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Microsoft word - ayurveda for her.doc

Ayurveda for Her
Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa, R.H., C.D.-N.
November 1, 2002
Ayurveda, the ancient holistic healing system of India, is a complete approach to health and lifestyle management. This system incorporates diet, exercise, life activityroutines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage, and, of course, botanical medicine, whichis the foundation of Ayurvedic therapeutics.
People of ancient cultures experienced the natural world in which they lived, and sought to develop a way to systematically understand their relationship to it. Theyreasoned that they were made of the same stuff as the rest of the natural world, and weresubject to the effects of circumstances in their living environment. In culture after culture,often widely separated by distance and time, people came to remarkably similarconclusions about how their bodies responded to changes in the climate, diet, season ofthe year, and so forth.
Healers in these cultures put together systematic metaphors for how medicines interact with the body and mind, based on centuries of patient observations of theirpatients. Gradually a consensus emerged. To understand Ayurvedic treatment and healthmanagement, we need to understand the underlying physiological concepts that form theAyurvedic world view.
Fundamentally, therapists concluded that "like increases like". In other words, an external factor, when introduced to the body, will create a similar reaction in the body ofthe person experiencing the change. For example, going out into the cold weather willmake your body cold. Eating heavy food will make your body heavy. This seems obviouson the surface, and it is ultimately pretty easy to grasp intuitively, but putting together allthe intricacies of every possible effect of every possible natural medicine on everypossible person is a daunting task. This metaphor of energetics creates a system that iscomplex enough to represent the tremendous complexity of the human being, yet simpleenough in concept to be useful.
Energetic evaluation of the body is based on experiencing the body with the human senses. Since everyone experiences the world in subtly different ways, it takescenturies, potentially, for a consensus to develop among practitioners about any givenremedy. It creates a structure in which herbs can easily be identified and understood.
According to energetic systems, including Ayurveda, the sum total of a medicine, say anherb, is the important consideration.
For example, we may know from modern science that an herb contains antibacterial activity. We want to give that herb to treat an acute bacterial infection. Butwe also know that the herb tends to increase body temperature- it is "hypermetabolic, or"hot". If the patient has a fever, or is a person who is particularly prone to developinflammation that is difficult to control, we would think twice about using that specificherb. It might kill the bacterium very nicely, and treat the infection, but the whole personwould be worse off as a net total than before we started. Instead, we would seek out anherb that would kill the infection, but which had a "cooling" energy. This difference inapproach can make a world of difference in clinical practice, and gives us an invaluabletool in managing a case for the best in the long term, and in treating the person as a wholehuman being. We don't want to make people worse.
Using an energetic model, the properties of herbs are collated systematically according to their taste, temperature, effect before and after digestion, and similar factors.
While the modern method of analysis is to isolate and identify key active ingredients, which is incredibly complicated, and is far from complete, considering how recent theeffort is, the art and science of energetics creates an impression from the whole, allowingus to grasp the overall nature of the food or herb, and predict with great accuracy theexpected consequences of its use. This system of herbal energetics allows the practitionerto match the actions and nature of the herbal medicine to the individual patient.
Ayurveda assigns all matter/energy interactions in the world to a scheme of five primal elements (metaphorical concepts that describe physiological processes andenvironmental interactions): earth, water, fire, air and ether.
Heavy, tough, hard, dry, stable, Plumpness, heaviness, compactness, dense, gross, smelly Liquid, oily, cold, dull, soft, slimy, Stickiness, oiliness, compactness,strong taste softness, moisturizing, contentment Hot, sharp, subtle, light, oily, Heat, oxidation, metabolism, luster, Soft, light, cold, oily, rough, dry, Roughness, dryness, lightness, aversion subtle, touch promoting Soft, light, subtle, smooth, sound Softness, porosity, lightness To simplify the understanding of the actions of these energies, for therapeutic application, diagnosis and treatment, the five elements are further condensed into threeprimal metabolic forces, called doshas. These forces underlie all of the foundation ofAyurvedic diagnosis and therapeutics.
Stability, solidity, Mucus, lung lubrication, tissue diseases, highbuilding Water and Fire Pitta rash, hemorrhoids anxiety, fatigue, As each person is viewed as an individual in the ways we've mentioned, so, too, can we understand how each person should conduct their life, according to the dosha theyare seeking to balance. Your schedule, your relationships, your choice of exercise, allcan be calculated using Ayurveda.
When Kapha dominates, people are slow and lethargic. They like a lot of sleep, and tend toward obesity. When Pitta dominates, people are hot, intense, aggressive, anddemanding. When vata dominates people are spaced-out, flighty, erratic, anxious andinsomniac. Through Ayurveda, the ultimate self-care system, we can adjust all thesefactors with careful lifestyle choices.
Ayurveda and Women
Ayurveda aims to nourish, restore and balance the body functions that have been taxed by the wear and tear of daily life. Signs of aging are all marks of lack of "juice,"from arthritis with lack of joint fluids, to fatigue with lack of endocrine hormones, tomenopause difficulties with vaginal dryness.
Ayurveda compares this process to old leaves that dry out and blow away: "bodies become shorter, smaller, and stringier as they age." Ayurvedic practices aredirected toward strengthening, purifying and nourishing body tissues to bring back theglow of youth - replacing that "juiciness." Ayurveda enhances health, produces the finestbodily tissues, reduces senility and other diseases of old age, lengthens life and promotesmemory, intelligence and beauty. These regimes act to increase body tissues, digestivepower, endocrine function, elimination of wastes, brain function, immunity andhomeostasis.
Generally, compared to men, women tend to be colder (think those cold feet under the covers), drier (remember all those bottles of moisturizers?), and lighter- all vatacharacteristics. Over a lifetime, the goal for a woman is to stay warm, juicy andgrounded.
Rejuvenation in Ayurveda comes in two forms - lifestyle and medicine. "Hot" activities, such as passion and anger, age the body more rapidly, so calming behavior issuggested. To live longer and have better health, speak the truth, avoid becoming angry,practice meditation, avoid conflict, and steer away from drugs and alcohol.
Each of us is unique. As different as our body type is, so, too, are our nutritional requirements. Ayurveda recognizes this, and emphasizes the correct diet for eachindividual.
For example, if you are a thin framed, always cold person with dry skin, you have a Vata constitution, and should eat a Vata-balancing diet as your lifetime program.
However, if this week you are retaining water, feel sluggish, and have a chest full ofmucus, you are experiencing a Kapha imbalance, and should use a Kapha balancing dietuntil your body is again balanced and healthy.
The Woman's Diet
Diet is the first and most basic building block of good health in Ayurveda, and can be an effective treatment for disease, even when used alone. It is the safest therapy, and can be used by anyone as self care. Of course, the results can materialize moreslowly than more directed methods, such as herbal medicine.
Improper diet is the main underlying physical factor that induces disease. So, when we modify the diet, we also get at one of the underlying problems.
That said, women generally do better with a diet of mainly cooked, easy to digest, Sweet taste (not white sugar), contained in whole carbohydrates and good quality fats, is the most rejuvenating, so sweet food, including milk, ghee (clarified butter), andespecially honey, is recommended to rebuild body tissues and restore sexual juices.
According to Ayurvedic authority David Frawley, O.M.D., the diet that promotes health and sexual rejuvenation is a "nutritive vegetarian program, emphasizing wholegrains like wheat and rice, seeds, nuts, milk products, and natural sugars, such ashoney."1 Rice is a very basic, yet very effective rejuvenating food. Easily digestible, it increases juiciness, moisturizing the tissues. Maya Tiwari, Ayurvedic nutritionist, singlesout basmati (literally "queen of fragrance") as the premier variety.2 An aromatic, nuttyflavored rice, basmati has a scent that has been compared with jasmine mixed withwalnut. This rice is used in Ayurveda as a cleanser and healer for all types of people.
Noted Ayurvedic physician Robert Svoboda makes a powerful argument for using honey to rejuvenate your body.3 He points out that honey is made from pollen, the spermof plants. Plant reproductive tissue increases human reproductive function, according tothe Ayurvedic principle of "like increases like." Honey is innately rejuvenating, with its sweet taste, and is considered predigested, allowing it to nourish all parts of the body with ease. For these reasons, honey isconsidered to be the best enhancer, or "vehicle" for all Ayurvedic rejuvenatingmedicines. Dr. Svoboda recommends mixing raw, unfiltered honey into your herbal teato allow the honey to act as a vehicle for the active principles of the herbs.
Ghee (clarified butter) contains the nutritive essence of milk. It is a prime revitalizing food. David Frawley, O.M.D., and Vasant Lad, Ayurvedic physician,promote ghee for enhancing tissue lubrication, increasing digestion and liver health.4While ghee is a fat, it is unique, according to Ayurveda, in supporting, rather thanstressing the liver. Ghee is an important building remedy for the brain and intellect, bonemarrow, and reproductive tissue.
Onion and garlic increase sexual energy, libido, and sexual secretions. They are good aphrodisiacs.
Shatavari root (Asparagus racemosus - "hundred husbands") is the main Ayurvedic sexual rejuvenating tonic for women, with much the same role as the famousChinese tonic, dong quai. Considered a builder and balancer for the female reproductiveorgans, it increases milk and sexual juices in general. This herb is said to increasefertility, and balance female hormones, making it valuable in treating menopausalcomplaints, such as vaginal atrophy.
This cooling herb acts as a blood cleanser, supports the immune system, improves the intellect, and enhances digestion and physical strength. A recent study found that amedicine containing shatavari reduced stress effects substantially.5 Drs. Lad and Frawley further propose shatavari as a soothing treatment for dry or inflamed membranes of the lungs, stomach, kidneys, and sex organs. They suggestpreparing it as a milk decoction (simmer in milk, strain) combined with ghee, raw sugar,and honey.
Shatavari is related to the Western asparagus root, which has similar properties.
Women in Asia start shatavari at puberty, and often take 1-2 grams per day for a lifetime.
In many ethnic groups in Asia, menopausal complaints are almost unknown. To treat awide variety of female hormonal symptoms (PMS, menstrual cramps, mood changes,menopausal hot flushes, etc.), higher doses can be used. Work up gradually to the dosethat is effective, to about 7000 mg per day.
Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis - Indian gooseberry) is a small, very sour fruit that is the most widely used general rejuvenative in Ayurveda. This fruit is a spectacularsource of vitamin C, with 20-30 times the amount, pound for pound, of oranges. Thevitamin C in amla is heat stable, so it survives cooking and drying. No wonder it is sucha well know rejuvenator. Due to its vitamin C content, amla is a superbly powerfulantioxidant. It is a superb tonic for the eyes, having been shown to improvenearsightedness significantly in recent studies.
Amla is a tonic for the blood, bones, liver, and heart. It enhances production of red blood cells and strengthens the teeth, hair, and nails, as well as improving eyesightand regulating blood sugar.
An animal study recently found that garlic, onion and amla, separately and together, reduced blood fats that had been pumped by feeding a diet of 21% butter andbeef.6 Indian gooseberry is the basis for "Chyavanprash," the most famous Ayurvedic rejuvenating jelly. As a mild all around health tonic, chyavanprash can be used by peopleof all ages. Dr. Frawley offers this remedy as being good for almost any weakness or as ageneral energy supplement.
Into a base of fresh amla fruit, over two dozen other herbal ingredients are added for their synergistic effects, including ghee, sugar cane juice, honey, clove, andcinnamon.
Modern scientists say that chyavanprash protects the liver from damage7 and reduces blood sugar and cholesterol significantly.8 For sexual rejuvenation, stir chyavanprash into warm milk or spread on toast, and consume 1-2 Tbs. every day.
This is the most widely used herbal blend in Ayurveda is Triphala. This blend is the most compatible medicine for all the doshas, and will benefit literally anyone whotakes it. Since it balances all three doshas and contains all six tastes in proper proportion,it is suitable for all women from childhood to elderhood. The name means "three fruits"in Sanskrit. The formula contains the fruits of amla (Emblica officinalis), bibitaki(Terminalia belerica), and haritaki (Terminalia chebula). The fruits are dried, powdered,mixed together, and encapsulated.
The uses for triphala fill volumes in the Ayurvedic literature. Besides being a general tonic, it is a light laxative, skin, eye, and liver nourisher, and a general detoxifier.
It is used as a cleansing throat gargle, and as a dry massage powder.
A study from 2002 found that triphala is strongly protective against radiation Amla is the best single herb for generally controlling Pitta. Bibitaki is the best single herb for generally controlling Kapha. This herb nourishes the lungs, throat, voice,eyes, and hair. It excels at removing stones and accumulations of toxins (mucus,cholesterol, mineral deposits) in the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tracts. It is uniquein being both laxative and astringent, so it purges the intestines, while simultaneouslytoning the tissues.
Haritaki is the best single herb for generally controlling Vata, and is considered by some to be the single most important Ayurvedic herb. Widely used in Tibetanmedicine, it is called the "king of herbs" there. Since Vata promotes constipation, thegentle laxative qualities of haritaki are perfect for balancing that dosha. It nourishes thebrain and nerves. It is strongly astringent, contracting tissues, and is therefore used forvarious ulcers, prolapses, and fluid discharges. In Ayurveda, haritaki is called "themother," and is thought to increase mental/spiritual awareness. It is given to childrenupon the premature loss of a parent.
According to recent scientific reports, haritaki prevents cancer10 and helps wounds heal faster.11 Use triphala every day for life, at 1 gram per day.
Through moderate and consistent lifestyle and health building practices, it is clear that women can enjoy life at a level that is far beyond what most people have learned totolerate. Happiness, in all areas of your life, including the bedroom, is your birthright.
With five thousand years of experience in helping people stay happy, healthy, and sexy,Ayurveda can show you the way.
Supplement to Ayurveda for Her article
Andrea-My only concern is a slight one about the distinction between the use of the termsdefining the doshas when describing constitution and everyday dosha levels. Thequestion, "What's Your Dosha?" is problematic. We should talk about it.
--KP References for amla: Lad and Frawley, Yoga of Herbs, p.157 Todd Caldecott, Triphala, http://www.wrc.net/phyto/triphala.html The Amazing Amla Berry - by Rama Kant Mishra,http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Mishra7.html I can give you as much more of either of these as you might need, but I know space istight.
Aloe (Aloe vera)
You might think of aloe as a remedy for sunburn, but Ayurveda takes a different tack. Called "kumari" ("virgin"), this herb is said to restore the energy of youth and torenew the female nature. It is a main tonic for the female reproductive system, and it alsonourishes the liver, spleen and blood.
Aloe balances blood sugar and fats12 and promotes digestion. You may use aloe to encourage a menstrual period and balance the menstrual cycle.
Aloe can be used by anyone, as it balances all three doshas. Since it is sweet, bitter and cooling, it especially benefits pitta dosha. This valuable herb combines wellwith Shatavari.
Guggul gum (Commiphora mukul)
Ayurvedic herbs can help a woman lose weight and lower her cholesterol. Guggul gum is a standout for managing blood fats, where it rivals any natural substance. Instudies, guggul has lowered total cholesterol by over 20 percent, while increasing goodHDL cholesterol by 36 percent, without dietary adjustments.13 Guggul can also help to reduce overall body fat. It affects the thyroid, which accounts for its fat loss benefit.14,15,16 Take a dose of 1,500 mg, three times daily.
The combination of guggul and triphala recently showed a startling advantage in controlling body fat. Forty eight obese people took 500 mg of this Ayurvediccombination three times a day for three months, with no attempt to control their diet. Theconsequent weight loss averaged almost 18 pounds, and their total cholesterol reduced 18points. 17 Another placebo-controlled study from 1999 combined guggul extract with Garcinia cambogia extract and tyrosine. Over six weeks, twenty obese persons had asignificant decrease in body fat mass and average body weight. The subjects lost bodyfat, but not lean mass. People had more energy, and there were no adverse effects.18 To Balance Kapha
To Balance Pitta
To Balance Vata
Be Moderate Stimulating activities Cut down the schedule No staying up late Stay warm, stay active Cut down striving Disciplined schedule Less sleep (shorter nights rest, Take in cool breezes no naps)Mix it up (variety of activities) Gardens and gardening, Avoid cold and damp Sexual moderation Cultivate physical challenges Mild physical effort Mental stimulation Simplify your life Avoid wind and cold Avoid "couch potato" behavior Moonlight Avoid all types of stressAvoid intense travelAvoid excess stimulation(TV, etc.) Personalize Your Love Life with Ayurveda
Your relationship can improve if you understand the doshas. Ayurveda suggests a spouse of a different constitution. This helps you balance each other in the relationship,and prevents your offspring from being too extreme in anyone dosha. Two Vatasproduce a child who is doubly Vata, for example.
For balancing Kapha
For Balancing Pitta
For Balancing Vata
Marry Kapha or Vata Active family life Soothing conversations Less thinking, more acting Encourage talking Relaxing massages Careful managing money Go out and get interested Take "cool off" breaks Encourage sexual interest Slow down and cool off to Consistent and supportive take time and care for sex behaviorCaution with sexualexperimentationDon't overtalk andoveranalyze Personalize your Exercise Routine with Ayurveda
For Balancing Kapha
For Balancing Pitta
For Balancing Vata
Don't overheat, cool air Don't be fanatical - take a Mild only - don't overdo Drink plenty of water Regular routine - stick with aprogram Work up to pushing your Vary the routine to avoid Slow, gradual progress Varied overall fitness program Walking Powerful calisthenics Temperature. This implies body temperature, but also is generally construed to mean
metabolic rate. The spectrum is from hot to cold.
Weight. This is an observation of body weight, and also general density of the tissues.
Moisture. This is an observation of the lubricious nature of the body fluids, and the
degree of fluid retention.
Taste. Taste is essentially a measure of biochemical composition.
Diets for the Doshas
To achieve balance, the diet for treating each dosha will have the characteristics that are opposite that of the dosha that is dominating and causing the problem.
Dosha
Diet Should Be
Cool, Dry, Heavier Warm, Moist, Heavier Foods for Balancing Kapha
Energy
Warm, Dry, Light (Avoid cold, oily, heavy) Pungent, Bitter, Astringent Eat less total food, lowfat, low calorie, hot spices, occasional fasting, lessfrequency, largest meal midday Emphasize Dry and astringent fruits (apple, raisin) Vegetables, especially rawDry grains (rice cakes)Hot spices (black pepper, chiles)Cooked beans with warming spicesSpicy herbal teas (ginger) Sweet fruitsNutsMilk productsOil Foods for Balancing Pitta
Energy
Cool, Dry, Heavier (Avoid Hot, Wet, Light) Sweet, Bitter, Astringent Mild, bland food, served cool, raw, no hot spices, low oil, eat when calm,three regular meals Emphasize Sweet fruits Sweet and bitter vegetables (greens)Beans in generalNatural sweeteners (maple syrup)Mild cheeses (cottage cheese)Sweet and cooling drinks (apple juice) Sour fruitsPungent vegetables (onion)NutsHot spices (chiles)Fermented milk products (yogurt)Oils Foods for Balancing Vata
Energy
Warm, Moist, Heavier (Avoid Cold, Dry, Light) Sweet, Sour, Salty Nourishing, easy to digest, warm, filling, heavy, moistening, strengthening,small frequent regular meals, mild warming spices, calm and concentratewhile eating Emphasize Sweet fruits Cooked vegetablesCooked grains (oatmeal)NutsNatural sweetenersMild warming spices (basil)Milk products in moderation, especially warm Dry fruitsDry grains (rice cakes)Raw vegetablesCabbage family (broccoli)Beans in generalAny food which causes gas Personalize Your Lifestyle with Ayurveda
To Balance Kapha
To Balance Pitta
To Balance Vata
Be Moderate Stimulating activities Cut down the schedule No staying up late Stay warm, stay active Cut down striving Disciplined schedule Less sleep (shorter nights rest, no Take in cool breezes naps)Mix it up (variety of activities) Gardens and gardening, Avoid cold and damp Sexual moderation Cultivate physical challenges Mild physical effort Mental stimulation Simplify your life Avoid wind and cold Avoid "couch potato" behavior Avoid all types of stressAvoid intense travelAvoid excess stimulation (TV,etc.) Personalize Your Love Life with Ayurveda
Your relationship can improve if you understand the doshas. Ayurveda suggests a spouse of a different constitution. This helps you balance each other in the relationship, and preventsyour offspring from being too extreme in anyone dosha. Two Vatas produce a child who isdoubly Vata, for example.
For balancing Kapha
For Balancing Pitta
For Balancing Vata
Marry Kapha or Vata Active family life Soothing conversations Less thinking, more acting Encourage talking Relaxing massages Careful managing money Go out and get interested Take "cool off" breaks Encourage sexual interest Slow down and cool off to take Consistent and supportive time and care for sex behaviorCaution with sexualexperimentationDon't overtalk and overanalyze Personalize your Exercise Routine with Ayurveda
For Balancing Kapha
For Balancing Pitta
For Balancing Vata
Don't overheat, cool air Don't be fanatical - take a break Mild only - don't overdo Drink plenty of water Regular routine - stick with aprogram Work up to pushing your limits Vary the routine to avoid Slow, gradual progress Varied overall fitness program Powerful calisthenics Sidebar
Ayurvedic Tips for Staying Young
Moderate lifestyle habits - regular meals and elimination, sound sleep
Keep your digestion working well
Regular massage with oil
Oil your feet, scalp, and face daily
Positive emotions in your life (love, compassion)
Meditation
Foods
Hot, moist foods (soups)
Balanced diet containing a broad range of tastes - sweet, sour, salty, spicy, bitter,
astringent.
Use less dry or raw food.
Good quality raw vegetable oil (almond, sesame)
Ghee (clarified butter)
Figs
Dates
Onion, Garlic, ginger
Rice
Eggplant
Sidebar
Rejuvenating Drink
8-10 oz. milk
1-3 tsp. grated fresh ginger root
1-3 tsp. black sesame seed (or white sesame seed)
1-3 tsp. ghee
Cinnamon and clove to taste.
Honey to taste if desired.
Warm milk to comfortable drinking temperature. Blend ingredients in blender. Drink
daily as a restorative for sexual function.
Sidebar
Rejuvenating Stew (Kicharee)
1/2 cup basmati rice
1/2 cup lentils or mung beans
6 cups water
2 Tbs. ginger root, peeled and grated
3 cloves garlic, chopped
1/4 cup onion, chopped
1/2 tsp. coriander seed, powder
1/2 tsp. turmeric powder
1/8 tsp. fennel seed
1/8 tsp. cumin seed
1 cup assorted vegetables (carrot, zucchini, broccoli, etc.), chopped.
1 Tbs. ghee
Salt to taste, if desired.
Place rice, lentils, water, and spices in soup pot. Bring to boil. Cook covered on medium heat. After 30 minutes, add vegetables. When very soft and mushy, stir in gheeand serve.
1 Yoga International, January/February 1996.
2 A Life of Balance, Healing Arts, 1995.
3 Prakruti, Your Ayurvedic Constitution Geocom, 1989 4 The Yoga of Herbs Lotus, 1986 5 Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti A. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbalformulation of Ayurvedic rasayanas. Indian J Exp Biol 2000 Feb;38(2):119-28Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005,India.
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagusracemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which arereputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhancelongevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known toafford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study wasundertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshockstress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexualbehaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration,adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, andplasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standardadaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoidpostulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration,significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreasesin spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects wereattenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a periodof 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed malesexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test)and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), andimmunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema insensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activitywas also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has significant adaptogenicactivity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiologicalperturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinicalstress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in theobserved adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.
6 Augusti KT, Arathy SL, Asha R, Ramakrishanan J, Zaira J, Lekha V, Smitha S, Vijayasree VM. Acomparative study on the beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), amla (Emblica OfficinalisGaertn)and onion (Allium cepa Linn) on the hyperlipidemia induced by butter fat and beef fat in rats.
Indian J Exp Biol 2001 Aug;39(8):760-6Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Medical Education, M.G. University, Kottayam, India.
Three months feeding of butter fat (BUF) and beef (BF) separately as components of diet at a level of 21%by weight for albino rats, significantly raised their serum and tissue lipids, lipid peroxidation and activitiesof certain enzymes. BUF was found to be more atherogenic than BF. On incorporation of 5% garlic, amlaor onion separately in the above diets, each of them ameliorated the deleterious effects of the animal fats. Ahigher hyperlipidemic effect of BUF as compared to that of BF may be due to the fact that the ratio ofunsaturated to saturated fats is lower for the former (0.56) than for the latter (0.75) and also that the formeris richer in cholesterol content than the latter. The order of the curative effects of the vegetables aregarlic>amla>onion. The better hypolipidemic effects and correction of elevated levels of certain enzymesshown by garlic and amla may be due to the facts that they contain comparatively better active principlesthan that found in onions.
7 Jose JK, Kuttan R. Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash. JEthnopharmacol 2000 Sep;72(1-2):135-40Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar PO, Thrissur 680 553, Kerala, India.
Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (EO) and Chyavanaprash (CHY) extracts were studiedusing carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats. EO and CHY extracts were found toinhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCl(4) administration as seen from the decreasedlevels of serum and liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkalinephosphatase (ALP). Chronic CCl(4) administration was also found to produce liver fibrosis as seen fromthe increased levels of collagen-hydroxyproline and pathological analysis. EO and CHY extracts werefound to reduce these elevated levels significantly, indicating that the extract could inhibit the induction offibrosis in rats.
8 Manjunatha S, Jaryal AK, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Gupta SK. Effect of Chyawanprash and vitamin C onglucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2001 Jan;45(1):71-9Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029.
Chyawanprash is an ancient Indian dietary supplement containing vitamin C (34 mg/100 g) derived fromamla (Emblica officinalis). In addition, Chyawanprash also contains several other herbal products. Thepresent study was designed to compare the effects of vitamin C with those of Chyawanprash. Ten normalhealthy adult male volunteers (age 20-32 years) participated in the 16-week study. They were placedrandomly in either the Chyawanprash group (n = 5) or vitamin C group (n = 5). Those in the formerreceived 15 g/d of Chyawanprash while those in the latter received 500 mg/d vitamin C during the first 8weeks of the study. For the next 8 weeks, no supplement was given. For each individual, an oral glucosetolerance test was performed, and lipoprotein profile in peripheral serum samples was determined at 0weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks. In the Chyawanprash group, the 8 weeks Vs 0 weeksvalue (mean +/- S.D.) respectively for various indices which were significantly different were fastingplasma glucose (100.2 +/- 5.58 mg/dl vs 116.2 +/- 11.6 mg/dl), area under 2-h plasma glucose curve (245.9+/- 15.13 mg.dl-1.h vs 280.8 +/- 37.09 mg.dl-1.h), HDL cholesterol (53.2 +/- 4.56 mg/dl vs 42.7 +/- 7.17mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (82.4 +/- 8.80 mg/dl vs 98.26 +/- 12.07 mg/dl), LDL/HDL ratio (1.56 +/- 0.28 vs2.38 +/- 0.63). In the Vitamin C group, only the LDL/HDL ratio was significantly lower at 8 weeks than at0 weeks (1.99 +/- 0.44 vs 2.29 +/- 0.43). All the variables that changed significantly were no longersignificantly different from the 0 weeks value at 16 weeks. Chyawanprash reduces postprandial glycemia inthe oral glucose tolerance test and reduces blood cholesterol level to a significantly greater extent thanvitamin C.
9 Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Malagi KJ, Sethukumar Kamath M. The evaluation of the radioprotective effectof Triphala (an ayurvedic rejuvenating drug) in the mice exposed to gamma-radiation. Phytomedicine 2002Mar;9(2):99-108Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. gc.jagetia@kmc.eduThe effect of 0, 5, 6.25, 10, 12.5, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 80 mg/kg b. wt. of aqueous extract of triphala (anAyurvedic herbal medicine) administrered intraperitoneally was studied on the radiation-induced mortalityin mice exposed to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation. Treatment of mice with different doses of triphalaconsecutively for five days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms ofradiation sickness when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated controls. The highest protectionagainst GI (gastrointestinal) death was observed for 12.5 mg/kg triphala, where a highest number ofsurvivors were reported up to 10 days post-irradiation. While 10 mg/kg triphala i.p. provided the bestprotection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors after 30 days post-irradiation in this groupwhen compared with the other doses of triphala. Toxicity study showed that triphala was non-toxic up to adose of 240 mg/kg, where no drug-induced mortality was observed. The LD50 dose i.p. of triphala wasfound to be 280 mg/kg b. wt. Our study demonstrates the ability of triphala as a good radioprotective agentand the optimum protective dose of triphala was 1/28 of its LD50 dose.
10 Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and thephenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. fruit. J Ethnopharmacol 2002 Aug;81(3):327-36 Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
amsale@utu.fiA 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in severalmalignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a humanosteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic,immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidineincorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry andHoechst DNA staining). In all cell lines studied, the extract decreased cell viability, inhibited cellproliferation, and induced cell death in a dose dependent manner. Flow cytometry and other analysesshowed that some apoptosis was induced by the extract at lower concentrations, but at higherconcentrations, necrosis was the major mechanism of cell death. ATP assay guided chromatographicfractionation of the extract yielded ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (a new naturalproduct), and chebulinic acid which were tested by ATP assay on HOS-1 cell line in comparison to threeknown antigrowth phenolics of Terminalia, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, luteolin, and tannic acid. Chebulinicacid (IC(50) = 53.2 microM +/- 0.16) > tannic acid (IC(50) = 59.0 microg/ml +/- 0.19) > and ellagic acid(IC(50) = 78.5 microM +/- 0.24), were the most growth inhibitory phenolics of T. chebula fruit in ourstudy.
11 Suguna L, Singh S, Sivakumar P, Sampath P, Chandrakasan G. Influence of Terminalia chebula ondermal wound healing in rats. Phytother Res 2002 May;16(3):227-31Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India.
The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminaliachebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healedmuch faster as indicated by improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization.
Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and collagen contents in thegranulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, alsoincreased upto day 8 post-wounding. Reduced lipid peroxide levels in treated wounds, as well as ESRmeasurement of antioxidant activity by DPPH radical quenching, suggested that T. chebula possessedantioxidant activities. The tensile strength of tissues from extract-treated incision wounds increased byabout 40%. In addition, T. chebula possessed antimicrobial activity and was active largely againstStaphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of T. chebulain the acceleration of the healing process.
12 Okyar A, Can A, Akev N, Baktir G, Sutlupinar N. Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level intype I and type II diabetic rat models. Phytother Res 2001 Mar;15(2):157-61 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, 34452 Universite, Istanbul,Turkey.
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. (= A. barbadensis Miller) (Liliaceae) is native to North Africa and also cultivatedin Turkey. Aloes have long been used all over the world for their various medicinal properties. In the past15 years, there have been controversial reports on the hypoglycaemic activity of Aloe species, probably dueto differences in the parts of the plant used or to the model of diabetes chosen. In this study, separateexperiments on three main groups of rats, namely, non-diabetic (ND), type I (IDDM) and type II (NIDDM)diabetic rats were carried out. A. vera leaf pulp and gel extracts were ineffective on lowering the bloodsugar level of ND rats. A. vera leaf pulp extract showed hypoglycaemic activity on IDDM and NIDDMrats, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II diabetes in comparison with glibenclamide. On thecontrary, A. vera leaf gel extract showed hyperglycaemic activity on NIDDM rats. It may therefore beconcluded that the pulps of Aloe vera leaves devoid of the gel could be useful in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
13 Verma SK, Bordia A. Effect of Commiphora mukul (gum guggulu) in patients of hyperlipidemia withspecial reference to HDL-cholesterol. Indian J Med Res 1988 Apr;87:356-60 14 Satyavati GV. Gum guggul (Commiphora mukul)--the success story of an ancient insight leading to amodern discovery. Indian J Med Res 1988 Apr;87:327-35 15 Tripathi YB, Malhotra OP, Tripathi SN. Thyroid stimulating action of Z-guggulsterone obtained fromCommiphora mukul. Planta Med 1984 Feb;(1):78-80 16 Satyavati GV, Dwarakanath C, Tripathi SN. Experimental studies on the hypocholesterolemic effect ofCommiphora mukul. Engl. (Guggul). Indian J Med Res 1969 Oct;57(10):1950-62 17 Paranjpe P, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol 1990 Apr;29(1):1-11Interdisciplinary School of Ayurvedic Medicine, University of Poona, Pune, India.
Seventy obese subjects were randomised into four groups. Ayurvedic drug treatments were given for threemonths while one group received a placebo. Physical, clinical and pathological investigations were carriedout at regular intervals. A significant weight loss was observed in drug therapy groups when compared withthe placebo. Body measurements such as skin fold thickness and hip and waist circumferences weresignificantly decreased. Decreases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed. No sideeffects of any kind were observed during the treatment period.
18 Antonio J, Colker CM, Torina GC, et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplementon body composition in overweight adults: A pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:220-7.

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Doi:10.1016/j.physa.2004.12.028

Physica A 352 (2005) 113–130 A cell-centered approach to developmental biology Roeland M.H. Merks, James A. Glazier Department of Physics, Biocomplexity Institute, Indiana University, Swain Hall West 159, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105, USA Available online 13 January 2005 Explaining embryonic development of multicellular organisms requires insight into complex

Microsoft word - cap.salacongregazioni.doc

DEFINIZIONE TECNICA ED ECONOMICA DEI LAVORI ART. 1. OGGETTO DELL'APPALTO L'Appalto ha per oggetto tutte le opere occorrenti per la realizzazione del progetto di restauro della "Sala Congregazioni" di Palazzo Civico. La campagna di saggi stratigrafici effettuata sulle pareti, sui manufatti lignei, sul cassettone e i saggi di pulitura effettuati sulle tele a soffitto, hanno reso possibile ipotizzare una sequenza di interventi relativi al