and critical thinking, and the capacity and willingness to transform others and oneself." To accomplish this, the Commission partnered with the Philippine Normal University (PNU), the National Center for Teacher Education, to develop Teaching Guides for Courses of SHS. Together with PNU, this Teaching Guide was studied and reviewed by education and pedagogy experts, and was enhanced with appropriate methodologies and strategies. Furthermore, the Commission believes that teachers are the most important partners in attaining this goal. Incorporated in this Teaching Guide is a framework that will guide them in creating lessons and assessment tools, support them in facilitating activities and questions, and assist them towards deeper content areas and competencies. Thus, the introduction of the SHS for SHS Framework.
The SHS for SHS Framework, which stands for "Saysay-Husay-Sarili for Senior High School," is at the core of this book. The lessons, which combine high-quality content with flexible elements to SHS for SHS accommodate diversity of teachers and environments, promote these three fundamental concepts: SAYSAY: MEANING
HUSAY: MASTERY
SARILI: OWNERSHIP
Why is this important? How will I deeply understand this? What can I do with this? Through this Teaching Guide, Given that developing mastery When teachers empower teachers will be able to facilitate goes beyond memorization, learners to take ownership of an understanding of the value teachers should also aim for their learning, they develop of the lessons, for each learner deep understanding of the independence and self- to fully engage in the content subject matter where they lead direction, learning about both on both the cognitive and learners to analyze and the subject matter and affective levels. synthesize knowledge. Biology I is a Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Specialized Subject taken in the first half of Grades 11/12. Learners go on a journey geared toward the deeper understanding and appreciation of life processes at the cellular and molecular levels previously introduced in Grades 7-10. They will also apply basic chemistry and physics principles as they examine the transformation of energy in organisms. Implementing this course at the senior high school level is subject to numerous challenges with mastery of content among educators tapped to facilitate learning and a lack of resources to deliver the necessary content and develop skills and attitudes in the learners, being foremost among these. In support of the SHS for SHS framework developed by CHED, these teaching guides were crafted and refined by biologists and biology educators in partnership with educators from focus groups all over the Philippines to provide opportunities to develop the following: Saysay through meaningful, updated, and context-specific content that highlights important points and common misconceptions so that learners can connect to their real-world experiences and future careers; Husay through diverse learning experiences that can be implemented in a resource-poor classroom or makeshift laboratory that tap cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains are accompanied by field-tested teaching tips that aid in facilitating discovery and development of higher-order thinking skills; and Sarili through flexible and relevant content and performance standards allow learners the freedom to innovate, make their own decisions, and initiate activities to fully develop their academic and personal potential. These ready-to-use guides are helpful to educators new to either the content or biologists new to the experience of teaching Senior High School due to their enriched content presented as lesson plans or guides. Veteran educators may also add ideas from these guides to their repertoire. The Biology Team hopes that this resource may aid in easing the transition of the different stakeholders into the new curriculum as we move towards the constant improvement of Philippine education. This Teaching Guide is mapped and aligned to the DepEd SHS Curriculum, designed to be highly Parts of the
 usable for teachers. It contains classroom activities and pedagogical notes, and is integrated with innovative pedagogies. All of these elements are presented in the following parts: Teaching Guide 1. Introduction • Highlight key concepts and identify the essential questions • Show the big picture • Connect and/or review prerequisite knowledge • Clearly communicate learning competencies and objectives • Motivate through applications and connections to real-life • Give local examples and applications • Engage in a game or movement activity • Provide a hands-on/laboratory activity • Connect to a real-life problem 3. Instruction/Delivery • Give a demonstration/lecture/simulation/hands-on activity • Show step-by-step solutions to sample problems • Give applications of the theory • Connect to a real-life problem if applicable • Discuss worked-out examples • Provide easy-medium-hard questions • Give time for hands-on unguided classroom work and discovery • Use formative assessment to give feedback • Provide additional examples and applications • Introduce extensions or generalisations of concepts • Engage in reflection questions • Encourage analysis through higher order thinking prompts • Supply a diverse question bank for written work and exercises • Provide alternative formats for student work: written homework, journal, portfolio, group/individual projects, student-directed research project On DepEd Functional Skills and CHED College Readiness Standards As Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) welcome the graduates of On the other hand, the Commission declared the College the Senior High School program, it is of paramount importance to Readiness Standards that consist of the combination of knowledge, align Functional Skills set by DepEd with the College Readiness skills, and reflective thinking necessary to participate and succeed - Standards stated by CHED. without remediation - in entry-level undergraduate courses in The DepEd articulated a set of 21st century skills that should be embedded in the SHS curriculum across various subjects and tracks. The alignment of both standards, shown below, is also presented in These skills are desired outcomes that K to 12 graduates should this Teaching Guide - prepares Senior High School graduates to the possess in order to proceed to either higher education, revised college curriculum which will initially be implemented by AY employment, entrepreneurship, or middle-level skills development. College Readiness Standards Foundational Skills DepEd Functional Skills Produce all forms of texts (written, oral, visual, digital) based on: 1. Solid grounding on Philippine experience and culture; 2. An understanding of the self, community, and nation; Visual and information literacies, media literacy, critical thinking 3. Application of critical and creative thinking and doing processes; and problem solving skills, creativity, initiative and self-direction 4. Competency in formulating ideas/arguments logically, scientifically, and creatively; and 5. Clear appreciation of one's responsibility as a citizen of a multicultural Philippines and a Systematically apply knowledge, understanding, theory, and skills for the development of Global awareness, scientific and economic literacy, curiosity, the self, local, and global communities using prior learning, inquiry, and experimentation critical thinking and problem solving skills, risk taking, flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction Work comfortably with relevant technologies and develop adaptations and innovations for Global awareness, media literacy, technological literacy, significant use in local and global communities creativity, flexibility and adaptability, productivity and Communicate with local and global communities with proficiency, orally, in writing, and Global awareness, multicultural literacy, collaboration and through new technologies of communication interpersonal skills, social and cross-cultural skills, leadership and responsibility Interact meaningfully in a social setting and contribute to the fulfilment of individual and Media literacy, multicultural literacy, global awareness, shared goals, respecting the fundamental humanity of all persons and the diversity of collaboration and interpersonal skills, social and cross-cultural skills, leadership and responsibility, ethical, moral, and spiritual groups and communities General Biology 1 The Cell: Endomembrane System, Mitochondria,
Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton, and Extracellular Components
Content Standards
The learners demonstrate an understanding of (1) Composition of the
endomembrane system; (2) Structure and function of organelles involved in Introduction Review on the differences between
energy transformation; (3) Structure and functions of the cytoskeleton; and, (4) prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; submission Composition and functions of the extracellular components or matrix. and discussion of responses to the pre-topic homework assigned before the lecture.
Performance Standards
The learners shall be able to construct three-dimensional models of whole cells Motivation
Brief class activity on prokaryotic and using indigenous or recyclable materials. The models shall show the following eukaryotic cells.
cell parts: (1) Endomembrane System, (2) Mitochondria, and (3) Chloroplast Instruction/ Lecture. Board work on cell parts, structure,
Learning Competencies
and function. Examination of cheek cells and The learners: (1) explain the postulates of the cell theory (STEM_BIO11/12-1a- Hydrilla cells under a microscope. Class c-1); (2) describe the structure and function of major and subcellular organelles activity on identifying the parts and functions (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-2); (3) describe the structural components of the cell of the endomembrane system.
membrane (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-11); and (4) relate the structure and Enrichment Class discussion on cell size and relationship
composition of the cell membrane to its function (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-12) of surface area and volume Specific Learning Outcomes
Assessment of learners' knowledge; At the end of the unit lesson, the learners shall be able to: assignment of homework for next lecture • illustrate the structure of the endomembrane system, label its parts, and microscope (slide, cover slip), hand-held understand how the system works lens, work books, methylene blue, plastic • illustrate the structure of the mitochondria, label its parts, and understand spoon/popsicle stick, Hydrilla plansts, the importance of the enfolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane colored chalk/white board marker • illustrate the structure of the chloroplast, label its parts, and relate these parts to photosynthesis Resources (continued at the end of Teaching Guide)
(1) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://www.phschool.com/science/ • understand the connection of the endomembrane system to other cell parts such as the lysosomes, peroxisomes, endosomes, and cell membrane (2) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant- • understand how the extracellular components or matrix determine the (3) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/cells-2-the- appearance and function of the tissues
 INTRODUCTION (5 MINS) Teacher Tip
The review on the differences between 1. Ask the learners to make a recap of the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is needed 2. Discuss the learners' responses to the pre-topic assignment on the functions of the following cell to connect prerequisite knowledge to the present lesson. Remind the learners that the cell parts are found in eukaryotic cells. • Nucleus • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Remind the learners of the pre-topic assignment that shall be submitted before • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum the lecture. This is to ensure the learners • Golgi Apparatus read on the topic before the lecture. Briefly discuss the structure of the cell membrane in order to provide basic knowledge on said structure to the learners. • Mitochondria Do not fully elaborate on this topic since the structure and function of the cell membrane shall further be discussed in the succeeding parts of the lesson. 3. Present an overview of the cell membrane, its structure, and functions. The cell's parts should be discussed as a 4. Define what an ‘organelle' is and differentiate membrane-bound organelles from non-membrane- system, emphasizing on the bound organelles. interconnectedness of each part to the 5. Explain that in eukaryotic cells, the machinery of the cell is compartmentalized into organelles. The compartmentalization of the cell into membrane-bound organelles: To clarify common misconceptions, • allows conflicting functions (i.e., synthesis vs. breakdown) and several cellular activities to occur emphasize the following to the learners: simultaneously without interference from each other • Not all organelles are surrounded by a • separates the DNA material of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast • The plasma or cell membrane is different • increases the surface area-volume ratio of the cell from the cell wall. 6. Encourage the learners to look at the cell as both a system and subsystem. They should develop an • Not all cell parts are present in all kinds of understanding of how the parts of a cell interact with one another and how these parts help to do the ‘work' of the cell (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/cells-2-the-cell-as- MOTIVATION (5 MINS) Teacher tip
Briefly review the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by asking questions to the If the number of available microscopes is limited, ask the learners to group Sample question: What cell parts can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Discuss themselves according to the number of the function/s of each part. microscopes available or set-up a Sample Responses: demonstration scope for the whole class and facilitate the examination of cells so that all the learners will get a chance to observe the cells under the microscope. • Cell membrane • Protoplasm (nucleoloid region and cytosol) Orient the learners on the proper use and care of the microscopes, particularly on focusing first on LPO before shifting to Compare the cell to a big city. Ask the learners what the requirements of the city would be in order for Cheek cells are very transparent. Adjust the it to function. Relate these requirements to the parts of the cell. Relate the learners' responses to the iris diaphragm or add a small amount of dye functions of the different parts of a cell. (i.e., methylene blue) to the scrapings. Sample responses: The learners will only see the cell membrane • The city will need power. What generates power for the city? Relate this to the function of and the nucleus. Remind the learners to the mitochondria and the chloroplast. draw what they observe. Students may observe cytoplasmic streaming in the plant • The city generates waste. How does it minimize its waste? How does the city handle its garbage? Relate this to the function of the lysosome. • The city requires raw materials to process into food, clothing, and housing materials. Where are these raw materials processed? Relate this to the functions of the Golgi Apparatus. Compare animal cells from plant cells. For the animal cells, scrape cheek cells using a toothpick. Ask the learners to place the scrapings on a microscope slide and add a drop of water to the scrapings. Tease the scrapings into a thin layer and cover with a slip. Examine under HPO. Instruct the learners to draw the cells on their workbooks and to label the cell parts that they were able to observe under the microscope. For the plant cells, instruct the learners to obtain a Hydrilla leaf and place it on a microscope slide. Examine under LPO. Ask the learners to draw the cells on their workbooks and to label the cell parts that they were able to observe under the microscope.
 INSTRUCTION/PRACTICE (30 MINS) Teacher tip
Use chalk or white board markers with
different colors. Explain the structure and 1. Draw the cell membrane on one end of the board. function of each cell part as you draw them. 2. Draw the double membrane of the nucleus (nuclear membrane) on the other end of the board. Explain to the learners that a more detailed 3. From the nuclear membrane, draw the reticulated structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. Ask the discussion of the structure and functions of learners what the two types of endoplasmic reticulum are and their corresponding functions. the cell membrane, mitochondria, and 4. Draw the ribosomes as separate units. chloroplast will be given in succeeding 5. Draw a DNA and an mRNA. Explain that the mRNA is a copy of the DNA that will be sent to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis. 6. Explain to the learners that the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to where the ribosomes are located (i.e., mRNA + functional ribosome) 7. Explain the possible ‘pathways' for protein synthesis (e.g., within the cytosol or the endoplasmic 8. Draw the mRNA + functional ribosome on the endoplasmic reticulum. With a lot of these, the endoplasmic reticulum becomes a rough endoplasmic reticulum. 9. Draw the formed polypeptide inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Discuss the formation of a cisternae and pinching off as a vesicle. 10. Draw the Golgi Apparatus and then a vesicle from the rough endoplasmic reticulum that travels to the Golgi Apparatus and attaches to the part which is nearest the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 11. Ask the learners what the function of the Golgi Apparatus is. Synthesize their answers and compare the Golgi Apparatus to a factory with an assembly manufacturing line. 12. Draw the polypeptide travelling along the Golgi Apparatus stack; pinching off as a vesicle to travel to the next stack. Repeat the process while increasing the complexity of the polypeptide drawing. 13. On the last stack, explain the ‘pathways' that the vesicle may follow: become a lysosome through fusion with an endosome (i.e., formed by endocytosis), or travel to the cell membrane, fuse with it, and empty its contents. 14. Present the composition of the endomembrane system and discuss how these parts are connected to each other by structure and by function. 15. Draw the mitochondria and label its parts. Explain the importance of the enfolding (cristae) in increasing the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Further explain to the class that enfolding is a common structural strategy to increase surface area. As an example, you may draw a cross-sectional structure of the small intestine. 16. Draw the chloroplast and label its parts. Explain the function that each part performs in the process of photosynthesis. 17. Discuss the similarities of the mitochondria and chloroplast (e.g., both are involved in energy transformation, both have DNA, high surface area, and double membranes).income accounts and lastly, expenses accounts. 

Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to draw the endomembrane system as he/she explains it to his/her partner. Reshuffle the groupings and repeat until all learners have performed the exercise. ENRICHMENT (30 MINS) Facilitate a class discussion on why cells are generally small in size. Explain the relationship between surface area and volume. EVALUATION (60 MINS Ask questions to the learners. Sample questions can be found in the following electronic resources: Teacher tip
• (n.d.). Retrieved from< http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=cell-structure-test > Assignments should be handwritten. • (n.d.). Retrieved from< http://study.com/academy/exam/topic/cell-biology.html> This strategy is aimed at ensuring that the Assign a research assignment on this question: How do environmental toxins like lead and mercury learners have read the topic rather than just affect the functions of the cell? The assignment shall be submitted one week after this lesson. copying and printing from a source. RESOURCES (CONTINUED): (4) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://www.schools.manatee.k12.fl.us/072JOCONNOR/celllessonplans/lesson_plan cell_structure_and_function.html> (5) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cells/endo.html> (6) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-endomembrane-system-functions-components.html> (7) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26907/> (8) (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://staff.um.edu.mt/acus1/01Compart.pdf>
 Learning Competency Assessment Tool The learners shall be able Learner was able to Learner was able to answer Learner was able to (1) Learner was not participation (during answer all the question/s the main question without answer the questions able to answer the 1. describe the structure and lecture) without referring to his/ referring to his/her notes but he/she referred function of major and but was not able to answer to his/her notes (2) Learner read notes subcellular organelles follow-up question/s of his/her classmate Learner submitted an Learner submitted a Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not assignment beyond the comprehensive and well- well written report submit an assignment written assignment but some responses (2) Learner submitted a partially-finished assignment The learners shall be able Learner was able to Learner was able to answer Learner was able to (1) Learner was not participation (during concisely answer all the the main question without answer the questions able to answer the 2. describe the structural referring to his/her notes but he/she referred components of the cell but was not able to answer to his/her notes (2) Learner read notes follow-up question/s of his/her classmate Learner submitted Learner submitted drawings Learner submitted (1) Learner was not drawings that were that fulfilled the drawings that were Animal and Plant beyond the requirements requirements (complete (2) Learner's drawings were haphazardly done The learners shall be able Learner obtained 90% to Learner obtained 70% to Learner obtained Learner obtained less 100% correct answers in 89.99% correct answers in that 50% correct 3. relate the structure and correct answers in the answers in the composition of the cell membrane to its function Learner submitted a Learner submitted a Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not research assignment comprehensive and well- well written report submit an assignment beyond the requirements written research assignment but some responses (2) Learner submitted a partially-finished assignment General Biology 1 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Content Standards

The learners demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of the mitochondria and chloroplasts, the organelles involved in energy Introduction Review of relevant terminologies and
Performance Standards
Understanding of key concepts using real-life The learners shall be able to construct three-dimensional models of whole cells using indigenous or recyclable materials. These models should show the Instruction/ Discussion and lecture proper
mitochondria and chloroplasts. Learning Competencies
Drawing (with label) activity The learners describe the structure and function of major and subcellular organelles (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-2) and distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic Enrichment Computation of surface area vs volume
cells according to their distinguishing features (STEM_BIO11/12 -Ia-c-3) Answering practice questions and homework Resources (continued at the end of Teaching Guide)
Specific Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to: • illustrate the structure of the mitochondria, label its parts, and understand the importance of the enfolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane • illustrate the structure of the chloroplast, label its parts, and relate these parts to photosynthesis INTRODUCTION (5 MINS) Facilitate a review of the following concepts: • Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Definition of an ‘organelle' • Differences between membrane-bound organelles and non-membrane-bound organelles • Functions of the different parts of a cell • The endomembrane system Vacuoles and Vesicles Chloroplast and other plastids Explain that in eukaryotic cells, the machinery of the cell is compartmentalized into organelles. The compartmentalization of the cell into membrane-bound organelles: • allows conflicting functions (i.e., synthesis vs. breakdown) and several cellular activities to occur simultaneously without interference from • separates the DNA material of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast • increases the surface area-volume ratio of the cell Encourage the learners to look at the cell as both a system and subsystem. They should develop an understanding of how the parts of a cell interact with one another and how these parts help to do the ‘work' of the cell (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/cells-2-the-cell-as- a-system/>) Emphasize to the learners that energy transformation is one of the characteristics of life. This refers to the ability to obtain and use energy. This characterizes the main function of the mitochondria and the MOTIVATION (5 MINS) Ask the learners how they understand the concept of compartmentalization. Relate the concept to how the cell is compartmentalized into organelles. Compare compartmentalization to the division of a house into a receiving room or sala, kitchen, dining room, comfort rooms, bedrooms, etc. Teacher tip
Ask the learners why they think a house is divided into several rooms. Explain to the learner that this is how the cell is able to allow conflicting functions A possible response is that partitioning of the house into different parts facilitates the simultaneous (e.g., synthesis vs breakdown) and several occurrence of several activities without interfering with one another. Also, materials needed for each cellular activities to occur simultaneously activity can be stored at their specific areas. For example, pots and pans are being stored in the kitchen without interference from each other. and not in the bedroom. Beds and pillows are found in the bedroom and not in the toilet/bath. Explain to the learners that the mitochondria and chloroplasts have a small amount of DNA. Although most of the proteins of these organelles are imported from the cytosol and are thus programmed by the nuclear DNA, their DNA programs the synthesis of the proteins made on the organelles' ribosomes (Source: Campbell et al). Compartmentalization separates the DNA material of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast. Ask the learners if they have experienced going to a city/municipal hall and if they have observed that the Mayor, Vice-Mayor, and the City/Municipal Administrator have separate offices. You can use other examples such as the University President, VP for Academic Affairs, VP for Finance; Philippine President, Vice President, Senators, etc. Compare the nuclear DNA to the Mayor and the mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA to the Vice 
 Mayor. The Mayor runs the city/municipality but the Vice Mayor also performs functions that are Teacher tip
specific to their positions. They need different offices (or compartments) to avoid conflict in their Select a fruit that can be easily peeled like calamansi or dalandan Introduce the concept of surface area-volume ratio/relationship to the learners. Show a fruit to the learners and explain that the outer surface of the fruit is the surface area. Peel the fruit and show them what's inside, explaining that the inside of the fruit is the volume. Explain to the learners that surface area (SA) and volume (V) do not increase in the same manner. As an object increases in size, its volume increases as the cube of its linear dimensions while surface area increases as the square of its linear dimensions. Example: If the initial starting point is the same: SA = 2; Volume = 2 (Ratio = 1:1) A one-step increase will result to: SA = 22 = 4 while V = 23 = 8 (Ratio = 1:2) Teacher tip
INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (30 MINS) Ask questions to the learners while giving Explain and discuss the nature and functions of the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to the learners. If an LCD projector is not available, draw the structure of the mitochondria and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)—It is the major energy currency of the cell that provides the energy for chloroplast on the board. most of the energy-consuming activities of the cell. The ATP regulates many biochemical pathways. Mechanism: When the third phosphate group of ATP is removed by hydrolysis, a substantial amount of free energy is released. ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi where ADP is adenosine diphosphate and Pi is inorganic phosphate Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to draw the endomembrane system as he/she explains it to his/ her partner. Reshuffle the groupings and repeat until all learners have performed the exercise.



Illustration 1: Energy release in Hydrolysis (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved fr Illustration 2: Chemical Energy and ATP (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from Synthesis of ATP
• ADP + Pi → ATP + H2O
• requires energy: 7.3 kcal/mole • occurs in the cytosol by glycolysis 
 • occurs in mitochondria by cellular respiration • occurs in chloroplasts by photosynthesis Consumption of ATP
ATP powers most energy-consuming activities of cells, such as:
• anabolic (synthesis) reactions, such as:
• joining transfer RNAs to amino acids for assembly into proteins • synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates for assembly into DNA and RNA • synthesis of polysaccharides • synthesis of fats • active transport of molecules and ions • conduction of nerve impulses • maintenance of cell volume by osmosis • addition of phosphate groups (phosphorylation) to different proteins (e.g., to alter their activity in cell • muscle contraction • beating of cilia and flagella (including sperm) • bioluminescence Extracellular ATP In mammals, ATP also functions outside of cells. ATP is released in the following examples: • from damaged cells to elicit inflammation and pain • from the carotid body to signal a shortage of oxygen in the blood • from taste receptor cells to trigger action potentials in the sensory nerves leading back to the brain • from the stretched wall of the urinary bladder to signal when the bladder needs emptying In eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria and chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to other forms which cells can use for their functions. Discuss the function and structure of the mitochondria. Mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion)—Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. The mitochondria are oval-shaped organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They are considered to be the ‘powerhouses' of the cell. As the site of cellular respiration, mitochondria serve to transform molecules such as glucose into an energy molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP fuels cellular processes by breaking its high-energy chemical bonds. Mitochondria are most plentiful in cells that require significant amounts of energy to function, such as liver and muscle cells. Figure 1: Structure of the Mitochonsdria (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/list/ The mitochondria has two membranes that are similar in composition to the cell membrane: • Outer membrane—is a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the mitochondria. It is the site of attachment for the respiratory assembly of the electron transport chain and ATP Synthase. It has integral proteins and pores for transporting molecules just like the cell membrane • Inner membrane—folds inward (called cristae) to increase surfaces for cellular metabolism. It contains ribosomes and the DNA of the mitochondria. The inner membrane creates two enclosed spaces within the mitochondria: • intermembrane space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane; and • matrix that is enclosed within the inner membrane. Ask questions to the learners on the structure of the mitochondria. A sample question could be: What is the importance of the enfolding of the mitochondria? The response would be to increase the surface area that can be ‘packed' into such a small space. Discuss the purpose of the mitochondrial membranes. As mentioned, the mitochondria has two membranes: the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. • Outer Membrane Teacher tip
• fully surrounds the inner membrane, with a small intermembrane space in between • has many protein-based pores that are big enough to allow the passage of ions and molecules as large as a small protein Lecture on mitochondrial membranes can • Inner membrane be accessed at (n.d.). Retrieved from • has restricted permeability like the plasma membrane • is loaded with proteins involved in electron transport and ATP synthesis • surrounds the mitochondrial matrix, where the citric acid cycle produces the electrons that travel from one protein complex to the next in the inner membrane. At the end of this electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is oxygen, and this ultimately forms water (H20). At the same time, the electron transport chain produces ATP in a process called oxidative phosphorylation During electron transport, the participating protein complexes push protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space. This creates a concentration gradient of protons that another protein complex, called ATP synthase, uses to power synthesis of the energy carrier molecule ATP. Figure 4: The Electrochemical Proton Gradient and the ATP Synthase (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from Explain and discuss the structure and functions of the Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts—Chloroplasts, which are found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis. This process converts solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water. The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek word chloros which means ‘green' and plastes which means ‘the one who forms'. The chloroplasts are cellular organelles of green plants and some eukaryotic organisms. These organelles conduct photosynthesis. They absorb sunlight and convert it into sugar molecules. They also produce free energy stored in the form of ATP and NADPH through photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are double membrane-bound organelles and are the sites of photosynthesis. The 
 chloroplast has a system of three membranes: the outer membrane, the inner membrane, and the thylakoid system. The outer and the inner membranes of the chloroplast enclose a semi-gel-like fluid Teacher tip
known as the stroma. The stroma makes up much of the volume of the chloroplast. The thylakoid system floats in the stroma.  If an LCD projector is not available, draw the structure of the chloroplast on the Structure of the Chloroplast • Outer membrane—This is a semi-porous membrane and is permeable to small molecules and ions which diffuse easily. The outer membrane is not permeable to larger proteins. • Intermembrane Space—This is usually a thin intermembrane space about 10-20 nanometers and is present between the outer and the inner membrane of the chloroplast.  • Inner membrane—The inner membrane of the chloroplast forms a border to the stroma. It Lecture on structure and functions of the regulates passage of materials in and out of the chloroplast. In addition to the regulation activity, chloroplast can be accessed at (n.d.). fatty acids, lipids and carotenoids are synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.   Retrieved from <http:// • Stroma—This is an alkaline, aqueous fluid that is protein-rich and is present within the inner membrane of the chloroplast. It is the space outside the thylakoid space. The chloroplast DNA, chloroplast ribosomes, thylakoid system, starch granules, and other proteins are found floating around the stroma. • Thylakoid System
The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma. It is a collection of membranous sacks called thylakoids. Thylakoids are small sacks that are interconnected. The membranes of these thylakoids are the sites for the light reactions of the photosynthesis to take place. The chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. Each granum contains around 10-20 thylakoids. The word thylakoid is derived from the Greek word thylakos which means 'sack'.  Important protein complexes which carry out the light reaction of photosynthesis are embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids. 
 The Photosystem I and the Photosystem II are 



complexes that harvest light with chlorophyll and carotenoids. They absorb the light energy and use it to energize the electrons. The molecules present in the thylakoid membrane use the electrons that are energized to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space. This decreases the pH and causes it to become acidic in nature. A large protein complex known as the ATP synthase controls the concentration gradient of the hydrogen ions in the thylakoid space to generate ATP energy. The hydrogen ions flow back into the Thylakoids are of two types: granal thylakoids and stromal PRACTICE (10 MINS) thylakoids. Granal thylakoids are arranged in the grana. These circular discs that are about 300-600 nanometers in diameter. The Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to draw the mitochondria and stromal thylakoids are in contact with the stroma and are in the form label its parts while the other does the same for chloroplast. Once of helicoid sheets.  done, the partners exchange tasks (i.e., the learner that drew the mitochondria now does the same for the chloroplast). The granal thylakoids contain only Photosystem II protein complex. This allows them to stack tightly and form many granal layers with Reproduce these diagrams without the labels and use these for the granal membrane. This structure increases stability and surface area for the capture of light.  To demonstrate how folding increases surface area, ask the learners to trace the edges of the outer membrane with a thread and The Photosystem I and ATP synthase protein complexes are present measure the length of the thread afterwards. Repeat the same for in the stroma. These protein complexes act as spacers between the the inner membrane. Compare the results and discuss how the sheets of stromal thylakoids. enfolding of the inner membrane increases surface area through


ENRICHMENT (30 MINS)
 1. Using the figure below, ask learners to compute surface area vs. volume. 2. Draw the table on the board and instruct the learners to write their measurements.
 Teacher tip
EVALUATION (60 MINS) Clarify to the learners the Ask the learners to answer practice questions on the following electronic resources: misconception that the appearance of organelles are static and rigid. Possible responses to the homework (Source: Campbell et al, 10th Ed.): Teacher tip
Check the electronic resources on
• They have double membranes and are not part of the endomembrane system. Endosymbiotic Theory: • Their shape is changeable. • They are autonomous (somewhat independent) organelles that grow and occasionally pinch in two, thereby reproducing themselves. v=bBjD4A7R2xU (Endosymbiotic Theory in plain English) • They are mobile and move around the cell along tracks of the cytoskeleton, a structural network of the • They contain ribosomes, as well as multiple circular DNA molecules associated with their inner membranes. The DNA in these organelles programs the synthesis of some organelle proteins on ribosomes that have been synthesized and assembled there as well. 2. Give out the homework for next meeting. What are the characteristics shared by these two energy transforming organelles? Instruct the learners to write an essay on probable reasons for these the shared characteristics of the mitochondria and the chloroplast. Learners shall submit a handwritten essay on the Endosymbiotic Theory and how it explains the similarity between the mitochondria and chloroplast. Learning Competency Assessment Tool The learners shall be Learner was able to Learner was able to Learner was able to (1) Learner was not able to describe the answer all the question/ answer the main question answer the able to answer the s without referring to without referring to his/ questions but he/ her notes but was not she referred to his/ (2) Learner read able to answer follow-up her notes 1. structure and notes of his/her function of major and subcellular organelles Assignment Learner submitted an Learner submitted a Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not assignment beyond the comprehensive and well- well written report written assignment but some responses assignment partially-finished Learner obtained 90% Learner obtained 70% to Learner obtained Learner obtained 89.99% correct answers less that 50% correct in the examination correct answers in Essay Assignment Learner submitted an Learner submitted an Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not essay beyond the well-written essay comprehensive and well- some details are partially-finished General Biology 1 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Content Standards

The learners demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of the mitochondria and chloroplasts, the organelles involved in energy Introduction Review of relevant terminologies and
Performance Standards
Understanding of key concepts using real-life The learners shall be able to construct three-dimensional models of whole cells using indigenous or recyclable materials. These models should show the Instruction/ Discussion and lecture proper
mitochondria and chloroplasts. Learning Competencies
Drawing (with label) activity The learners describe the structure and function of major and subcellular organelles (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-2) and distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic Enrichment Computation of surface area vs volume
cells according to their distinguishing features (STEM_BIO11/12 -Ia-c-3) Answering practice questions and homework Resources (continued at the end of Teaching Guide)
Specific Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to: • illustrate the structure of the mitochondria, label its parts, and understand the importance of the enfolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane • illustrate the structure of the chloroplast, label its parts, and relate these parts to photosynthesis INTRODUCTION (5 MINS) Facilitate a review of the following concepts: • Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Definition of an ‘organelle' • Differences between membrane-bound organelles and non-membrane-bound organelles • Functions of the different parts of a cell • The endomembrane system Vacuoles and Vesicles Chloroplast and other plastids Explain that in eukaryotic cells, the machinery of the cell is compartmentalized into organelles. The compartmentalization of the cell into membrane-bound organelles: • allows conflicting functions (i.e., synthesis vs. breakdown) and several cellular activities to occur simultaneously without interference from • separates the DNA material of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast • increases the surface area-volume ratio of the cell Encourage the learners to look at the cell as both a system and subsystem. They should develop an understanding of how the parts of a cell interact with one another and how these parts help to do the ‘work' of the cell (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from <http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/cells-2-the-cell-as- a-system/>) Emphasize to the learners that energy transformation is one of the characteristics of life. This refers to the ability to obtain and use energy. This characterizes the main function of the mitochondria and the MOTIVATION (5 MINS) Ask the learners how they understand the concept of compartmentalization. Relate the concept to how the cell is compartmentalized into organelles. Compare compartmentalization to the division of a house into a receiving room or sala, kitchen, dining room, comfort rooms, bedrooms, etc. Teacher tip
Ask the learners why they think a house is divided into several rooms. Explain to the learner that this is how the cell is able to allow conflicting functions A possible response is that partitioning of the house into different parts facilitates the simultaneous (e.g., synthesis vs breakdown) and several occurrence of several activities without interfering with one another. Also, materials needed for each cellular activities to occur simultaneously activity can be stored at their specific areas. For example, pots and pans are being stored in the kitchen without interference from each other. and not in the bedroom. Beds and pillows are found in the bedroom and not in the toilet/bath. Explain to the learners that the mitochondria and chloroplasts have a small amount of DNA. Although most of the proteins of these organelles are imported from the cytosol and are thus programmed by the nuclear DNA, their DNA programs the synthesis of the proteins made on the organelles' ribosomes (Source: Campbell et al). Compartmentalization separates the DNA material of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast. Ask the learners if they have experienced going to a city/municipal hall and if they have observed that the Mayor, Vice-Mayor, and the City/Municipal Administrator have separate offices. You can use other examples such as the University President, VP for Academic Affairs, VP for Finance; Philippine President, Vice President, Senators, etc. Compare the nuclear DNA to the Mayor and the mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA to the Vice 
 Mayor. The Mayor runs the city/municipality but the Vice Mayor also performs functions that are Teacher tip
specific to their positions. They need different offices (or compartments) to avoid conflict in their Select a fruit that can be easily peeled like calamansi or dalandan Introduce the concept of surface area-volume ratio/relationship to the learners. Show a fruit to the learners and explain that the outer surface of the fruit is the surface area. Peel the fruit and show them what's inside, explaining that the inside of the fruit is the volume. Explain to the learners that surface area (SA) and volume (V) do not increase in the same manner. As an object increases in size, its volume increases as the cube of its linear dimensions while surface area increases as the square of its linear dimensions. Example: If the initial starting point is the same: SA = 2; Volume = 2 (Ratio = 1:1) A one-step increase will result to: SA = 22 = 4 while V = 23 = 8 (Ratio = 1:2) Teacher tip
INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (30 MINS) Ask questions to the learners while giving Explain and discuss the nature and functions of the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to the learners. If an LCD projector is not available, draw the structure of the mitochondria and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)—It is the major energy currency of the cell that provides the energy for chloroplast on the board. most of the energy-consuming activities of the cell. The ATP regulates many biochemical pathways. Mechanism: When the third phosphate group of ATP is removed by hydrolysis, a substantial amount of free energy is released. ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi where ADP is adenosine diphosphate and Pi is inorganic phosphate Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to draw the endomembrane system as he/she explains it to his/ her partner. Reshuffle the groupings and repeat until all learners have performed the exercise. Illustration 1: Energy release in Hydrolysis (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved fr Illustration 2: Chemical Energy and ATP (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from Synthesis of ATP
• ADP + Pi → ATP + H2O
• requires energy: 7.3 kcal/mole • occurs in the cytosol by glycolysis 
 • occurs in mitochondria by cellular respiration • occurs in chloroplasts by photosynthesis Consumption of ATP
ATP powers most energy-consuming activities of cells, such as:
• anabolic (synthesis) reactions, such as:
• joining transfer RNAs to amino acids for assembly into proteins • synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates for assembly into DNA and RNA • synthesis of polysaccharides • synthesis of fats • active transport of molecules and ions • conduction of nerve impulses • maintenance of cell volume by osmosis • addition of phosphate groups (phosphorylation) to different proteins (e.g., to alter their activity in cell • muscle contraction • beating of cilia and flagella (including sperm) • bioluminescence Extracellular ATP In mammals, ATP also functions outside of cells. ATP is released in the following examples: • from damaged cells to elicit inflammation and pain • from the carotid body to signal a shortage of oxygen in the blood • from taste receptor cells to trigger action potentials in the sensory nerves leading back to the brain • from the stretched wall of the urinary bladder to signal when the bladder needs emptying In eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria and chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to other forms which cells can use for their functions. Discuss the function and structure of the mitochondria. Mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion)—Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. The mitochondria are oval-shaped organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They are considered to be the ‘powerhouses' of the cell. As the site of cellular respiration, mitochondria serve to transform molecules such as glucose into an energy molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP fuels cellular processes by breaking its high-energy chemical bonds. Mitochondria are most plentiful in cells that require significant amounts of energy to function, such as liver and muscle cells. Figure 1: Structure of the Mitochonsdria (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/list/ The mitochondria has two membranes that are similar in composition to the cell membrane: • Outer membrane—is a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the mitochondria. It is the site of attachment for the respiratory assembly of the electron transport chain and ATP Synthase. It has integral proteins and pores for transporting molecules just like the cell membrane • Inner membrane—folds inward (called cristae) to increase surfaces for cellular metabolism. It contains ribosomes and the DNA of the mitochondria. The inner membrane creates two enclosed spaces within the mitochondria: • intermembrane space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane; and • matrix that is enclosed within the inner membrane. Ask questions to the learners on the structure of the mitochondria. A sample question could be: What is the importance of the enfolding of the mitochondria? The response would be to increase the surface area that can be ‘packed' into such a small space. Discuss the purpose of the mitochondrial membranes. As mentioned, the mitochondria has two membranes: the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. • Outer Membrane Teacher tip
• fully surrounds the inner membrane, with a small intermembrane space in between • has many protein-based pores that are big enough to allow the passage of ions and molecules as large as a small protein Lecture on mitochondrial membranes can • Inner membrane be accessed at (n.d.). Retrieved from • has restricted permeability like the plasma membrane • is loaded with proteins involved in electron transport and ATP synthesis • surrounds the mitochondrial matrix, where the citric acid cycle produces the electrons that travel from one protein complex to the next in the inner membrane. At the end of this electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is oxygen, and this ultimately forms water (H20). At the same time, the electron transport chain produces ATP in a process called oxidative phosphorylation During electron transport, the participating protein complexes push protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space. This creates a concentration gradient of protons that another protein complex, called ATP synthase, uses to power synthesis of the energy carrier molecule ATP. Figure 4: The Electrochemical Proton Gradient and the ATP Synthase (Source: (n.d.). Retrieved from Explain and discuss the structure and functions of the Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts—Chloroplasts, which are found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis. This process converts solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water. The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek word chloros which means ‘green' and plastes which means ‘the one who forms'. The chloroplasts are cellular organelles of green plants and some eukaryotic organisms. These organelles conduct photosynthesis. They absorb sunlight and convert it into sugar molecules. They also produce free energy stored in the form of ATP and NADPH through photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are double membrane-bound organelles and are the sites of photosynthesis. The 
 chloroplast has a system of three membranes: the outer membrane, the inner membrane, and the thylakoid system. The outer and the inner membranes of the chloroplast enclose a semi-gel-like fluid Teacher tip
known as the stroma. The stroma makes up much of the volume of the chloroplast. The thylakoid system floats in the stroma.  If an LCD projector is not available, draw the structure of the chloroplast on the Structure of the Chloroplast • Outer membrane—This is a semi-porous membrane and is permeable to small molecules and ions which diffuse easily. The outer membrane is not permeable to larger proteins. • Intermembrane Space—This is usually a thin intermembrane space about 10-20 nanometers and is present between the outer and the inner membrane of the chloroplast.  • Inner membrane—The inner membrane of the chloroplast forms a border to the stroma. It Lecture on structure and functions of the regulates passage of materials in and out of the chloroplast. In addition to the regulation activity, chloroplast can be accessed at (n.d.). fatty acids, lipids and carotenoids are synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.   Retrieved from <http:// • Stroma—This is an alkaline, aqueous fluid that is protein-rich and is present within the inner membrane of the chloroplast. It is the space outside the thylakoid space. The chloroplast DNA, chloroplast ribosomes, thylakoid system, starch granules, and other proteins are found floating around the stroma. • Thylakoid System
The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma. It is a collection of membranous sacks called thylakoids. Thylakoids are small sacks that are interconnected. The membranes of these thylakoids are the sites for the light reactions of the photosynthesis to take place. The chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. Each granum contains around 10-20 thylakoids. The word thylakoid is derived from the Greek word thylakos which means 'sack'.  Important protein complexes which carry out the light reaction of photosynthesis are embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids. 
 The Photosystem I and the Photosystem II are 
 complexes that harvest light with chlorophyll and carotenoids. They absorb the light energy and use it to energize the electrons. The molecules present in the thylakoid membrane use the electrons that are energized to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space. This decreases the pH and causes it to become acidic in nature. A large protein complex known as the ATP synthase controls the concentration gradient of the hydrogen ions in the thylakoid space to generate ATP energy. The hydrogen ions flow back into the Thylakoids are of two types: granal thylakoids and stromal PRACTICE (10 MINS) thylakoids. Granal thylakoids are arranged in the grana. These circular discs that are about 300-600 nanometers in diameter. The Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to draw the mitochondria and stromal thylakoids are in contact with the stroma and are in the form label its parts while the other does the same for chloroplast. Once of helicoid sheets.  done, the partners exchange tasks (i.e., the learner that drew the mitochondria now does the same for the chloroplast). The granal thylakoids contain only Photosystem II protein complex. This allows them to stack tightly and form many granal layers with Reproduce these diagrams without the labels and use these for the granal membrane. This structure increases stability and surface area for the capture of light.  To demonstrate how folding increases surface area, ask the learners to trace the edges of the outer membrane with a thread and The Photosystem I and ATP synthase protein complexes are present measure the length of the thread afterwards. Repeat the same for in the stroma. These protein complexes act as spacers between the the inner membrane. Compare the results and discuss how the sheets of stromal thylakoids. enfolding of the inner membrane increases surface area through ENRICHMENT (30 MINS)
 1. Using the figure below, ask learners to compute surface area vs. volume. 2. Draw the table on the board and instruct the learners to write their measurements.
 Teacher tip
EVALUATION (60 MINS) Clarify to the learners the Ask the learners to answer practice questions on the following electronic resources: misconception that the appearance of organelles are static and rigid. Possible responses to the homework (Source: Campbell et al, 10th Ed.): Teacher tip
Check the electronic resources on
• They have double membranes and are not part of the endomembrane system. Endosymbiotic Theory: • Their shape is changeable. • They are autonomous (somewhat independent) organelles that grow and occasionally pinch in two, thereby reproducing themselves. v=bBjD4A7R2xU (Endosymbiotic Theory in plain English) • They are mobile and move around the cell along tracks of the cytoskeleton, a structural network of the • They contain ribosomes, as well as multiple circular DNA molecules associated with their inner membranes. The DNA in these organelles programs the synthesis of some organelle proteins on ribosomes that have been synthesized and assembled there as well. 2. Give out the homework for next meeting. What are the characteristics shared by these two energy transforming organelles? Instruct the learners to write an essay on probable reasons for these the shared characteristics of the mitochondria and the chloroplast. Learners shall submit a handwritten essay on the Endosymbiotic Theory and how it explains the similarity between the mitochondria and chloroplast. Learning Competency Assessment Tool The learners shall be Learner was able to Learner was able to Learner was able to (1) Learner was not able to describe the answer all the question/ answer the main question answer the able to answer the s without referring to without referring to his/ questions but he/ her notes but was not she referred to his/ (2) Learner read able to answer follow-up her notes 1. structure and notes of his/her function of major and subcellular organelles Assignment Learner submitted an Learner submitted a Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not assignment beyond the comprehensive and well- well written report written assignment but some responses assignment partially-finished Learner obtained 90% Learner obtained 70% to Learner obtained Learner obtained 89.99% correct answers less that 50% correct in the examination correct answers in Essay Assignment Learner submitted an Learner submitted an Learner submitted a (1) Learner did not essay beyond the well-written essay comprehensive and well- some details are partially-finished General Biology 1 Structure and Functions of Animal Tissues
and Cell Modification
Content Standard

The learners demonstrate an understanding of animal tissues and cell Introduction Communicating learning objectives to the
Performance Standard
Class Activity: Pinoy Henyo Classroom The learners shall be able to construct a three-dimensional model of the animal tissue by using recyclable or indigenous materials. Instruction/ Review on the Hierarchy of Biological
Learning Competencies
Organisation and PTSF; Lesson on Animal Tissues and on Cell Modfication • classify different cell types (plant/animal tissue) and specify the functions of Class Activity: Reporting on structure and each (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-4) function of animal tissue or showing of • describe some cell modifications that lead to adaptation to carry out infomercial on diseases.
specialized functions (e.g., microvilli, root hair) (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-5) Specific Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
Materials
• present a five-minute report on how the structures of different animal microscopes, LCD Projector (if available), laptop or computer tissues define their function or show a two-minute infomercial about a (if available), manila paper, cartolina, photos, images, or disease that is caused by animal tissue malfunction; illustrations of different types of tissues, drawing materials • provide insights, offer constructive feedback, and note areas of (e.g. pens, pencils, paper, color pencils, etc.) improvement on their classmates' reports or infomercial
 Resources (continued at the end of Teaching Guide)
(1) Reece JB, U. L., (2010). Campbell Biology 10th. San Francisco (CA).
INTRODUCTION (5 MINS) Teacher tip
Introduce the following learning objectives by flashing these on the board: For this particular lesson, start with the Motivation first (i.e., class activity on Pinoy • classify different cell types (plant/animal tissue) and specify the functions of each (STEM_BIO11/12- Henyo Classroom Edition). After the game, proceed to the Introduction by • describe some cell modifications that lead to adaptation to carry out specialized functions (e.g., communicating the learning objectives to microvilli, root hair) (STEM_BIO11/12-Ia-c-5) For the part when the learners have to state the learning objectives using their own Ask the learners to work in pairs and write the learning objectives using their own words. words, ask the learners to face their seatmates and work in pairs. If the learners are more comfortable in stating the learning objectives in Tagalog or In their local dialect, ask them to do so. Teacher tip
MOTIVATION (10 MINS) Prior to this lesson, assign a reading material or chapter for this topic. This shall PINOY HENYO CLASSROOM EDITION aid in the facilitation of the class activity. Divide the class into two groups. In choosing the mystery words for the game, do not limit yourself with the four types of animal tissues. You may choose Explain to the learners that instead of having the typical one-on-one Pinoy Henyo, only one terms that describe the tissue type or even representative from each group shall be asked to go to the front and have the mystery word card on body parts wherein the tissues are located. his/her forehead. Only three words shall be allowed from the groups: "Oo", "Hindi", or "Pwede". You may also include diseases that are caused by certain malfunctions on the Violation of the rules of the game (e.g., communicating the mystery word to the guesser) shall merit corresponding penalties or disqualification. Assign three representatives per group to guess the mystery words. Each guesser shall be given one minute and 30 seconds. Make sure to mention the chosen mystery words in the discussion. This shall help the learners to understand the connection of At the end of the activity, ask one or two learners what they think the learning objectives of the lesson the game with the lesson. will be. Immediately proceed with the Introduction. Check how the class behaves during the activity. If the learners get rowdy, you may choose to stop the game. Make sure to warn the learners of the consequences first before the start of the activity.
INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (95 MINS) Teacher tip
Facilitate a five-minute review on the Hierarchy of Biological Organization and on the concept of "form fits function", the unifying theme in Biology. Do not use too much time for the review. Just make sure to guide or lead the learners in remembering past lessons. Provide clues Review on Hierarchy of Biological Organization 1. Discuss that new properties arise with each step upward the hierarchy of life. These are called emergent properties. 2. Ask the class what the levels of biological organization are. The learners should be able to answer this since this is just a review. In case the class does not respond to the question, you may facilitate the discussion by mentioning the first level of the hierarchy. 3. Start with the cell since it is the most basic unit of life that shows all life properties. multicellular organism Illustrate this by showing photos of the actual hierarchy using animals that are endemic in the Philippines (e.g., pilandok, dugong, and cloud rat). Teacher tip
For the review on "form fits function", if the
class does not respond well, start giving Review on the unifying theme in Biology: "form fits function" your own examples for the students to figure out this unifying theme. 1. Ask the class what the relation of form (structure) to function and vice versa is Make sure to relate structure to function. Mention the role of fossils in determining 2. Ask for examples of versaingit of life that shows all life properthe torpedo shape of the body of the habits of extinct animals. By doing this, dolphins (mammals with fishlike characteristics) and the bone structure and wing shape of birds in it shall establish a strong connection relation to flying. between form and function and shall give relevance on the study of this connection in Biology. After this, you may now proceed to the new topic on animal tissues. Facilitate a class activity (i.e., observation of cells under a microscope) to illustrate that animals are Teacher tip
made up of cells. This shall be the foundation of the definition of and discussion on animal tissues. The If microscopes are available for this activity, whole activity and discussion shall last for 90 minutes. allot 20-30 minutes for the observation of cells. If microscopes are not available, allot only 10-15 minutes. If microscopes are available for this activity, set up the equipment and the slides that were prepared prior to the activity. Each slide should show one type of tissue (i.e., epithelial tissue, connective tissue, Prior to the activity, prepare the slides that will be put under the microscopes. The muscle tissue, and nervous tissue). Make sure that the labels are covered because the learners will be slides shall contain the different types of asked to name the tissues based on their observations during the discussion. tissue. Make sure to focus the slides so that the learners can observe them clearly. If there are no microscopes available for the activity, prepare cut-out images, photos, or illustrations Give the learners enough time to observe that show the different types of tissues (i.e., epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and the specimens and then ask them to draw nervous tissue). Make sure that the images, photos, or illustrations are not labeled because the learners on their notebooks what they were able to observe under the microscopes. Encourage will be asked to name them. the learners to write down the description and function of the specific tissue type as you go through the discussion. Also, do not immediately identify the type of tissue based on the descriptions that you will be presenting to the class. The learners will be asked to identify which among the slides under the If microscopes are not available and you microscope or which image, photo, or illustration matches the description of the structure and function have shown photos, images, or illustrations that will be given during the discussion. instead, ask the learners to draw them on their notebooks and encourage them to write down the description and function of After the class activity, proceed with the actual lecture. If a computer, laptop, or projector is available, the specific tissue type as you go through show a PowerPoint presentation that shows the description and function of tissues. If there is no available equipment, you may use flash cards or manila paper where description of structure and function of the different tissue types are written down. Ask the learners which among the microscope Teacher tip
slides, image, photo, or illustration fits the given information on description and function. After the Prepare the lecture in such a way that you learners' responses, you can flash or show the next slide which shall reveal the image of the specimen do not immediately reveal the label of the with the corresponding label or type of tissue. images or the terms that are being described. The learners should first be asked to identify the images or slides that fit Epithelial Tissue—This type of tissue is commonly seen outside the body as coverings or as linings of the description of the structures and organs and cavities. Epithelial tissues are characterized by closely-joined cells with tight junctions (i.e., a functions. This will make the students more engaged in the discussion. Always remind type of cell modification). Being tightly packed, tight junctions serve as barriers for pathogens, the learners to take down notes while you mechanical injuries, and fluid loss.
 flash information for each tissue type. Teacher tip
Cells that make up epithelial tissues can have distinct arrangements: Take note that the part on cell modifications is incorporated in the discussion on the • cuboidal—for secretion structure of the respective cells that make • simple columnar—brick-shaped cells; for secretion and active absorption up the tissue that is being discussed. Give • simple squamous—plate-like cells; for exchange of material through diffusion emphasis on the differences on the features • stratified squamous—multilayered and regenerates quickly; for protection of the cells that make up the tissue type. • pseudo-stratified columnar—single layer of cells; may just look stacked because of varying height; For examples or illustrations of the different for lining of respiratory tract; usually lined with cilia (i.e., a type of cell modification that sweeps the types of tissues, it is better to use an animal that is endemic in the Philippines or in your specific region so that the learners can relate more in the discussion. Figure 1: Epithelial Tissue (Source: Reece JB, U. L. (2010). Campbell Biology 10th. San Francisco (CA):.)
 Connective Tissue—These tissues are composed of the following: BLOOD —made up of plasma (i.e., liquid extracellular matrix); contains water, salts, and dissolved proteins; erythrocytes that carry oxygen (RBC), leukocytes for defense (WBC), and platelets for blood clotting. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER (CTP)—made up of loose connective tissue that is found in the skin and fibrous connective tissue that is made up of collagenous fibers found in tendons and ligaments. Adipose tissues are also examples of loose connective tissues that store fats which functions to insulate the body and store energy. CARTILAGE —characterized by collagenous fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate. Chondrocytes are the cells that secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Cartilage functions as cushion BONE —mineralized connective tissue made by bone-forming cells called osteoblasts which deposit collagen. The matrix of collagen is combined with calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions to make the bone hard. Blood vessesl and nerves are found at a central canal surrounded by concentric circles of Figure 2: Connective Tissue (Source: Reece JB, U. L. (2010). Campbell Biology 10th. San Francisco (CA):.) Muscle Tissue—These tissues are composed of long cells called muscle fibers that allow the body to move voluntary or involuntary. Movement of muscles is a response to signals coming from nerve cells. In vertebrates, these muscles can be categorized into the following: • skeletal—striated; voluntary movements • cardiac—striated with intercalated disk for synchronized heart contraction; involuntary • smooth—not striated; involuntary Figure 3: Muscle Tissue (Source: Reece JB, U. L. (2010). Campbell Biology 10th. San Francisco (CA):.) Nervous Tissue—These tissues are composed of nerve cells called neurons and glial cells that function as support cells. These neurons sense stimuli and transmit electrical signals throughout the animal body. Neurons connect to other neurons to send signals. The dendrite is the part of the neuron that receives impulses from other neurons while the axon is the part where the impulse is transmitted to other neurons. Figure 4: Neurons and Glial Cells (Source: Reece JB, U. L. (2010). Campbell Biology 10th. San Francisco (CA):.)
 PRACTICE (60 MINS) Teacher tip
Group the learners before starting the
Divide the class into six groups. Four groups will be reporting on Animal Tissues while two groups will lesson. The reporting may be done the day be creating an infomercial on diseases caused by the malfunction of tissue types. Each infomercial after finishing the discussion on Animal Tissue Structure, Function, and Cell group shall cover two tissue types. The reports may be presented using a table Each group will be given five minutes to report or show their infomercial. At the end of each which contains columns for tissue type, cell presentation, facilitate a five-minute critiquing of the presentation. Make sure to get feedbacks from structures that characterize the tissue, part the learners and clarify misconceptions from the reports. The report or the infomercial on diseases shall of the body where the tissue is located, not be graded. These will be a kind of formative assessment.Group the learners into pairs. Ask one to function, and importance.
draw the mitochondria and label its parts while the other does the same for chloroplast. Once done, the partners exchange tasks (i.e., the learner that drew the mitochondria now does the same for the EVALUATION (10 MINS) Teacher tip
Ask the learners to group themselves in pairs or in groups of threes. This will allow the learners to Assess if the learners are ready to answer discuss and decide among themselves. However, if a learner chooses to do this activity on his or her this individually. If they are not yet ready, this activity can be done in pairs or in own, he or she should be allowed to do so. groups of threes. Make sure that you provide enough time for the group to discuss their responses. Remind the learners Ask the learners to briefly and clearly answer the following questions: to answer briefly and clearly. • What is the importance of having a tissue level in the hierarchy of biological organization? (2 points) If you are not comfortable with this time of • What do the varying shapes and arrangement of epithelial tissue suggests? (2 points) exam, a multiple-choice type of evaluation • What is the general function of connective tissues? What function is common to all types of may also be prepared. connective tissues? (1 point) • Why are there voluntary and involuntary muscle tissue functions? (2 points) After getting the responses, you may get feedback from the learners to see if all • What is the importance of glial cells in nervous tissues? (1 point) members of each group helped or • Identify two cell modifications and describe their respective functions. (2 points) participated in their small discussions to answer the short quiz. You may ask learners to rate the members of their group.
General Biology 1 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Content Standard
The learners demonstrate an understanding of the cell cycle and cell division
Introduction Presentation of a simplified life cycle of a
(i.e., mitosis and meiosis). human being or plant Performance Standards
Video presentation of ‘Cell Cycle and Cell The learners shall be able to construct a three-dimensional model of the stages or phases involved in the cell cycle using indigenous or recyclable materials. Instruction/ Lecture-discussion on the cell through the
The learners shall put emphasis on the identification of possible errors that may Delivery
use of a PowerPoint presentation, video, or happen during these stages. cell diagram on a Manila paper; Demonstration of the processes inside the Learning Competencies
cell using model materials (e.g., beads, cords, yarn with different thickness, coins, • characterize the phases of the cell cycle and their control points (STEM_BIO11/12- etc.); or, Summary of learners' responses to questions regarding the video on ‘Cell Cycle • describe the stages of mitosis and meiosis given 2n=6 (STEM_BIO11/12-Id-f-7) and Cell Division' • discuss crossing over and recombination in meiosis (STEM_BIO11/12-Id-f-8)
• explain the significance or applications of mitosis/meiosis (STEM_BIO11/12-Id-f-9) Practice
Class activities or games such as Amazing • identify disorders and diseases that result from the malfunction of the cell during Race or Interphase, Mitosis, or Meiosis the cell cycle (STEM_BIO11/12-Id-f-10) Specific Learning Outcomes
Enrichment Video presentation or introduction on plant
• Identify and differentiate the phases of the cell cycle and their control and animal gametogenesis; Microscopic examination of an onion root tip • describe and differentiate the stages of mitosis and meiosis given 2n=6 Written or oral examination • discuss and demonstrate crossing over and recombination in meiosis Materials
• explain the significance and applications of mitosis and meiosis photos of the life cycle or stages of eukaryotic organisms, • construct a diagram of the various stages of mitosis and meiosis yarns of different thickness, cords, beads, coins, pens • identify disorders and diseases that result from malfunctions in the cell during the cell cycle
 Resources (continued at the end of Teaching Guide)
(1) Becker, W.M. (2000). The World of the Cell. Addison Wesley Longman (2) Mader, S.S. (2011).Biology 10th Ed. Mac Graw Hill Education, USA.
INTRODUCTION (5 MINS) Teacher tip
Introduce a simplified life cycle of a human being or plant. Let the learners identify the changes throughout the different stages and how these organisms grow and develop. Explain to the learners that these eukaryotic organisms follow a complex sequence of events by which their cells grow and divide. This sequence of events is known as the Cell You can show diagrams or illustrations that demonstrate the growth or increase in the number of organisms. Teacher tip
You can download the video prior to this
session or if internet connection is available MOTIVATION (5 MINS) during class, you can just make use of the hyperlink to play the video. To access the video through the hyperlink, simply hold the 1. Play the video on ‘Cell Cycle and Cell Division'. This video can be accessed at http:// Control (Ctrl) Key on the keyboard and click www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6ucKWIIFmg.Divide the class into two groups. on the hyperlink. 2. Show diagrams of cell division in multicellular or eukaryotic organisms to the class. You should ask the learners thought- provoking questions about the video and relate it to the lesson. INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (30 MINS) Teacher tip
Facilitate a lecture-discussion on the general concepts of cell division. Note the learners' responses to questions about the video compared to the expected responses. The expected responses are the Cell Division—involves the distribution of identical genetic material or DNA to two daughter cells. concepts listed in the Instruction / Delivery What is most remarkable is the fidelity with which the DNA is passed along, without dilution or error, from one generation to the next. Cell Division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair. Core Concepts: • All organisms consist of cells and arise from preexisting cells. • Mitosis is the process by which new cells are generated. • Meiosis is the process by which gametes are generated for reproduction. • The Cell Cycle represents all phases in the life of a cell. • DNA replication (S phase) must precede mitosis so that all daughter cells receive the same complement of chromosomes as the parent cell. • The gap phases separate mitosis from S phase. This is the time when molecular signals mediate the switch in cellular activity. • Mitosis involves the separation of copied chromosomes into separate cells. • Unregulated cell division can lead to cancer. • Cell cycle checkpoints normally ensure that DNA replication and mitosis occur only when conditions are favorable and the process is working correctly. • Mutations in genes that encode cell cycle proteins can lead to unregulated growth, resulting in tumor formation and ultimately invasion of cancerous cells to other organs. The Cell Cycle control system is driven by a built-in clock that can be adjusted by external stimuli (i.e., chemical messages). Checkpoint—a critical control point in the Cell Cycle where ‘stop' and ‘go-ahead' signals can regulate • Animal cells have built-in ‘stop' signals that halt the cell cycles and checkpoints until overridden by ‘go-ahead' signals. • Three major checkpoints are found in the G1, G2, and M phases of the Cell Cycle. The G1 Checkpoint—the Restriction Point • The G1 checkpoint ensures that the cell is large enough to divide and that enough nutrients are available to support the resulting daughter cells. • If a cell receives a ‘go-ahead' signal at the G1 checkpoint, it will usually continue with the Cell Cycle. • If the cell does not receive the ‘go-ahead' signal, it will exit the Cell Cycle and switch to a non-dividing state called G0. • Most cells in the human body are in the G0 phase. The G2 Checkpoint—ensures that DNA replication in S phase has been successfully completed. The Metaphase Checkpoint—ensures that all of the chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle by a kinetochore. Kinase—a protein which activates or deactivates another protein by phosphorylating them. Kinases give the ‘go-ahead' signals at the G1 and G2 checkpoints. The kinases that drive these checkpoints must themselves be activated. • The activating molecule is a cyclin, a protein that derives its name from its cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell. Because of this requirement, these kinases are called cyclin-dependent kinases or CDKs. • Cyclins accumulate during the G1, S, and G2 phases of the Cell Cycle. • By the G2 checkpoint, enough cyclin is available to form MPF complexes (aggregations of CDK and cyclin) which initiate • MPF functions by phosphorylating key proteins in the mitotic sequence. • Later in mitosis, MPF switches itself off by initiating a process which leads to the destruction of cyclin. • CDK, the non-cyclin part of MPF, persists in the cell as an inactive form until it associates with new cyclin molecules synthesized during the interphase of the next round of the Cell Cycle. Discuss the stages of mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis (apparent division)—is nuclear division; the process by which the nucleus divides to produce two new nuclei. Mitosis results in two daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parental cell from which they came. Cytokinesis—is the division of the cytoplasm. Both mitosis and cytokinesis last for around one to two hours. Prophase—is the preparatory stage, During prophase, centrioles move toward opposite sides of the nucleus.
 • The initially indistinct chromosomes begin to condense into visible threads. Teacher tip
• Chromosomes first become visible during early prophase as long, thin, and intertwined filaments but by late prophase, chromosomes are more compacted and You may show diagrams or a video can be clearly discerned as much shorter and rod-like structures. demonstrating animal and plant mitosis. The • As the chromosomes become more distinct, the nucleoli also become more distinct. By the end of prophase, the nucleoli become less distinct, often disappearing altogether. Metaphase—is when chromosomes become arranged so that their centromeres become aligned in one place, halfway between the two spindle poles. The long axes of the chromosomes are 90 degrees to the spindle axis. The plane of alignment is called the metaphase plate. Anaphase—is initiated by the separation of sister chromatids at their junction point at the centromere. The daughter chromosomes then move toward the poles. Telophase—is when daughter chromosomes complete their migration to the poles. The two sets of progeny chromosomes are assembled into two-groups at opposite ends of the cell. The chromosomes uncoil and assume their extended form during interphase. A nuclear membrane then forms around each chromosome group and the spindle microtubules disappear. Soon, the nucleolus reforms. Meiosis—reduces the amount of genetic information. While mitosis in diploid cells produces daughter cells with a full diploid complement, meiosis produces haploid gametes or spores with only one set of chromosomes. During sexual reproduction, gametes combine in fertilization to reconstitute the diploid complement found in parental cells. The process involves two successive divisions of a diploid nucleus. First Meiotic Division The first meiotic division results in reducing the number of chromosomes (reduction division). In most cases, the division is accompanied by cytokinesis. Prophase I—has been subdivided into five substages: leptonema, zygonema, pachynema, diplonema, and diakinesis. • Leptonema—Replicated chromosomes have coiled and are already visible. The number of chromosomes present is the same as the number in the diploid cell. • Zygonema—Homologue chromosomes begin to pair and twist around each other in a highly specific manner. The pairing is called synapsis. And because the pair consists of four chromatids it is referred to as bivalent tetrad. • Pachynema—Chromosomes become much shorter and thicker. A form of physical exchange between homologues takes place at specific regions. The process of physical exchange of a chromosome region is called crossing-over. Through the mechanism of crossing-over, the parts of the homologous chromosomes are recombined (genetic recombination). • Diplonema—The two pairs of sister chromatids begin to separate from each other. It is at this point where crossing-over is shown to have taken place. The area of contact between two non-sister chromatids, called chiasma, become evident. • Diakinesis—The four chromatids of each tetrad are even more condensed and the chiasma often terminalize or move down the chromatids to the ends. This delays the separation of homologous chromosomes. In addition, the nucleoli disappear, and the nuclear membrane begins to break down. Metaphase I—The spindle apparatus is completely formed and the microtubules are attached to the centromere regions of the homologues. The synapsed tetrads are found aligned at the metaphase plate (the equatorial plane of the cell) instead of only replicated chromosomes. Anaphase I—Chromosomes in each tetrad separate and migrate toward the opposite poles. The sister chromatids (dyads) remain attached at their respective centromere regions. Telophase I—The dyads complete their migration to the poles. New nuclear membranes may form. In most species, cytokinesis follows, producing two daughter cells. Each has a nucleus containing only one set of chromosomes (haploid level) in a replicated form. Second Meiotic Division The events in the second meiotic division are quite similar to mitotic division. The difference lies, however, in the number of chromosomes that each daughter cell receives. While the original chromosome number is maintained in mitosis, the number is reduced to half in meiosis. Prophase II—The dyads contract. Metaphase II—The centromeres are directed to the equatorial plate and then divide. Anaphase II—The sister chromatids (monads) move away from each other and migrate to the opposite poles of the spindle fiber. Telophase II—The monads are at the poles, forming two groups of chromosomes. A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes and cytokinesis follows. The chromosomes uncoil and extend.
 Cytokinesis—The telophase stage of mitosis is accompanied by cytokinesis. The two nuclei are Teacher tip
compartmentalized into separate daughter cells and complete the mitotic cell division process. In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by the formation of a constriction in the middle of the cell until two You can show a tabular comparison daughter cells are formed. The constriction is often called cleavage, or cell furrow. However, in most between mitosis and meiosis to point the significance of the two types of division. plant cells this constriction is not evident. Instead, a new cell membrane and cell wall are assembled Divide the class into two groups and ask between the two nuclei to form a cell plate. Each side of the cell plate is coated with a cell wall that them about their opinions on the eventually forms the two progeny cells. applications of mitosis and meiosis. The following could be possible responses: Significance of mitosis for sexual 1. Requires two nuclear divisions 1. Requires one nuclear division reproduction: Mitosis is important for sexual reproduction indirectly. It allows the sexually reproducing organism to grow and 2. Chromosomes synapse and cross 2. Chromosomes do not synapse nor cross develop from a single cell into a sexually mature individual. This allows organisms to continue to reproduce through the 3. Centromeres survive Anaphase I 3. Centromeres dissolve in mitotic anaphase Significance of Meiosis and Chromosome Number: Chromosomes are the cell's way of neatly arranging long strands of DNA. Non-sex cells have two sets of 4. Halves chromosome number 4. Preserves chromosome number chromosomes, one set from each parent. Meiosis makes sex cells with only one set of chromosomes. For example, human cells 5. Produces four daughter nuclei 5. Produces two daughter nuclei have 46 chromosomes, with the exception of sperm and eggs, which contain only 23 chromosomes each. When a sperm cell 6. Produces daughter cells genetically 6. Produces daughter cells genetically fertilizes an egg, the 23 chromosomes from different from parent and each other identical to parent and to each other each sex cell combine to make a zygote, a new cell with 46 chromosomes. The zygote is the first cell in a new individual.
7. Used only for sexual reproduction 7. Used for asexual reproduction and Table 1: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis (Source: http://courses.washington.edu/bot113/spring/ Meiosis I compared to Mitosis Meiosis II compared to Mitosis Teacher tip
Significance of Meiosis for Diversity:
One of the benefits of sexual reproduction Prophase I Prophase II is the diversity it produces within a population. That variety is a direct product Pairing of homologous of meiosis. Every sex cell made from meiosis has a unique combination of chromosomes. This means that no two sperm or egg cells Metaphase I Metaphase II are genetically identical. Every fertilization event produces new combinations of traits. Bivalents at metaphase Duplicated Haploid number of This is why siblings share DNA with parents and each other, but are not identical to one Anaphase I Anaphase II Homologues of each Sister chromatids Sister chromatids Sister chromatids Teacher tip
bivalent separate and separate, becoming separate, becoming separate You may show a video that demonstrates how crossing over and recombination of chromosomes occur. The video can be chromosomes move to chromosomes that chromosomes that accessed at http:// move to the poles move to the poles that move to the Telophase I Telophase II Two haploid daughter cells not identical to the daughter cells, daughter cells not identical to the genetically identical identical to the Table 2: Meiosis compared to Mitosis Facilitate a discussion on disorders and diseases that result from the malfunction of the cell during the cell cycle. Present some diagrams or illustrations on some errors in mitosis and allow the learners to predict possible outcomes, diseases, or disorders that may happen: • incorrect DNA copy (e.g., cancer) • chromosomes are attached to string-like spindles and begin to move to the middle of the cell (e.g., Down Syndrome, Alzheimer's, and Leukemia)
 Other chromosome abnormalities: • arise from errors in meiosis, usually meiosis I; • occur more often during egg formation (90% of the time) than during sperm formation; • become more frequent as a woman ages. • Aneuploidy—is the gain or loss of whole chromosomes. It is the most common chromosome abnormality. It is caused by non-disjunction, the failure of chromosomes to correctly separate: • homologues during meiosis I or • sister chromatids during meiosis II PRACTICE (10 MINS) Facilitate games like Amazing Race, Interphase/Mitosis/Meiosis Puzzle in the class. 1. The Amazing Race follows a series of stations or stages with challenges that the learners have to accomplish. Divide the class into groups after the discussion. The number of groups will depend on the Teacher tip
number of stages or phases in the process (i.e., interphase, mitosis, or meiosis). 2. The groups will race to accomplish the tasks in five stations. In each station, the learners will assemble Encourage the learners to actively given materials to illustrate stages or phases of events in the specific process (i.e., interphase, mitosis, participate in the challenge. You may give extra points to those who will ENRICHMENT (5 MINS) A number of good videos have the stages or phases made into a rap or a 1. Instruct the learners to watch additional videos on cell division. song. One such example is the video 2. Introduce animal and plant gametogenesis to the learners in order for them to appreciate the entitled Cell Division Song Spongebob significance of cell division. that can be accessed at 3. Facilitate microscopic examination of onion root tip. v=9nsRufogdoI. Encourage each group to brainstorm and point out their EVALUATION (5 MINS) perceptions of the videos. Facilitate the accomplishment of a self-assessment checklist. A video on animal and plant gametogenesis can be accessed at ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:
Books:
1. Raven, P. a. (2001). Biology 6th Ed. The McGraw Hill Company, USA
2. Reece, J. B. (2013). Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. Pearson Education, Inc. United States of America.
 Electronic Resources:
3. (n.d.). Retrieved from Bright Hub Education: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/middle-school-science-lessons/94267-three-activities-for-
teaching-cell-cycles/# 4. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect16.htm 5. (n.d.). Retrieved from MH Education: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter11/ 6. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/meiostage/ 7. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://csls-text.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/active/12_05.html General Biology 1 Transport Mechanisms Pt.1
Content Standards
The learners demonstrate an understanding of Transport Mechanisms:
Introduction Visualization of the plasma membrane and its 30
Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Transport, Active Transport, and Bulk/Vesicular Simple group activity and brief reporting Performance Standards
The learners shall be able to construct a cell membrane model from indigenous Instruction/ Discussion and lecture proper
or recyclable materials. Learning Competencies
The learners:
Answering practice/guide questions • describe the structural components of the cell membrane Enrichment Essay and concept map writing
• relate the structure and composition of the cell membrane to its function (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-12) Designing a model of a plasma • explain transport mechanisms in cells (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated membrane using recyclable or transport, active transport) (STEM_BIO11/12–Ig-h-13) indigenous materials • differentiate exocytosis and endocytosis (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-14) Materials
Specific Learning Outcomes
pen, paper, salt, water, recycled or indigenous materials At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to: • describe and compare diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport and active Resources
(1) Campbell, N. J. (n.d.). (2) Campbell, N. e. (2008). Biology 8th edition. Pearson International • explain factors that affect the rate of diffusion across a cell membrane Edition. Pearson/Benjamin. • predict the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic environments on (3) Freeman, S. (2011). Biological Science 4th edition International Edition. osmosis in animal cells Benjamin Cummings Publishing. • differentiate endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) and exocytosis
 (4) Hickman, C. L. (2011). Integrated Principles of Zoology 15th edition. McGraw Hill Co., Inc.
INTRODUCTION (30 MINS) 1. Before this lesson, ask the learners to read about the topic on transport of materials across 2. Introduce the topic by providing the learners with background information. 
 In order for the cell to stay alive, it must meet the characteristics of life which include taking nutrients in and eliminating wastes and other by-products of metabolism. Several mechanisms allow cells to carry out these processes. All of the cell's activities are in one way or another tied to the membrane that separates its interior from the environment. 3. Ask the learners how they understand and visualize a plasma membrane and what characteristics are essential for it to perform its function. 4. Ask the learners to identify the different mechanisms on how materials are transported in and out of MOTIVATION (60 MINS) Teacher tip
Different responses to the question will be
1. Divide the learners into groups and ask them the following question: "What comes to your mind drawn from students. Their responses will when you see a 20 year old man who is 7.5 ft. tall and 3.5 ft. tall man of the same age?" Among depend on what aspect they are looking their respective groups, let the learners discuss the similarities and differences between the two. (Hint: Give students a clue by giving them the giant and pygmy as examples). Acknowledge the responses of the learners. 2. Ask a representative from each group to report the result of their discussion to the whole class. Point out and explain that the two men are 3. Before the start of the lesson on diffusion, spray an air freshener in one corner of the room and ask both abnormal. Their growths are abnormal the learners to raise their hands if they have smelled the scent of the spray. such that one is too big in size and the 4. Ask the learners what they have observed. Who smelled the scent first? Who are the last ones to other one is too small. Both men have defective membranes. Insufficient amount smell the scent? How would you explain the phenomenon wherein learners in the same classroom of growth hormones pass through a smelled the spray at different times? pygmy's body while an excessive amount of growth hormones is released in a giant. INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (120 MINS) 1. Show an illustration of a plasma membrane to the learners. 2. Ask the learners to describe the plasma membrane. 3. Discuss the importance of the plasma membrane and how indispensable it is to the life of the cell. 4. Explain how plasma membranes are arranged in the presence of water. 5. Let the learners enumerate the structures found in a plasma membrane.
 6. Explain to the learners the structure of a phospholipid bilayer.
 
Phospholipids are the foundation of all known biological membranes. The lipid bilayer forms as a result of the interaction between the nonpolar phospholipid tails, the polar phospholipid heads, and the surrounding water. The nonpolar tails face toward the water. Transmembrane proteins float within the bilayer and serve as channels through which various molecules can pass. 7. Ask the learners to enumerate the different transport interior to accommodate the natural inward movement. Most plants are hypertonic with respect to their immediate 8. Differentiate between diffusion and osmosis. environment. Osmotic pressure within the cell pushes the 9. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport. cytoplasm against the cell wall and makes a plant cell rigid.

 10. Present photos of plant and animal cells immersed in an To control the entrance and exit of particular molecules, isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution. selective transport of materials is necessary. One simple process 11. Describe solution and solute movement in and out of the cell is facilitated diffusion that utilizes protein transmembrane under hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic conditions. channels that are specific to certain molecules. It is a passive 12. Explain the effects of the different solutions to the cells. Ask process driven by the concentration of molecules both inside which among the three solutions is the best for plants? How and the outside of the membrane. Certain molecules are about for animals? Explain to the learners the water requirement transported in and out of the cell, independent of concentration. This process requires the expenditure of energy in the form of ATP and is called active transport. Diffusion is the natural tendency for molecules to move 13. Differentiate among endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, constantly. Their movement is random and is due to the energy receptor-mediated endocytosis, and exocytosis.
 found in the individual molecules. Net diffusion occurs when the materials on one side of the membrane have a different Large molecules enter the cell by generalized nonselective concentration than the materials on the other side.
 process known as endocytosis. Phagocytosis is endocytosis of a particulate material while endocytosis of liquid material is called Osmosis is a special type of diffusion specifically associated with pinocytosis. Exocytosis is the reverse process. Receptor- the movement of water molecules. Many cells are isotonic to the mediated endocytosis is a complicated mechanism involving the environment to avoid excessive inward and outward movement transport of materials via coated vesicles.
 of water. Other cells must constantly export water from their PRACTICE (45 MINS) EVALUATION (180 MINS) Ask the learners to design and a model of a plasma membrane Ask the learners to answer the following practice or guide using recyclable or indigenous materials. Divide the learners into groups and assign different concentrations • What is the difference between diffusion and facilitated of salt solution to be used in making salted eggs. Ask the learners to answer the following questions: • How do endocytosis and exocytosis allow movement of • Why does putting salt on meat preserve it from bacterial materials in and out of the cell? • What solution is best for a plant cell? How about for an animal • Compare specific transport processes (i.e., diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis, and • Explain the orientation of the phospholipid molecules in the exocytosis) in terms of the following: presence of water. • concentration gradient • use of channel or carrier protein • use of energy • types or sizes of molecules transported ENRICHMENT (45 MINS) Let the learners recognize the effect of a defective membrane in normal body functioning. Ask them to write an essay about the possible effects of a faulty plasma membrane aside from the examples given earlier. Ask the learners to individually submit a concept map about plasma membrane and the different transport mechanisms. General Biology 1 Transport Mechanisms Pt.2
Content Standard
Introduction Presentation of objectives and important terms; 15
The learners shall be able to construct a cell membrane model from indigenous Discussion on the structure of the plasma or recyclable materials. membrane; Brief discussion on the different transport mechanisms Performance Standard
The learners shall be able to construct a cell membrane model from indigenous Motivation
Class activity to illustrate the process of diffusion; Discussion of similarities between a giant and or recyclable materials. pygmy; Demonstration of the principle behind the Learning Competencies
process of making salted eggs Instruction/ Discussions, as a class and among groups, on the 60
structure and importance of the plasma • describe the structural components of the cell membrane membrane and on the different transport • relate the structure and composition of the cell membrane to its function (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-12) Answering of practice or guide questions • explain transport mechanisms in cells (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated Enrichment Essay writing or concept mapping; Class activity
transport, active transport) (STEM_BIO11/12–Ig-h-13) on salted egg making • differentiate exocytosis and endocytosis (STEM_BIO11/12-Ig-h-14) Construction of a plasma membrane model from Specific Learning Outcomes
indigenous or recyclable materials; Concept At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to: mapping on the different transport mechanisms; Answering of questions for assessment • describe the plasma membrane Materials
• explain how plasma membranes are arranged in the presence of water projector, laptop (if available), visual aids, school supplies, recycled or • understand the structure of the phospholipid bilayer indigenous materials • describe and compare diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport and active Resources
(1) Campbell, N.A. et. al. (2008). Biology 8th Edition Pearson International. • explain factors that affect the rate of diffusion across a cell membrane Pearson/Benjamin Cummings Publishing. • predict the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic environments on (2) Campbell, N. J. (2010). Biology 9th edition Pearson International Edition. Benjamin Cummings Publishing. osmosis in animal cells (3) Freeman, S. (2011). Biological Science. 4th edition. International Edition. • differentiate endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) and exocytosis Benjamin Cummings Publishing. (4) Hickman, C. L. (2011). Integrated Principles of Zoology. 15th edition. McGraw Hill Co., Inc.
INTRODUCTION (15 MINS) Teacher tip
Prior to this lesson, instruct the learners to read up on the transport of materials across membranes. Ask After the learners have enumerated the the learners to identify the different mechanisms on how materials are transported in and out of the different transport mechanisms, ask them why they think there is a need to have different kinds of processes that allow Introduce the topic by providing the learners with background information. materials to be transported in and out of In order for the cell to stay alive, it must meet the characteristics of life which include taking nutrients in the cell. and eliminating wastes and other by-products of metabolism. Several mechanisms allow cells to carry Learners will describe the plasma out these processes. All of the cell's activities are, in one way or another, tied to the membrane that membrane in different ways. Ask them how separates its interior from the environment. they think the structures found within the membrane help in performing its function Ask the learners how they visualize a plasma membrane and what characteristics do they think are and what might happen in the absence of essential for it to perform its function. the these structures MOTIVATION (15 MINS) Teacher tip
Allow some time for the learners to smell
Before the start of the lesson on diffusion, conduct this simple class activity. Spray an air freshener in the spray until everyone has already smelled one corner of the room and instruct the learners to raise their hands if they have smelled the scent of the scent. Remember to instruct the learners to raise their hand once they smell Ask the learners the following questions: • Who among the class were able to smell the air freshener first? The learners might give varying responses • Who among the class were the last ones to smell the air freshener? to the question depending on what aspect they are looking into. Give hints by • How would you explain the phenomenon wherein people in the same classroom smelled the providing the giant and pygmy as examples. scent of the air freshener at different times? Acknowledge the learners' responses and Divide the learners into groups and ask them the question: What comes to your mind when you see point out that the two men are similar in the sense that they are both abnormal. Growth two men who are of the same age but one is 7.5 feet tall and the other is 3.5 feet tall? in both men is abnormal such that one is too big in size while the other one is too Allow the learners to discuss the similarities and differences between the two among their groups. Explain that both men have abnormal Ask a representative from each group to present the results of their discussions to the whole class. growth. Both have defective membranes. Insufficient amount of growth hormones pass through a pygmy's body while an excessive amount of growth hormones is released in a giant. INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (60 MINS) Teacher tip
You can ask the following questions before
Structure, function and importance of the plasma membrane
starting the discussion: 1. Present an illustration of the plasma membrane to the class 2. Ask the learners to describe the plasma membrane. Have you realized how crucial the task of a 3. Discuss the importance of the plasma membrane and how indispensable it is to the life of the cell. plasma membrane is in maintaining the life 4. Explain how plasma membranes are arranged in the presence of water. 5. Let students enumerate structures found in a plasma membrane. Have you thought about the ways on how 6. Make students understand the structure of a phospholipid bilayer. the materials needed by the cell and the wastes it needs to dispose are able to move Plasma membranes—are made up of a phospholipid bilayer in an aqueous environment. in and out of the plasma membrane? Phospholipids are the foundation of all known biological membranes. The lipid bilayer forms as a result of the interaction between the non-polar (hydrophobic or water-fearing) tails, the polar (hydrophilic or water-loving) phospholipid heads, and the surrounding water. The nonpolar tails face toward the water. Transmembrane proteins float within the bilayer and serve as channels through which various molecules can pass. They function as ‘identification tags' on cells which enable the cell to determine if the other cells that it encounters are like itself or not. It also permits cells of the immune system to accept and reject foreign cells such as disease-causing bacteria. Many membrane proteins function as enzymes that speed up reactions in cells. Others act like paste or glue-forming cell junctions where adjacent cells stick together. Membranes also contain cholesterol which reduces the cell's permeability to substances and make the bilayer stronger. Transport Mechanisms 1. Ask the learners to enumerate the different transport mechanisms. 2. Differentiate between diffusion and osmosis. Molecules and substances move in several ways that fall within two categories: passive transport and active transport. In passive transport, heat energy of the cellular environment provides all of the energy, hence, this is not energy-costly to the cell. Active transport, however, requires the cell to do work, requiring the cell to expend its energy reserves. Diffusion is a type of passive transport described as the natural tendency for molecules to move constantly. Their movement is random and is due to the energy found in the individual molecules. Net diffusion occurs when the materials on one side of the membrane have a different concentration than the materials on the other side. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion specifically associated with the movement of water A solution with a higher concentration of solutes is said to be hypertonic while a solution with a lower concentration of solutes is hypotonic. Water crosses the membrane until the solute concentrations are equal on both sides. Solutions of equal solution concentration are said to be isotonic. This only occurs when the solute concentration are the same on both sides of the membrane. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport. Then present photos of plant and animal cells immersed in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution. In addition, describe a solution and solute movement into and out of the cell under hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic conditions. Explain the effects of the different solutions to the cells. Ask which among the three solutions is the best for plants? For animals? Let them understand water requirement in plants. Many cells are isotonic to the environment in order to avoid excessive inward and outward movement of water. Other cells must constantly export water from their interior to accommodate the natural inward movement. Most plants are hypertonic with respect to their immediate environment. Osmotic pressure within the cell pushes the cytoplasm against the cell wall and makes a plant cell rigid. Ask the learners the following questions: • How do cells behave in different solutions? • What do you notice about the effect of different solutions to animal and plant cells? • What solution is best for an animal cell? Does this hold true with plant cells? When an animal cell such as red blood cell is immersed in an isotonic solution, the cell gains water at the same rate that it loses it. The cell's volume remains constant in this situation. What will happen to the red blood cell when immersed in a hypotonic solution which has a lower solute concentration than the cell? The cell gains water, swells, and may eventually burst due to excessive water intake. When placed in a hypertonic solution, an animal cell shrinks and can die due to water loss. Water requirement for plant cells is different due to their rigid cell walls. A plant cell placed in an isotonic solution is flaccid and a plant wilts in this condition. In contrast with animal cells, a plant cell is turgid and healthy in a hypotonic solution. In a hypertonic solution, a plant cell loses water, shrivels, and its plasma membrane detaches from the cell wall. This situation eventually causes death in plant cells. Differentiate diffusion from facilitated diffusion. To control the entrance and exit of particular molecules, selective transport of materials is necessary. One simple process is facilitated diffusion that utilizes protein transmembrane channels that are specific to certain molecules. It is a passive process driven by the concentration of molecules on the inside and the outside of the membrane. Certain molecules are transported in and out of the cell, independent of concentration. This process requires the expenditure of energy in the form of ATP and is called active transport. 
Differentiate endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and exocytosis.
 Large molecules enter the cell by generalized non-selective process known as endocytosis. Phagocytosis is endocytosis of a particulate material while pinocytosis is endocytosis of liquid material. In this process, the plasma membrane engulfs the particle or fluid droplet and pinches off a membranous sac or vesicle with a particular fluid inside into the cytoplasm. Exocytosis is the reverse process where a membrane-bound vesicle filled with bulky materials moves to the plasma membrane and fuses with it. In this process, the vehicle's contents are released out of the cell. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a complicated mechanism involving the transport of materials through coated vesicles. Cells take up molecules more efficiently in this process due to the receptor proteins on their surfaces. Each receptor protein bears a binding site for a particular molecule. If the right molecule contacts a receptor protein, it attaches to the binding site, forming a pocket and eventually pinching off into the cytoplasm. PRACTICE (30 MINS) Ask the learners to answer the following questions: • Explain the orientation of the phospholipid molecules in the presence of water. • Enumerate the structures found in a plasma membrane and give the function of each.
 • How do diffusion and facilitated diffusion differ? • How do endocytosis and exocytosis allow movement of materials in and out of the cell? • What solution is best for a plant cell? How about for an animal cell? • Give two ways by which one could determine whether active transport is going on. • Compare and contrast the effects of hypertonic and hypotonic solutions on plant and animal cells. • What role do vacuoles play in endocytosis and exocytosis? ENRICHMENT (60 MINS)
Essay writing and concept mapping
1. Ask the learners to write an essay about the possible effects of a faulty plasma membrane aside
from the examples given in the lesson. Let the learners recognize the effects of a defective membrane to normal bodily functions.
2. Ask the learners to individually submit a concept map about the plasma membrane. You can provide Teacher tip
them with sample words for their concept map: For the concept mapping, you can provide the learners with key words or allow them to • plasma membrane come up with their own key words for their • semipermeable • phospholipid bilayer • hydrophilic heads • hydrophobic tails • membrane proteins Creating own saturated salt solution for salted egg-making
1. Divide the class into groups and assign different concentrations of salt solutions to be used in
making salted eggs.
2. Instruct the learners to make their own salt solutions and take note of the concentration that they opt Teacher tip
Diffusion and osmosis are two processes involved in making salted eggs. The salt solution should be supersaturated in order to produce good and delicious salted eggs. EVALUATION (60 MINS) Building of plasma membrane model
1. Divide the class into groups.
2. Ask the groups to design and build a model of a plasma membrane using recyclable or indigenous Concept mapping
Teacher tip
Ask the learners to individually submit a concept map about the different transport mechanisms. You You can provide the learners with key words can provide them with sample words for their concept map or allow them to come up with their own:
 or allow them to come up with their own • plasma membrane • phagocytosis key words for their concept map. • transport mechanisms • passive transport • receptor-mediated • active transport • facilitated diffusion Assessment questions:
Instruct the learners to answer the following questions to assess their knowledge and understanding of
the lesson: • Why does putting salt on meat preserve it from spoilage by bacteria? • Compare specific transport processes (i.e., diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis) in terms of the following: • concentration gradient • use of channel or carrier protein • use of energy • types or sizes of molecules transported General Biology 1 Carbohydrates and Lipids:
Structures and Functions
of Biological Molecules
Introduction Presentation of learning objectives and 10
important terms; Discussion on dehydration reactions and hydrolysis Content Standard
Relating the lessons to real-life situations; The learners demonstrate an understanding of the structures and functions of Discussion on food as sources of energy and carbohydrates and lipids and their roles in specific metabolic processes. Performance Standard
The learners shall be able to explain the role and significance of carbohydrates Instruction/ Discussion, as a class and among groups, on 60
and lipids in biological systems. the structure and importance of carbohydrates and lipids.
Learning Competencies
The learners:
Enrichment Laboratory activity on testing the
• categorize the biological molecule as a carbohydrate or lipid according to presence of carbohydrates and lipids on their structure and function (STEM_BIO11/12-Ii-j-15) common food products • explain the role of each biological molecule in specific metabolic processes (STEM_BIO11/12-Ii-j-16) • detect the presence of carbohydrates and lipids in food products using Group activity on making molecular models of carbohydrates and lipids Specific Learning Outcomes
Materials
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to: projector, laptop (if available), sample food labels, common • present simple molecular models of carbohydrates and lipids and relate the food or drink products (e.g. flour, cornstarch, cooking oil, structure to the roles that these molecules play in biological systems food or drink brought by the learners • perform tests for the presence of starch and reducing sugars and lipids on common food products Resources
(1) Reece, J.U. (2011). Campbell Biology, 9th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings INTRODUCTION (10 MINS) Teacher tip
Communicate learning objectives and important terms
Prominently display the learning objectives and important terms on one side of the Introduce the following learning objectives using any of the suggested protocols (i.e., verbatim, own classroom and frequently refer to them words, or read-aloud) during the discussion. You may place a check-mark beside a term in the wordlist • I can distinguish a carbohydrate from a lipid given its chemical structure and function. after defining it so that the learners have an • I can explain the roles played by carbohydrates and lipids in biological systems. idea of their progress. • I can detect the presence of carbohydrates and lipids in food products using simple chemical tests. Each learner can also illustrate or define the term on a sheet of paper which can be Introduce the list of important terms that learners will encounter in this lesson:
 tacked beside the list of words. • macromolecule Another way of incorporating lists of important terms is to have the words placed in a blank bingo card grid. • dehydration reaction Learners can write a short definition or description of the term under the entry in • carbohydrates • triacylglycerol the bingo card to block out a square. This • monosaccharides • saturated fatty acid may serve as the learners' reference guide • disaccharides • unsaturated fatty acid or method of formative assessment. • glycosidic linkage • polysaccharide • phospholipids • cholesterol
 MOTIVATION (10 MINS) 1. Divide the class into groups of three. 2. Distribute sample food or nutrition labels to each group and ask them if they know how to interpret the information written on the food labels. You may ask the following questions to facilitate the Teacher tip
discussion and call on several groups to present in front of For the food labels, local products that are familiar to the learners will make the best •How many servings are in this container? samples. Make sure that the labels have carbohydrates, fats, and fibers in them. If •Would you agree that this is the reasonable amount of there are no food labels available, you may food you would consume per serving? How many total do an image search and print some sample food labels from the internet. food calories (C) are in this container? Division into small groups of two or three •How much fat is present in one serving? What kind of fat? may facilitate sharing. Only call on two or What is the importance of consuming fats in our diet? three groups to present if there is limited •How much carbohydrates are present in one serving? Expect the responses to vary depending on What kind of carbohydrates? What is the importance of how realistic the serving sizes are. You can consuming carbohydrates in our diet? also discuss about how advertisers can influence how people perceive food. Take note that a food calorie is the same as •Decide on whether this food sample can be eaten often 1 kcal or 1000 calories. A young adult would or sparingly and justify. often need to take 1800-2500C per day depending on their size and level of activity. 3.Recall that human beings, like all animals, are Responses may include saturated, heterotrophs that need to take in energy and organic unsaturated, and trans fats. Explain to the molecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from plant learners that these fats will be discussed in more detail during the lesson. Regarding its and animal matter. importance, expect responses ranging from energy source, insulation, for flavor, for aid 4.Explain to the learners that this lesson will describe the in cooking, for heart health, skin health, etc. structure of carbohydrates and lipids and explain the role that these biomolecules play in important Possible responses include sugar, fibers, etc. biological processes. Regarding its importance, responses may include energy source, for aid in regular bowel movement, for provision of building blocks for biosynthesis, etc. INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY (60 MINS) Present a diagram similar to the one below. Table 1: Abundant elements in the human body (Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/ Point out that the bulk (i.e., more than 90%) of the human body weight is provided by only three elements: oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. We get these elements primarily from the food we eat, from the water we drink, and from the air we inhale around us. Explain to the learners that biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon-oxygen cycle and the water cycle play important roles in ensuring that we have access to these important elements. All forms of life, not only that of humans, are made up of four kinds of important large molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, 
 proteins, and nucleic acids. All of these have carbon atoms as their backbones since carbon is capable of forming up to four chemical bonds with atoms of other elements. Facilitate the lecture on carbohydrates and lipids. What do humans get from food? Heterotrophs, such as human beings, obtain energy and raw materials from food. These are important for cell growth, cell division, metabolism, repair, and maintenance of the body. Nutrients can be classified as either organic nutrients (i.e., those that contain carbon such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and nucleic acids) or inorganic nutrients (i.e., those that do not contain carbon such as water and mineral What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These compounds have a general formula of CnH2mOm. This means that the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present in a ratio of 2:1. For example, glucose has a formula of C6H12O6 and sucrose has a formula of C12H22O11. Carbohydrates are usually good sources of raw materials for other organic molecules and energy. One gram of carbohydrates provides four food calories or 16 kJ of energy. In the human diet, carbohydrates mainly come from plants although they are found in all How are carbohydrates formed? Carbohydrates are examples of macromolecules. These are chainlike molecules called polymers (mere means part) made from repeating units like monomers. Polymers can be formed from covalently-bonded monomers much like a single structure can be made out of repeated building blocks linked to each other. These monomers, called monosaccharides, form covalent bonds when one monomer loses a hydroxyl group and the other loses a hydrogen atom in dehydration or condensation reactions, forming disaccharides. This reaction requires energy to occur. The bond formed is called a glycosidic linkage. Teacher tip
Use ball and stick models or plastic blocks to demonstrate how dehydration and hydrolysis reactions occur. Simple reusable ones may be constructed from toothpicks or clay or similar materials. Longer polysaccharide chains are formed by monomer addition through succeeding dehydration If a projector is available, you may also use reactions. These reactions can occur in the human liver as carbohydrates are stored as polysaccharides animations like the ones found at <http:// called glycogen or in ground tissues of plants where these are stored as starch. reaction_types.swfto> to help in Polysaccharides are broken down into simpler components through the use of water to break covalent bonds and release energy. The process, known as hydrolysis (hydro means water and lysis means split), Correct response: 999 water molecules is the opposite of dehydration reactions and often occurs in the digestive tract during chemical and mechanical digestion. Here, enzymes break bonds within polysaccharides. With the aid of water, one – During the discussion, invite the learners to find different kinds of carbohydrates in their H group attaches to a monosaccharide while another –OH group attaches to the other. food labels.
Comprehension question: How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polysaccharide that is one thousand monosaccharides long? 
 How are carbohydrates classified? Carbohydrates can be classified into three main categories, according to increasing complexity: • monosaccharides (monos means single and sacchar means sugar) • disaccharides (di means two) • polysaccharides (poly means many) Some notes on their structures and functions are found in the following table: Monosaccharide • major cellular • contains a carbonyl group • Ribose—a 5C aldose that (C=O) and may be forms part of the classified as an aldose or backbone of nucleic ketose depending on the • Glucose—a 6C aldose • may have three to seven that is the product of carbons in the skeleton photosynthesis and the • may be arranged in a substrate for respiration linear form when solid that provides energy for and is converted into a cellular activities ring form in aqueous • Fructose—a 6C ketose solution (α form when H is that is found in many on top of plane of ring plants and is often and β form when -OH is bonded to glucose on top of plane of ring) Teacher tip
• forms when a Maltose (glucose + glucose)—malt sugar often Examples of alpha helices and beta glycosidic linkage found in sprouting grains, malt-based energy sheets may be created using wire for the backbone and yarn for the H- Lactose (glucose + galactose)—milk sugar that bonds; invite learners to speculate on is a source of energy for infants; an enzyme why alpha helix structures are associated with storage called lactase is required to digest this. Many polysaccharides and beta sheets with adult Filipinos have low levels of this enzyme structural polysaccharides. leading to a condition called lactose intolerance. Sucrose (glucose + fructose)—found in table sugar processed from sugar cane, sweet fruits, and storage roots like carrots Storage polysaccharides are large molecules hundreds to thousands retained in the cell and are insoluble in water of monosaccharides are (formed from α 1,4 linkage monomers; with a helical monosaccharides joined by glycosidic Teacher tip
structural linkages o Starch—amylase is unbranched starch forming a Invite learners to compare the rigidity material for the helical structure while amylopectin is branched or structural integrity of plant matter starch, these are present in plant parts like potato or paper, a shrimp's shell, and a cell or the entire tubers, corn, and rice and serve as major sources of mushroom. Explain that all these structures are formed from β sheets. o Glycogen—found in animals and fungi; often found in liver cells and muscle cells Structural polysaccharides (formed from β 1,4 linkage of monomers; strands associate to form a sheet-like structure)
o Cellulose—tough sheet-like structures that make up plant and algal cell walls that may be processed to form paper and paper-based products; humans lack the enzymes to digest β 1,4 linkages so is passed out of the digestive tract and aids in regular bowel movement
o Chitin—used for structural support in the walls of fungi and in external skeletons of arthropods
o Peptidoglycan—used for structural support in bacterial cell walls What are lipids? Teacher tip
Lipids are a class of large biomolecules that are not formed through polymerization. They have diverse Fats or triacylglycerol formation may be structures but are all non-polar and mix poorly, if at all, with water. They may have some oxygen atoms explained better using a diagram such as the one below or through models patterned in their structure but the bulk is composed of abundant nonpolar C-H bonds. They function for energy after a similar diagram. You may ask the storage, providing nine food calories or 37 kJ of energy per gram. They also function for the cushioning learners to explain, in their own words, what of vital organs and for insulation. Furthermore, they play important roles in plasma membrane structure they think is happening and compare the and serve as precursors for important reproductive hormones. formation of carbohydrates with that of How are lipids classified? Lipids can be divided into three main classes according to differences in structure and function. Some notes on their structures and functions are found in the following table: Teacher tip
Demonstrate the effects of the straight
chains of saturated FAs on packing by piling together flat structures like books or blackboard erasers and ask learners to compare this with the stacking or packing of energy • formed from dehydration • Saturated fat—animal products such as irregularly shaped objects like partially- (triacylglycerols storage reactions between glycerol (an butter and lard have a lot of saturated fatty acids. folded sheets of cardboard. alcohol with three Cs, each with The linear structure allows for the close packing of or triglycerides) • an –OH group) forming three the fat molecules forming solids at room During discussion, invite the learners to find ester linkages with three fatty temperature, diets high in these fats may increase different kinds of fats in their food labels acids (16-18 Cs, with the last C as the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition in and decide on whether a particular food is part of a –COOH group) and which fatty deposits develop within the walls of producing three molecules of blood vessels, increasing the incidence of healthier than another based on its fat cardiovascular disease component fatty acids (FA) may • Unsaturated fat—plant and fish oils have b e e i t h e r s a t u r a t e d o r unsaturated fatty acids. The bent structure prevents unsaturated 
 close packing and results in oils or fats that are liquid Misconception
o Saturated FA (e.g., palmitic at room temperature. Homemade peanut butter has acid) have the maximum number oils that separate out of solution for this reason. Clarify the misconception that consuming of hydrogen atoms bonded to Industries have developed a process called fats is entirely dangerous for health. Fats are each carbon (saturated with hydrogenation that converts unsaturated fats into an essential part of a healthy diet when hydrogen); there are no double saturated fats to improve texture spreadability. consumed in moderation. bonds between carbon atoms
 Trans fat—may be produced artificial y o Unsaturated FA (e.g., oleic through the process of hydrogenation described acid) have at least one double above. The cis double bonds are converted to trans bond, H atoms are arranged double bonds (H atoms on opposite sides) resulting around the double bond in a cis in fats that behave like saturated fats. Studies show configuration (same side) that trans fat are even more dangerous to health resulting in a bend in the than saturated fats to the extent that they have been banned from restaurants in some countries.
Teacher tip
Phospholipids major component formed from dehydration Phospholipids self-assemble Phospholipid structure may be explained better using a diagram such as the one of cell membranes reactions between glycerol into bilayers when below or through models patterned after a (an alcohol with three Cs, surrounded by water and similar diagram. You may ask the learners to each with a –OH group), form the characteristic describe the diagram in their own words forming two ester linkages structure of plasma and compare the structure of fats with that of phospholipids. with two fatty acids (16-18 Cs, with the last C as part of a –COOH group) and a last linkage with a phosphate Teacher tip
phosphate group is Steroid structure may be explained better using a diagram such as the one below or hydrophilic and is called through models patterned after a similar the ‘head' of the molecule diagram. You may ask the learners to fatty acids are hydrophobic describe the diagram in their own words and compare the structure of cholesterol and form the ‘tails' of the with that of other lipids. characterized by a C- Cholesterol found in fluidity of cell skeleton with four fused rings cell membranes regulates functional group the rigidity of the cell attached to the rings vary (if – membrane and are the base OH is attached to the 4th C, then material for the production it is called a cholesterol) of sex hormones like emulsification of estradiol and progesterone ENRICHMENT (20 MINS) Teacher tip
Divide the class into groups. Instruct the learners to prepare the following materials that are needed for This activity may be done as a class if time the laboratory activity:
 does not permit for the activity to be done in separate groups. If Benedict's solution is • eight glass droppers, medicine droppers, or caps • ethanol solution not available, you may only perform the last • 12 test tubes • glucose solution • test tube holders or tongs • flour or cornstarch In the absence of laboratory grade chemicals, you may improvise with store- • alcohol lamp • sample of student- bought chemicals like iodine and 70% ethyl • Benedict's solution brought food or drink alcohol for medical use. Make sure to test • iodine solution • mortar and pestle
 the procedure before performing the activity in the class. Explain the following processes to the learners. Benedict's solution, a blue solution with CuSO4(aq), can detect the presence of reducing sugars (i.e., any sugar with a free aldehyde or ketone group such as all monosaccharides and the disaccharides lactose and maltose). When boiled, these sugars reduce Cu2+ in Benedict's solution to produce a brick- red precipitate of Cu2O(s). Iodine test can be used to detect the presence of starch. Emulsion test can be used to identify fats. Learners should perform all three tests on the following samples: 
• glucose solution (available in the baking section of grocery • food or drink sample • flour or cornstarch solution that the learners For solid samples, instruct the learners to mash a small portion of the sample in some water using the mortar and pestle and then test the resulting solution. Ask the learners to prepare a table with appropriate headings in which to record their results. In discussing the results, ask the learners to conclude whether carbohydrates or lipids are present in their samples. They may compare this with the list of ingredients for their food or drink sample. They can also list possible sources of errors. EVALUATION (20 MINS) Divide the class into small groups. Provide the groups with different structures of lipids or carbohydrates and ask them to create models using common or recyclable materials. Teacher tip
Ask the learners to explain or write a short description of their models. In grading the models, check to Prior to this lesson, instruct the learners to bring recyclable materials that they can use see if the learners were able to create an accurate model of the assigned lipid or carbohydrate. for this activity. Ask the learners, still in their small groups, to create a short flowchart that will allow them to distinguish between the different kinds of carbohydrates and lipids based on their structures. They may use this flowchart in answering the comprehension questions that follow. Provide different molecular structures of the following and ask the learners to identify whether these • monosaccharides
 • disaccharides • unsaturated fats Teacher tip
The various carbohydrate structures were
• storage polysaccharides • phospholipids obtained from the following electronic • structural polysaccharides • steroids. 
 • saturated fats You may also ask the learners to give one of the associated functions or characteristics of the given carbohydrate or lipid. evision=1 Images for the various lipid structures were obtained from the following electronic Biographical NotesFLORENCIA G. CLAVERIA, Ph.D. DAWN T. CRISOLOGO Team Leader Team Leader Dr. Florencia G. Claveria is the current Chair of Ms. Dawn Crisologo is a Special Science Teacher at the Philippine the CHED Technical Panel for Biology and Molecular Science High School-Main Campus in Diliman, Quezon City and specializes Biology. She is also member of the Commission's in advanced topics in Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity, Anatomy, Technical Panel for Math and Science. She is currently Physiology, and Methods in Science and Technology Research. She is a Vice Chancellor for Academics, Research, and member of the Asian Association of Biology Educators, Wildlife Operations at the De La Salle Araneta University. Conservation Society of the Philippines, and Biology Teachers Association She is a full professor at the De La Salle of the Philippines. Her works are included in The Philippine BIOTA Journal University-Manila where she served as Dean of the and three editions of the Science Blast textbook. Ms. Crisologo is currently College of Science for 6 academic years. Dr Claveria finishing her master's in Environmental Science at the University of the finished her doctorate in Biological Sciences at the Philippines Diliman. She completed her bachelor's degree in Biology at the University of Cincinnati, through a Fulbright-Hays grant. same university. She completed her master's in Zoology at the Ghen State University, through a grant from the Government CHUCKIE FER CALSADO of Belgium. She earned her bachelor's degree in Biology at St. Louis University. Her written scholarly Mr. Chuckie Fer Calsado is Special Science Teacher IV at the works include contributions to academic publications Philippine Science High School Main Campus where he has been teaching such as the Philippine Textbook of Medical for 8 years. He is a member of biological organisations like the Biology Parasitology, Journal of Protozoology Research, and Teachers Association of the Philippines, the Asian Association for Biology The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. Education, and Concerned Artists of the Philippines among many others. He has published academic papers such as Implication of Students' Cognitive Style, Personal Demographics, Values and Decision Making in Environmental Education and the Role of Education in the Prevention of Child Trafficking in Nepal. Mr. Calsado finished his Master's in Bioethics at the Monash University and his bachelor's degree in Biology at the University of the Philippines DIliman.
AILEEN C. DELA CRUZ JANET S. ESTACION, Ph.D. Ms. Aileen Dela Cruz has been serving as the Science Dr. Janet Estacion is current Officer-in-Charge at the Research Analyst at the Philippine Science High School - Main Institute of Marine and Environmental Science in Silliman Unive Campus since 2004. Her academic interests range from rsity where she has been teaching for 30 years now. She headed microbiology, food safety and nutrition, and laboratory safety and researches on marine conservation and the recovery of reefs. Her she has been involved in trainings and conferences on the same scholarly works appeared on different publications such as the fields of study. Her published scholarly works include series of Philippine Science Letters and the Silliman Journal. Dr. Estacion textbooks on 21st Century Learning. Ms. Dela Cruz earned her earned her doctorate degree in Zoology at the James Cook bachelor's degree in Biology at the University of the Philippines University of North Queensland. She completed her master's degree in Marine Biology at the University of the Philippines Diliman and her bachelor's degree in Biology at the Silliman DOREEN D. DOMINGO, PH.D. Dr. Doreen D. Domingo is a Professor at the Mariano MARY JANE C. FLORES, Ph.D. Marcos State University where she teaches both in the graduate and undergraduate levels. She is currently the Chief of Alumni Relations for the university. Dr. Domingo finished her doctorate in Dr. Mary Jane C. Flores is Assistant Professor 3 at the Biology (magna cum laude) at St. Louis University through a College of Science in the De La Salle University where she has research grant from CHED and the Microbial Forensics and been teaching for 20 years now. Her published works include Biodefense Laboratory, Indiana University. She completed her researches on parasitology, climatology, and community Doctor of Education on Educational Management, her master's nutrition. Dr Flores has conducted and attended seminars on degree in Education major in Biology, and her bachelor's degree Biology in the country and abroad, including the Training on in Biology at the Mariano Marcos State University. Dr. Domingo's Biological Control at the US Department of Agriculture- scholarly works were published on the International Referred Agricultural Research Service and Congress meetings on Journal and the National Referred Journal. Parasitology. She is a two-time recipient of the Don Ramon J. Araneta Chair in Ecology among other citations. Dr. Flores earned her Doctorate, Master's, and Bachelor's degrees in Biology at the De La Salle University.
JUSTIN RAY M. GUCE JOHN DONNIE RAMOS, Ph.D. Technical Editor Mr. Justin Ray Guce is a Special Science Teacher I at the Philippine Science High School Main Campus in DIliman, Quezon Dr. John Donnie Ramos is a Member of CHED's Technical City where he teaches for 9 years. He has served as a Trainer of Panel for Biology and Microbiology and Board Member of the student representatives for Science Olympiad competitions and Philippine Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He is has delivered presentations in a number of Biology workshops currently the Dean of the College of Science at the University of and conventions. Mr Guce is a member of the Wildlife Santo Tomas where he teaches molecular biology, immunology Conservation Society of the Philippines and the Biology Teachers and genetics, and al ergology. Dr. Ramos completed his Association of the Philippines. Mr Guce is currently finishing his doctorate in Molecular Biology at the National University of master's in Biology Education at the University of the Philippines Singapore. He finished his master's degree in Biological Sciences Diliman where he also graduated his bachelor's degree in at the University of Santo Tomas and his bachelor's degree in Biology at the Philippine Normal University. Dr. Ramos is recipient of the NAST-TWAS Prize for Young Scientist in the Philippines in 2010, and Outstanding Young Scientist by the NOLASCO H. SABLAN National Academy of Science and Technology in 2005. Mr. Nolasco Sablan is Teacher III at the Parada National High School and is a DepEd teacher for 11 years now. He has Copyreader worked as resource speaker, trainer, and writer for different institutions in the education sector, including the Ateneo de Ms. Joy Jimena is currently Planning Officer II at the Manila University, Metrobank Foundation Inc., and the Information Management Bureau of the Department of Social Department of Education. Mr. Nolasco Sablan earned his Welfare and Development. She also previously worked with other master's degree in Biology Education at the Ateneo de Manila government agencies such as the Department of National University and completed his bachelor's degree in Education Defense and Philippine Commission on Women, and Social major in General Science at the Philippine Normal University. Security System. Ms. Jimena graduated at the University of the Philippines Diliman with a degree in Public Administration. Illustrator Mr. Renan Ortiz is a teacher and visual artist who has collaborated in local and international art exhibitions such as the SENSORIUM at the Ayala Museum, Populus in Singapore, Censorship_2013 Move On Asia in South Korea, and the Triumph of Philippine Art in New Jersey, USA. Mr. Ortiz's solo exhibitions include versereverse at the Republikha Art Gallery. He first completed his bachelor's degree in Political Science at the University of the Philippines Manila before finishing his bachelor's degree in Fine Arts major in Painting at the University of the Philippines Diliman. Mr. Ortiz is an awardee of the Cultural Center of the Philippines' CCP Thirteen Artists Awards in 2012. DANIELA LOUISE B. GO Illustrator Ms Daniela Louise Go is a freelance illustrator and graphic designer, specializing on graphic design, brand and campaign design, and copywriting. She has worked as illustrator for Stache Magazine, Philippine Daily Inquirer, and Summit Media Digital. Ms Go is a member of organisations such as the UP Graphic and UP Grail in which she also served as designer and illustrator. Her works have been part of art exhibitions including Freshly Brewed, Wanton Hypermaterialism, and Syntheses 2014: Graduate Exhibit. Ms. Go graduated her bachelor's degree in Fine Arts Major in Visual Communication at the University of the Philippine

Source: http://www.fape.org.ph/addons/tinymce/editor/media/articleimg/2016/5Bio1InitialRelease13June.pdf

Ds lipa foie06/05 (page 1)

Dossier Scientifique Protection hépatique A.I / Synthèse des effets hépatoprotecteurs de la phosphatidylcholine (constituant physiologique des membranes) RÉTABLISSEMENT DE L'INTÉGRITÉ STRUCTURELLE ET FONCTIONNELLE DES MEMBRANES A.2 / Cytochrome P450 2E1 : de la stéato-hépatite alcoolique (ASH) à la stéato-hépatitenon-alcoolique (NASH). (Lieber, Hepatol Res 2004) (revue)