Chaque forme pharmaceutique présente ses propres avantages et inconvénients acheter du diflucan
mais n'ont pas d'effets néfastes pour l'organisme dans son ensemble.
MCP 200, MCP 300, MCP 500 Modular Circular Polarimeter Series
::: Superior Optical Instruments
MCP: Modular Circular Polarimeter Series
➤ Circular polarimeters for
The MCP series provides a range of high-quality
The right color for your measurement
polarimeters for research and industry. They measure
With the multiple wavelength option you are
the optical rotation of liquids and use derived scales
free to equip one instrument with up to eight
to determine the concentration or specific rotation
of optically active substances. This ensures, for example, correct enantiomer separation and the required purity of materials. Determining the specific rotation is also part of the characterization of new optically active substances.
➤ Modular to grow with your
Your investment in an MCP polarimeter is secure, no matter which measurements you will face in the future. All the MCP models can be upgraded to fit new or changed requirements. Wavelengths can be defined according to the tasks at hand and further wavelengths added at a later date. An intelligent system for automatic sample cell detection can be easily retrofitted. The Peltier temperature module is part of the standard configuration.
➤ Longstanding know-how
Anton Paar has forty years of experience in developing and producing polarimeters and other measuring instruments. From research and development to production and distribution, you can count on solutions from Anton Paar realized with a passion for precision, a love of science and a shared enthusiasm, every step of the way.
With Anton Paar's global sales and service network you have a reliable partner close to you for after-sales
Built-in trust in the results
service and application support.
The FillingCheck™ camera inside the sample cell sees more than the human eye: An image of the inside of the sample is saved along with the measurement as proof of the measurement conditions.
Intelligent sample cells and quartz platesThe Toolmaster™ technology saves you time and prevents errors when exchanging sample cells and quartz control plates. Cell and quartz plate data as well as temperature values are fast and securely transferred to the instrument. This provides traceable documentation of the measurements.
Optimal temperature conditions for accurate resultsPowerful Peltier temperature control ensures a quick thermal equilibrium and a homogenous temperature distribution in the sample. This is the basis for accurate results and short measuring times.
Quick startup after purchaseAfter purchase, the polarimeter is set up, qualified and validated within a short period of time, using Anton Paar's qualification and validation package.
Ready for all applicationsWith over 50 sample cells available, you are equipped for every application.
First-class Technology …
Intelligent sample cells and quartz plates >> Toolmaster™ technology
When the sample cell or quartz control plate is connected, the MCP polarimeter detects it immediately. All relevant data are transferred by cable or wirelessly. The instrument automatically uses the right cell length and temperature data from the cell to process the measuring value. In addition, the software checks whether the sample cell is suitable for the selected method. As the sample cell length or temperature no longer have to be entered by the operator, Toolmaster™ saves time and prevents incorrect settings. Measurements are therefore fast, clearly documented and traceable, as e.g. specified by 21 CFR Part 11.
With this intelligent Toolmaster™ technology, calibration and adjustment of the polarimeter no longer require tables and manual data entry. The Toolmaster™ memory chip on the quartz control plate contains all the relevant calibration data, which are automatically
transferred into the instrument. The software will guide you through
the quick and automated adjustment process.
Optimal thermal conditions for accurate results>> Peltier temperature control
Precise temperature control is the basis for accurate results. MCP uses powerful Peltier elements, which eliminate the need for a thermostatic water bath. In the MCP polarimeter a thick Peltier jacket
encloses the sample cell, heating or cooling the sample uniformly from all sides. The large surface for heat conduction into and out of the cell ensures the whole sample reaches thermal equilibrium after a very short time.
MCP's highly efficient Peltier system automatically controls the sample temperature in the range from 15 °C to 45 °C.
Built-in trust in the results>> FillingCheck™
MCP has a built-in camera (optional) which gives you a real-time image of the sample in the cell during and after filling. You can see bubbles or streaks in the image more clearly than with the human eye and can intervene if necessary. Each filling process can be monitored and photographed. The image is automatically stored along with the result, giving traceable documentation of the measurement conditions even after years.
… First-class Measurements
The right color for your measurement>> Multiple wavelength option
The MCP is equipped with the standard wavelength 589 nm. Other wavelengths in the UV/VIS/NIR ranges are available at the time of purchase or can be added at a later date at your location. This means you will always be able to meet your requirements and only need validate the wavelengths you actually require. The use of high-quality interference filters with small bandwidths eliminates the need for different spectral lamps. While measuring, the wavelengths can be changed automatically within seconds by simply selecting them via the user interface.
Ready for all applications>> Over 50 sample cells
Choose from more than 50 sample cells ranging from 1.0 mm to 200 mm path length. Sample cells are available with different volumes. To fill the cells you can use integrated filling funnels, syringe ports, or hose outlets depending on your application. Choose from
stainless steel or hastelloy for corrosive samples, or glass. Each type of sample cell is delivered with detailed documentation regarding material and compliance. Custom-made sample cells are available on request.
Quick startup after purchase>> Qualification and validation package
To get your polarimeter verified for the daily work as quickly as possible, Anton Paar provides a qualification and validation package which is particularly useful for companies in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. This package includes Risk Analysis, Design Qualification, Installation Qualification, Operational Qualification, Performance Qualification, Traceability Matrix, user training and qualified support on-site.
Solid, Stable, Strong
 Mechanical stability = reliable
measurements for years
The polarimeter is an optical system which needs to be stable under all conditions, for example when there are changes in ambient temperature and humidity. It also has to withstand knocks, vibrations, and dust.
The optical bench is the base on which all the optical components are mounted. MCP's optical bench is machined from one solid block of aluminum and fixed on flexible mounts. It does not ever bend, twist or pull out of shape. MCP delivers stable measurement values based on the
sturdy grounding of this block. The results are not affected by shaking, vibration, load, dust, temperature or humidity. There is no drift of the values over time: values measured today are completely comparable with values measured one year ago.
 Simple light source replacement
MCP is equipped with a tungsten halogen lamp with a long working life of around 2000 hours. Replacement is simple and requires no special knowledge of electrical engineering as the voltage is low. The lamp is located in a separate
compartment so the instrument itself does not need to be opened to replace it. This keeps service costs at a minimum and reduces downtime.
 Intelligent light adjustment for dark and
The lamp current is regulated automatically according to the darkness of the sample. When measuring dark samples, the current is boosted up so that enough light reaches
the detector. For clear samples, the current for the lamp is turned down to increase its working life.
 Protected components
Sensitive optical and electronic components like the analyzer, interference filters, the hollow shaft encoder and photodiode are located in a sealed housing which is resistant to dust and spills.
 Accuracy over the whole measuring
MCP gives you high angular resolution and accuracy across the entire measuring range. The angular resolution is needed for measuring low concentrations, small concentration changes, substances with low specific rotation and dark samples requiring short sample cells. The MCP measures in the range from +89.99° to -89.99° optical rotation, which
covers 100 % of all measuring requirements.
 Temperature sensors close to the
To ensure precise temperature control of the sample
up to an accuracy of ±0.03 °C and resolution of up to ±0.01 °C, MCP has high-quality temperature sensors built into its sample cells. These sensors are positioned close to the sample to prevent thermal gradients. This is particularly important for samples whose optical rotation is strongly temperature-dependent.
 Protective housing
The MCP housing protects the sensors from spilled liquids, mechanical influences and dust. A large, easy-to-open flap gives you convenient access to the sample cell area and
makes it easy to exchange sample cells or insert quartz control plates. The measuring compartment is resistant to spills and equipped with a large drain.
 Easily accessible communication
MCP is easily integrated into existing LIMS systems via RS232. It has a VGA port, Ethernet port, and 4 USB ports for connecting a bar code reader, keyboard, mouse, printer
or USB stick. Three of these USB connections are on the side of the polarimeter for easy access when connecting external accessories. There is also a CAN bus connection for adding an Abbemat refractometer.
 Intuitive user interface
MCP has been designed with the user in mind. The built-in software is intuitive and guides you through measurements and calibration step-by-step. You can choose to operate MCP via the touchscreen or the softkeys positioned around the screen. The softkeys are ideal for operation in harsh industrial environments or when wearing gloves.
Polarimetry is a sensitive, non-destructive technique for measuring
polarization becomes rotated if the sample is optically active.
the optical activity exhibited by inorganic and organic compounds.
The light with the rotated plane of polarization passes through an
A compound is considered to be optically active if the plane of
analyzer, which is a second polarization filter. The transmitted light
linear polarized light is rotated when passing through it. This
behind the analyzer is detected with a photodiode. The analyzer is
change of polarization angle is known as optical rotation and
rotated automatically until the transmission minimum is reached.
measured with the MCP. Many concentration scales derive from
This is at 90° to the plane of polarization after the sample and is
the optical rotation.
therefore a direct measure of the optical rotation.
The molecular structure and the concentration of chiral molecules
The right wavelength for the measurement is precisely selected
in the substance influence the measured optical rotation. In
by an interference filter or by a filter wheel with filters for several
addition the pathlength of the sample cell, temperature and
wavelengths positioned in the beam in front of the detector.
wavelength are influencing parameters.
To further enhance the angular resolution, the polarized light
To measure the optical rotation, a light beam from a lamp inside
passes through electromagnetic coils, which superimpose an
the polarimeter first passes through a fixed polarizer in order
oscillation onto the plane of polarization by means of the Faraday
to obtain a defined orientation of the plane of polarization. The
polarized light then passes through the sample. Its plane of
➤ Your benefits of this technology are:
Economic use of sample
Secure and traceable operation
4 Low-volume sample cells
4 Automatic identification of sample cells and
4 The sample can be recovered as the measure-
quartz control plates
ment is non-destructive
4 Different user levels4 Audit trial
Fast and easy to operate4 The correct reading is given within seconds
Long life and durability
4 Intuitive menu structure, step-by-step calibration
4 Robust construction
4 Sensitive components are protected
MCP can be used to study, for example, the biological properties of each enantiomer independently, determine the concentrations of optically active substances or investigate correlations between toxicological and pharma-cological properties and chirality. MCP meets the standards of international pharmacopoeias and provides full compliance with 21 CFR Part 11.
An MCP polarimeter can be used for the quality control and purity determi-nation of starch and starch-based products, such as HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup), dextrose or corn syrup. It is therefore essential in the quality control of these substances.
In food production, incoming raw materials and finished products are characterized and tested for purity with MCP polarimeters in combined setups with Abbemat refractometers.
Gels undergo sol-gel transitions as a function of temperature, composition, solvent exchange with the environment and other external parameters. To determine the gel-sol transition in optically active samples (e.g. gelatine) MCP with automatic Peltier temperature control can be used for precise stepwise heating around the transition temperature of the product.
MCP can be used to characterize honey by identifying the carbohydra-te composition. The different optical activity of the carbohydrates in the honey also gives insight into the product quality. Good quality honey will show a low content of sucrose but a high content of glucose/fructose.
In perfume manufacturing, Abbemat refractometers in combination with
➤ Your benefits of this technology are:
DMA density meters and MCP polarimeters are used to carry out purity measurements on valuable essential oils and to assure the constant quality of the perfumes.
➤ Penicillin has a specific rotation of 223°. Can that be
measured with an MCP polarimeter which has a measuring range of ±89.9°? Yes.
➤ What about fructose with a specific rotation of -92°? Yes.
How does that work?
The specific rotation is a characteristic property of the optically
The specific rotation is the optical rotation for a concentration of
active substance, whereas the optical rotation is the actually
1g/100 mL and a cell length of 100 mm (this is where the scale
measured value of a certain sample or solution.
factor of 100 comes from).
The measured optical rotation depends on the number of molecules the light beam meets while traversing the sample.
For penicillin, this means that a polarimeter can already detect
The more optically active molecules the light meets, the more
small concentrations. For higher concentrations, shorter sample
the plane of polarization of light is turned.
cells can be used so that the measured value is within ±89.9°
The specific rotation as a material property is the optical rotation
(this also saves sample volume, yields higher transmission and
"per a certain number of molecules" the light meets.
a better signal).
This "certain number" of molecules which the light beam meets
In order to determine the specific rotation of a substance,
is determined by the cell length (the longer the cell, the more
the MCP polarimeter can use a shorter sample cell than
molecules the light beam meets) and the concentration (the
100 mm. A predefined method works out the scaling to
higher the concentration, the more molecules the light beam
100 mm automatically.
meets). Mathematically, the measured optical rotation and the
specific rotation are linked by Biot's law:
Both optical and specific rotation are dependent on temperature and wavelength and are therefore quoted together with the given temperature and wavelength. This is typically 20 °C and 589.3 nm (other temperatures and wavelengths can be used if MCP has the Peltier option and multiple wavelengths option).
Where α is the observed optical rotation,
is the specific
rotation for a given temperature and wavelength, is the cell length in mm, c is the concentration in g/mL and 100 is a scale factor.
°Optical Rotation, °Optical Rotation (cell length corrected), °Specific Rotation, °Specific Rotation (cell length corrected), % concentration (g/100 mL, g/L, g/100 cm3, kg/m3), °International Sugar
Scale (not temperature-compensated), mathematic functions and user-definable scales
Optical Rotation scale (at 589 nm)Measuring range
better than ±0.002°
better than ±0.001°
589 nm and optionally up to eight wavelengths. Standard spectral wavelengths
(365, 405, 436, 546, 578, 880 nm) and customer-specific wavelengths on request.
Tungsten halogen lamp, 6V, 20 W, with average lifetime of 2000 h
A light intensity control compensates attenuation up to Optical Density (OD) 4.0
PT 100 sensor for sample temperature measurement
Peltier system for automatic temperature control between 15 °C and 45 °C
Temperature control range
20 °C and 25 °C
(optional 15 °C to 45 °C)
4 USB, RS232, Ethernet, VGA, CAN bus Easy connection of keyboard, mouse, printer,
bar code reader and networks
754 (L) x 392 (W) x 231 (H) mm (29.7 x 15.5 x 9.1 inches)
Power managementPower supply
Self-adapting to any mains voltage AC 100 to 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz
Accessories for MCP polarimeters:
Automatic identification of the sample cell, sample cells from 2.5 mm to 200 mm
Quartz control plates
Automatic identification of the quartz control plate, value from ±1° up to ±85° Optical Rotation
Upgrade optionsAutomatic temperature
control PeltierWireless ToolmasterTM technology
Multiple wavelength option for up
to 6 different wavelengths
* at physical standard conditions** with Peltier module and cell
Photos: Croce & Wir
Anton-Paar-Str. 20A-8054 GrazAustria - EuropeTel: +43 (0)316 257-0Fax: +43 (0)316 257-257E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb: www.anton-paar.com
Instruments for:Density & concentration measurement
X-ray structure analysis
subject to change
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Package ‘NRAIA' Title Data sets from Nonlinear Regression Analysis and Its Applications'' Maintainer Douglas Bates <email@example.com> Author R port by Douglas Bates <firstname.lastname@example.org> Description Datasets from Bates and Watts (1988) Nonlinear Regression Analysis and Its Applications'' with sample code. Depends lattice, stats License GPL (>= 2)