Human sexuality booklet
PART I: Sexual Anatomy
PART II: Physiology of Sexual Functions
PART III: Sex Hormones and the Reproductive Period
PART IV: Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth
PART V: Contraception (Birth Control)
PART VI: Abortion
PART VII: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI'S)
Sex lies at the root of life, and we can never learn to reverence life
until we know how to understand sex.
Disclaimer The contents of this booklet, including all wording, graphics, images, and other material ("Content") are provided for general educational informational purposes only. The Content is not intended to be the definitive source on any topic or to replace consultations with your doctor or to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Copyright 2004-2007, John Lambert Ph.D.
PART I: Sexual Anatomy
What are anatomy and
the study of "structure", what is it?
the study of "function", how does it work
Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology
Describe and state the function ofthe following female sex organs:
gonads, like the testicles, which secrete the female sex hormones,
estrogen and progesterone directly into the blood stream, andwhich are responsible for the development of female secondary sexcharacteristics (e.g. breasts and pubic hair); the site from which oneovum is released on the average of one per month during thereproductive cycle; unlike the testicle, the ovary has no tube leadingdirectly out of it; the ova leave the ovary by rupturing its wall andbecoming caught in the fimbriae (fringed end) of the fallopian tube;as well, unlike the testicle, where sperm is produced continually.
About 400,000 immature ova or follicles are present in the femaleat birth and begin their slow exodus following puberty. Only 300-500 of the follicles develop into mature ova.
FALLOPIAN TUBES or U-TUBES
two tubes about 4 inches long which extend between the ovaries
and uterus; the sweeping action of the cilia (hair-like projections)which line the inner walls of the U-tube and the contractions ofthese walls help the ovum travel through the U-tube; the site wherefertilization takes place.
a hollow, muscular organ shaped like an inverted pear which isusually tilted forward, held in place by ligaments, normally 3 incheslong, 3 inches wide at the top, and 1 inch thick; intertwined layersof smooth muscle fibers endow the uterine wall with tremendousstrength and elasticity necessary during pregnancy; the site wherethe embryo (known as the fetus after the 8th week) is housed andnourished until birth
CERVIX or CERVICAL CANAL
the neck or lower portion of the uterus which projects into thevagina; doughnut shaped, normally 2 inches long; in the first stagof labour it thins out (effacement) and dilates (opens up); thoughpart of the uterus, the fetus is not housed in this portion, and thus,the cervix acts somewhat as a protective layer between the upperportion of the uterus where the fetus is housed and the vagina
ordinarily a collapsed muscular tube, a potential rather thanpermanent space, about 4 inches long; the vaginal walls are poorlysupplied with nerves, and like the shaft of the penis, the vagina isa rather insensitive organ; but the vaginal opening is highlyexcitable; the vaginal walls provide the primary source of vaginallubrication; female organ of copulation and recipient of semen,passage for discharge during menstruation and the baby duringbirth; hovered does not serve for the passage of urine
the external genitals which include the mons pubis, labia majora,labia minora, the clitoris, the introitus
the soft, rounded elevation of fatty tissue which is covered withpubic hair following puberty
LABIA MAJORA or OUTER LIPS
two elongated folds of skin that run down and back from the monspubis; ordinarily they are close together, and the female genitalsappear "closed".
LABIA MINORA or INNER LIPS
two pinkish, hairless folds of skin located between the major lips;
the vaginal orifice and urethral orifice are located within the space
between the inner lips
similar in structure to the penis, and located at the apex of the innerlips, it is richly endowed with nerves, highly sensitive, and a majorfocus of sexual stimulation
INTROITUS or VAGINAL ORIFICE
external vaginal opening which is very sensitive to sensorystimulation located between the minor lips
a thin membrane surrounding the introitus, partially blocking it, butalmost never covering the opening completely; no knownphysiological function
URETHRA or URETHRAL ORIFICE
located above the vaginal orifice, serves exclusively for the passageof urine
Is the condition of the hymen a
no; the hymen may be easily torn accidentally in various forms of
reliable measure of virginity?
athletic activity. Occasionally, a very flexible hymen will withstandintercourse.
What are common sources of pain
contraction of muscles at the introitus, or lack of vaginal lubrication;
from first intercourse?
although it can happen in rare cases, it is a fallacy to believe thatrupturing the hymen causes severe pain
Can a vagina be "too tight" or "too
generally speaking, no; the vagina beyond the introitus is a soft and
highly distensible organ which when relaxed should accommodatethe penis.
How does the female pelvis differ
the female pelvis is broader in order to permit passage of an infant's
from the male pelvis?
head during birth.
What are the facts concerning breast
In Canada (and many other countries) breast size is a source of
considerable preoccupation, with large ones linked to erotic allureand female "sexiness". In truth however, breast size does not bearany relation to a women's interest in sex. The sensitivity of thebreast, nipple and areola are unrelated to their size and shape; andbreast size is not related to a woman's capacity for sexual responseor to how easily she will attain orgasm. The ability to produceenough milk to nurse is unrelated to breast size.
Examples of variations in external female genitalia, (vulvas)
Vulva drawings by Betty Dodson, from her book Sex for One 1986.
Website :http://www.bettydodson.com (Used with permission)
Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology
Describe and state thefunction of the followingmale sex organs:
sac containing two separate compartments, each of which houses atesticle and its spermatic cord; contracts in response to cold andsexual excitement; it does not protect them from injury
TESTES or TESTICLES
gonads or reproductive glands within the scrotum which secrete themale sex hormone testosterone directly into the blood stream, andwhich are responsible for the development of the male secondary sexcharacteristics; houses the seminiferous tubules which are the sitesof sperm production.
thread-like structures within the testicles which are 1-3 feet long;combined length of the tubules in both testes measures severalhundred yards; site for production of millions of sperm.
a C-shaped structure adhered to each testicle where sperm arestored to be eventually released through ejaculation into the vasdeferens
the two tubes through which sperm travel, each of which isconnected at one end to the epididymis and at the other to theejaculatory duct
the two vesicles which meet the vas deferens to form the ejaculatoryduct; secretes fluids which helps the motility (movement) of sperm
the glands about the size and shape of a large chestnut whosesecretions account for much of the seminal fluid and itscharacteristic odour
COWPER'S or BULBOURETHRAL
two pea-sized structures flanking the penile urethra; during sexual
arousal there two glands secrete a clear, sticky fluid that appears asa droplet at the tip of the penis, the fluid is alkaline and thereforemay help neutralize the acidic urethra which is harmful to sperm, inpreparation for the passage of semen; it does often contain straysperm which explains pregnancies from intercourse withoutejaculation
PENILE URETHRA or URETHRA
an 8-inch long vessel running from the bladder and the length of thepenis; passage for both urine and semen
male organ 3-4 inches long when flaccid, and about 5¾ - 6 incheswhen erect; consists of cavities and spaces very much like a densesponge which become engorged with blood during an erection;although the body or shaft of the penis is rather insensitive, the glansor glans penis -(smooth rounded head of the penis), the frenulum -(the underside of the glans where a thin strip of skin connects to theadjoining body of the penis), and the corona -(the crown or rim of theglans), are all highly sensitive to tactile stimulation and are thereforeof particular sexual importance; organ used for copulation, for thesecretion of semen, and for the secretion of urine.
PREPUCE or FORESKIN
the retractable skin of the penis which folds over and covers part of
no, it can be a reflex action to sensory stimulation which is non-
necessarily originate from
sexual in nature e.g. tactile stimulation from bed bath; 90% of males
of all ages have an erection when they dream regardless of thecontent of the dream; in the morning many men awake with anerection which is often simply indicative of their need to urinate.
Are there bones or muscles in the
no bone or muscle are within the penis, though there are muscles
surrounding the base i.e. bulb and crura.
What are the facts
The size and shape of the penis, contrary to popular belief, are not
regarding penis size?
related to a man's body build, race, virility, or ability to give andreceive sexual satisfaction.
What is circumcision?
the surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) and the glans of thepenis is fully exposed
Why is circumcision performed?
circumcision is done as a religious rite, as in Islam, or in Judaism,where it is performed shortly after birth to symbolize the covenantbetween God and Abraham. It is common among Christians forhygienic reasons alone. Medical evidence concerning the healthbenefits of circumcision appears to be mixed and inconclusive. A man who is not circumcised must retract the foreskin and clean theglans regularly to prevent growth of bacteria (smegma) which in rarecases could lead to phimosis -adhesion of the foreskin to the glans.
Circumcision has never been widely practised in Europe and in NorthAmerica, the trend today seems to be away from circumcision, whichin part may be due to our health care plan no longer paying for theprocedure.
Penis examples: (non-erect)
Should it be performed at birth?
there are reasonable arguments for and against it; if not forreligious beliefs, based on sound knowledge, parents shouldchoose what they feel is best.
What is "smegma", and where is it
a cheesy-like substance with a distinctive smell that is produced by
the small glands under the prepuce and at the corona or the penis.
What is the significance of "smegma"?
in its fresh state, smegma is a wholesome and functional lubricant.
It lubricates the cavity between the foreskin of the penis and theglans, thus allowing for smooth movement between them duringintercourse. But, if allowed to accumulate in the foreskin cavity, itbecomes changed into an unpleasant, unhealthy, and bad-smellingsubstance. It is stale and accumulated smegma that is a source ofill health for the penis. Freshly formed smegma, washed awayregularly and constantly replenishing itself, is a healthy lubricant.
What is Erectile Dysfunction (ED)?
Not being able to achieve or maintain an erection for some reasoncan happen to all men at one time or another. Erectile dysfunction(ED) is defined as a total inability to achieve an erection, theinconsistent ability to do so, or the tendency to sustain only brieferections, insufficient for sexual intercourse. Contrary to popularmythology men are not always ready and able at any time. Theoccasional difficulty, even for healthy men, maybe brought on bysuch things as fatigue, drugs, to much to drink, or "performanceanxiety", and does mean that you have serious problem. Anumber of medical conditions like, high blood pressure,cholesterol, diabetes, heart conditions, and medications likediuretics (water pills), high blood pressure medications, anti-depressants as well as anxiety, stress, depression, cigarettesmoking, obesity, alcohol abuse and drug use can contribute toerectile dysfunction. Not only will erectile dysfunction have animpact a man's self-esteem, - it may also undermine arelationship. In a great many instances ED is not a reflection of aman's love for is partner or that he does not desire her. Thatdesire however, may well wane if the problem is not dealt with.
Discuss the problem with your partner and see your physician assoon as possible, there are options, medical treatments (Viagra,Cialis, Levitra) to help most men return to a satisfying sexualrelationship.
PART II: Physiology of Sexual Functions
What are erogenous zones and
erogenous zones are the more sensitive areas of the body which are
where are they located?
believed to be especially susceptible to sexual arousal - glans penis,clitoris, labia minora and the space they enclose (vestibule), the areabetween the anus and the genitals, the anus itself, the breasts(especially the nipples), the mouth (lips, tongue, and the wholeinterior), the ears (especially the lobes), the buttocks, and the innersurfaces of the thighs - the shaft of the penis and vaginal canal arenot considered erogenous zones.
Does this imply that all other areas of
no; in fact, the erogenous zones are not necessarily sensitive to
the body are insensitive to sexual
touch for everyone; they may actually be sexual "turn offs" for some;
the secret is to know your preferences and know your partner'spreferences.
What are the main reactions of the sex organs and general body reactions for men and women in each of the four phases of the Sexual Response Cycle, as explained by the laboratory studies of Masters and Johnson?
Summary of Physical Reactions of the Female and Male During the Sexual Response Cycle
-vaginal lubrication - it occurs because vasocongestion
-penile erection - increase in the length and diameter
in the walls of the vagina leads to moisture seeping
due to vasocongestion, the spongy tissues of the penis
across the vaginal lining in a process called
rapidly filling with blood
-elevation of testes
-lengthening and expansion of inner two-thirds of the
-nipple erection for some men
-appearance of sex flush, occurs in 50% - 60% of males
-engorgement of vagina walls and inner lips with blood
-increase in heart rate and blood pressure
-increase in diameter of clitoral shaft and swelling of
-increase in muscle tension
-increase in diameter and length of penis is not in direct
-flattening of outer lips and their retraction from the
proportion to its size when flaccid.
vagina entrance -increase in breast size and nipple erection -appearance of "sex flush", a rosy flush, much like blushing, over the chest, neck, face, shoulders, arms and thighs -increase in muscle tension (myotonia)
-continued vasocongestion of outer third of the vagina
-testicles swell to 25% - 50% larger than in unstimulated
and inner lips causes the tissues to swell, forming
what is called the orgasmic platform where the outer
-slight increase in glans penis
1/3 of the vagina narrows by 30% or more, which
-full testicular elevation until up against the body
allows for the gripping of the penis
-mucoid secretion from Cowper's gland -clear sticky
-the inner 2/3 of vagina expands slightly as the uterus
fluid at tip of penis
becomes more elevated in a process known as
-spreading of sex flush -
increase in respiration (breathing becomes more rapid)
the clitoris retracts until it is completely covered by the
-increased muscular tension
clitoral hood and decreases about 50% in length -the inner lips as a result of engorging with blood, enlarge dramatically, doubling or even tripling in
thickness and push the outer lips apart allowing more
immediate access to the vagina
-nipples continue to increase in size
-spread of sex flush to stomach, thighs -increase in heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure-increase in muscle tension
-muscular contractions in outer 1/3 of vagina i.e. the
-contractions starting from the tests and continuing
orgasmic platform. The contractions occur at 0.08-
through the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal
second intervals, the same as in the male
vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and the penis itself
-contraction of uterus
-occurrence of three or four powerful ejaculatory
-peak intensity and full distribution of sex flush
contractions at 0.08-second intervals, followed by some
-peak level of respiratory rate and heart rate
slower contractions of the anal sphincter, ejaculation
-blood pressure rate elevated
-peak level of respiration
-possible vocalization (e.g. moaning, etc.)
-testes at their maximum elevation
-no ejaculation in most women*
-heart and respiratory rates at their maximum -sex flush at its peak -general loss of voluntary muscle control -possible vocalizations (e.g. moaning, etc.)
-loss of clitoral tumescence
-loss of penile erection - return to unstimulated size
-quick dispersion of blood in the outer third of the
-testes descend and return to normal size
-disappearance of sex flush and loss of nipple erection
-gradual return of colouring and size of the inner 2/3 of
-heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure return to
vagina to pre-stimulated state
-inner lips return to normal colour and size and outer
-general relaxation of muscles
lips close toward the vaginal entrance
-sweating reaction 30% - 40% of males
-clitoris returns from under the clitoral hood to its normal
-refractory period immediately follows ejaculation,
during which time further arousal in not possible, it is
-disappearance of sex flush
not preset in the female's response cycle.
-gradual decrease in nipple and breast size -breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure return to normal -sweating reaction in 30% - 40% of women -relaxation of body muscles -no refractory period, therefore, female can be restimulated to excitement phase immediately or continue in relaxed state
There are conflicting opinions about female ejaculation, most women do not ejaculate during orgasm.
Some women due expel fluid from the urethra at the time of orgasm, believed to brought about by
the stimulation of the Grafenber spot, "G-spot " for short, named after Ernest Grafenberg, (1950) who
first suggested the erotic nature and importance of this area. Some investigators of the G-spot confirm
its existence, while others report that they were unable to find an area corresponding to the G-spot, a
bean shaped area within the anterior wall of the vagina. Further complicating the matter is the nature
of the fluid that is expelled and its origin which remain a source of controversy. Is it urine or is it a fluid
distinct from urine that has been theorized to possibly come from the Skene's glands? More research
is needed before reaching firm conclusions about the G-spot and female ejaculation.
Why is the "resolution phase"
This is the quiet time when the two people can enjoy a peaceful
moment together. Since tensions are released, the relaxed state isvery conducive to just being together, light communication, or evendiscussion of more serious topics.
Explain the following terms:
engorgement of blood vessels and increased influx of blood intotissues eg. erection of penis, nipples, clitoris, etc.
increased muscle tension eg. orgasm
swelling or enlarging of an organ eg. clitoral tumescence
contraction following expansion, especially restoration of a swollenorgan to normal size, eg. detumescence of penis in resolution phase
At what age can an erection be
at any time following birth; however, during infancy, it does not
necessarily indicate sexual arousal; in fact, it more than likely doesnot, although some studies indicate that some infant males dobecome sexually aroused.
Can a man urinate with a fully erect
no, but an erection "pee hard-on" may precede the need to urinate
How do older men differ from
it takes less time for the younger man to obtain an erection; but the
younger men with regard to the time
older man can usually maintain an erection for a longer period of
necessary to achieve an erection
time without ejaculating. In a sense, the older man is not as likely to
and the time it can be maintained?
experience "pre-mature ejaculation" and will be able to spend moretime satisfying his partner.
Generally, how do older women
postmenopausal women may find lubrication takes longer and is less
compare to younger women with
profuse; orgasms may not be as intense; but all changes are based
regard to sexual response?
on individual differences. If thinner vaginal walls, delayed orinadequate lubrication, and the loss of tissue flexibility lead to painfulcoitus, the woman can use lubricants and sometimes hormonaltreatments are prescribed.
PART III: Sex Hormones and the Reproductive Period
What is the study of endocrinology,
endocrinology is the study of the secretions of the endocrine, or
and why is it important to the study of
ductless glands. There are many endocrine glands, but focus will be
on the sex glands (ovaries and testes-both referred to as gonads),and the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain. Theseglands secrete hormones into the bloodstream which, in turn, exertprofound physiological and psychological effects which are relatedto human sexual feelings and behaviour.
What effect does deprivation of sex
It has little effect upon the sex drive in most adults. This supports
hormones through removal of the
the belief that human sexual behaviour is profoundly influenced by
gonads have on the sex drive of
learning experiences. However, there is growing evidence that sex
most adults? Why might this be so?
hormones play a crucial role in the early development of the brainprior to birth. Deficiencies or excesses of sex hormones in uteromay have permanent effects on later behavioural patterns.
In some instances, what effect does
Administration of female sex hormones to males seems to diminish
the administration of female sex
the sex drive in some instances; administration of male sex
hormones to males, and conversely
hormones seems to enhance the sex drive in some women.
male sex hormones to femaleshave?
At the age of puberty, the anterior
development of rounded contours in hips; growth of
region of the pituitary gland secretes
breasts; the areola become elevated; pubic and axillary (underarm)
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
which causes the ovaries to producethe hormone estrogen. Whatexternal changes take place in the
muscular wall of the uterus enlarges; lining of vagina
female at this time in her life?
thickens as estrogen production increases; pelvis enlarges; skeletalgrowth soon stops - at about 17 it has stopped completely;menstruation begins
Do women secrete androgens(male
yes; the adrenal glands which are located just above each kidney
sex hormones?) Which gland is
secrete androgens; androgens contribute to the growth of pubic and
responsible for this secretion? What
axillary hair and enlargement of clitoris.
effect does it have?
What effect do contraceptive pills
While the child is taking the pills, premature development of feminine
have if taken by children?
characteristics will result. Once the child stops, developmentcontinues as before. NOTE: Estrogen has been used therapeuticallyto halt the physical growth of abnormally tall girls.
Briefly describe the hormonal
The pituitary gland secretes FSH (follicle stimulating
changes during the menstrual cycle.
hormone) which leads to the secretion of the hormone estrogen.
The follicle stimulating hormone does just what it implies - stimulatesan ovarian follicle to mature into an egg; increased estrogen isresponsible for the regrowth of the endometrium (uterine lining) andthe rupturing of the mature follicle (egg) into the fallopian tube. Thisrupturing is ovulation; it can sometimes be felt as a cramp on the leftor right side of the lower abdomen. It actually takes about 6½ days
for the egg to travel from the ovary to the uterus.
The increased estrogen stimulates the pituitary
gland to now secrete the LH (luteinizing hormone) which leads to the
development of the corpus luteum, a cell layer "yellow body" within
the follicles. The corpus luteum secretes a hormone called
progesterone as well as some estrogen. If the egg is fertilized the
corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone and estrogen;
these hormones are responsible for providing nourishment for the
developing fetus. If the egg is not fertilized; the corpus luteum
degenerates approximately 14 days following ovulation, and
menstruation begins i.e. to calculate roughly when you ovulated,
count 14 days back from the first day of your menstrual cycle.
PG due to FSH---estrogen---LH---CL---progesterone + some estrogen --- pregnancy, menstruation PG - pituitary gland FSH - follicle stimulating hormone LH - luteinizing hormone CL - corpus luteum
Can a woman menstruate without
yes; this is what happens when a woman takes birth control pills: a
young woman entering puberty and middle-aged woman enteringmenopause will sometimes menstruate without actually ovulating,therefore menstruation is not an absolute indicator of a woman'sfertility.
Why are prolactin and oxytocin
Prolactin stimulates the production of milk by the mammary glands,
and oxytocin causes the ejection of milk from the breast in responseto the suckling by the baby.
Why is the premenstrual period (4-7
Most women experience symptoms that make them aware of the
days before menstruation begins)
imminence of their periods. These symptoms which are partly the
result of internal hormonal changes can range from fatigue,irritability, headaches, pain in the lower back, sensations ofheaviness in the pelvic region, actual weight gain of several poundsbecause of retention of fluids to depression, and emotionalvulnerability.
What effect does childbirth seem to
Menstrual cramps often become less severe after a woman has
have on menstrual cramps?
What is menopause, and when does
Menopause is the medical term for the end of a woman's menstrual
periods, and is a natural part of aging which carries no serious heath risks for women. It usually occurs between the ages of 46 and 55but can happen earlier. With menopause, the pituitary glandcontinues to release FSH, but the ovaries stop responding, and verylittle estrogen is produced.
What physical and psychological
It affects a woman's hormones, body, and feelings. It may be a stop
changes take place during
and start process that may take months or a few years. Common
symptoms of menopause stemming from lower estrogen levels arehot flashes (sudden intense waves of heat and sweating), achyjoints, changes in sexual desire, headaches, frequent urination,vaginal dryness, mood changes, insomnia, and night sweats. Manywomen also notice changes in their skin, digestive tract, and hairduring menopause. For most women, the symptoms of menopauselast for a relatively short time. A woman's experiences during menopause may also be influencedby other life changes such as children leaving home, changes indomestic, social, and personal relationships, changes in identity andbody image, increased anxiety about illness, financial security, lossof loved ones and/or friends, retirement, aging, dying or disability
14. Why is it that some women
This change seems to be related to the fact that women can now
experience a new awakening of
become sexually active without worrying about pregnancy and
sexual desire after menopause?
How does the onset and duration of
Puberty begins somewhat later and lasts longer in boys.
puberty compare in boys?
What changes take place at puberty
The pituitary gland secretes ICSH (interstitial-cell-stimulating
hormone). The ICSH reaches the interstitial cells of the testesthrough the bloodstream, and stimulates them to produce theprimary androgen (male sex hormones) know as testosterone. Thisresults in the growth of the penis and testes; growth of axillary(underarm) hair; pubic hair, and some facial hair; deepening of thevoice; acne; increase in height; broadening of shoulders and ribcage. By age 13 or 14, the prostate gland is producing fluid that canbe ejaculated, but this fluid will probably not contain mature spermuntil a year or two later when the pituitary hormone FSH (same asthe female) leads to the production of sperm. Like girls, boys arevery sensitive to their physical changes as well as emotionalchanges.
Is gynecomastia or breast
No; about 80% of pubertal boys will show some breast enlargement
enlargement unusual in pubertal
probably due to small amounts of female sex hormones produced
by the testes.
How does severe emotional shock,
severe emotional shock can cause temporary cessation of sperm
intercourse, drugs, and a high fever
production; intercourse is followed by an increase in the level of
affect either testosterone secretion
testosterone in the bloodstream; certain drugs, excessive alcohol,
or sperm production?
barbiturates, narcotics, and some antibiotics - may cause temporarysterility (or even impotence); high fever may also inhibit spermproduction.
What effect does castration
The penis will remain adult size and will continue to be capable of
(removal of testes) after puberty
erection. Although deprived of androgen from the testes, the
have on the adult male?
castrated male will still produce some androgen in his adrenal glandslocated above the kidneys; can not produce sperm.
What is the most common physical
Enlargement of the prostate gland occurs in 10% of men by age 40
problem for men who reach the
and in 50% of men who reach age 80. This results in interference
"climateric period" (somewhat
with the flow of urine, and usually has to be partially or completely
similar to female menopause)?
removed surgically if the problem becomes severe. Some men alsoexperience depression and irritability during the climateric periodalthough their hormone production doesn't decline as drastically asit does in the female during menopause.
What is a hermaphrodite?
individuals who exhibit external genital characteristics of both sexes
What is normal chromosomal
female: one X from the mother; one X from the father - female XX
structure of the male and female?
male: one X from the mother; one Y from the father - male XY
PART IV: Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth
Where are sperm stored following
epididymis; spermatozoa degenerate and are replaced by new ones
production in the testes; what
that are constantly being formed (approximately 1,000 every
happens to sperm that is not
ejaculated in 30-60 days?
How is sperm affected if the
sperm is destroyed which is why vinegar or acetic acid have been
secretions in the vagina are strongly
used as a douche for contraceptive purposes - NOTE: This is,
however, not a reliable contraceptive measure.
How long does it take sperm to
an hour to an hour and a half
reach the fallopian tubes followingejaculation?
How does an ovarian cyst form;
It is simply an ovarian follicle which fails to mature and rupture and
what problems can these cysts
it can become very enlarged within the ovary which can cause pain
in the pelvis, painful intercourse, and the ovary may be tender toexternal pressure.
Assuming the time of ovulation is
by having sex one or two days before, during or after ovulation
known, when can a woman become
-approximately a four day span each cycle. The egg (ovum) can be
fertilized 2-24 hours after ovulation. Sperm are most active within 48 hours after ejaculation, but can live up to 7 days.
What are the causes of male
most common cause is low sperm count; other causes include
infectious diseases that involve the testes (eg. mumps); infectionsof the prostate gland; direct damage to the testes. STI‘s can causeinfertility.
State three ways that male infertility
frequent ejaculation (one or more times a day for several
consecutive days) will lower sperm count; therefore infrequent
intercourse will increase the sperm count 2)
hormones for such disorders as hypothyroidism and diabetes can
increase sperm count 3)
artificial insemination with husband's
semen can be used by collecting several specimens from the
husband whose sperm count may be too low from a single
What side effect is there from
There can be complications such as blood clotting and fluid
administration of fertility drugs to
accumulation in the abdomen; another problem is multiple births.
women who do not ovulate?
What are the causes of infertility in
failure to ovulate; infections or obstructions in the vagina, cervix,
uterus, tubes, or ovaries; STI's.
Can a woman become pregnant
without having a menstrual periodsince her previous pregnancy?
Can a woman continue to have
Yes, reduced bleeding or "spotting" occurs in about 20% of
cyclic bleeding during her
pregnant women. However, if a woman isn't normally spotting
during her pregnancy, spotting can be a sign of a possiblemiscarriage.
What are the five symptoms in the
failure to menstruate; enlargement and tenderness of the breasts;
first trimester which may indicate a
some women experience nausea at the smell or taste of some
foods, i.e. "morning sickness"; frequent urination; fatigue and aneed for more sleep
Can sexual intercourse take place in
yes; however, if a woman miscarried before, it sometimes
the first trimester of pregnancy?
recommended to avoid intercourse the first three months during thetime her period would normally be due. At other times during thefirst trimester, it is considered safe. For women who have no historyof miscarriage, intercourse can continue as before.
Why might some women not want to
nausea, fatigue, general anxiety especially in women who are
engage in intercourse at this time?
pregnant for the first time; breast tenderness
What functions does the placenta
the organ that exchanges nutrients and waste products with the
mother; functions as an endocrine gland, producing hormones(progesterone and estrogen) necessary for the maintenance of thepregnancy.
What size is the placenta towards
approximately seven inches in diameter and one inch thick.
the end of the first trimester?
If a woman contacts rubella
50% chance that the infant will be born with cataracts,
(German measles) in the first
congenital heart disease, deafness, or mental deficiency third
month, third month, or after the fifth
the risk drops to 10% after the fifth:
very little to no risk
month, what is the risk of anabnormality to the fetus?
How can a woman acquire immunity
rubella vaccination at least two months before conception
How can the incompatibility of the
If a mother's blood is Rh- and the fetal blood is Rh+ due to a father
Rh factor be treated today?
with Rh+ blood, then the mother (usually after the first pregnancy)will build up antibodies in her bloodstream against the foreign Rh+factor found in the fetal bloodstream. These antibodies can crossthe placental barrier and at birth the baby can be stillborn, severelyanaemic or retarded. In order to prevent the build up of antibodies,a shot of Rhogam can be given to the mother, and she can thenhave as many healthy, normal children as she wants. In the past,before Rhogam was developed, she could usually have only 1 or 2children.
When do miscarriages most often
in the first trimester
What are the signs which may
vaginal bleeding or "spotting"; cramping in the pelvic region; the
indicate a miscarriage?
symptoms of pregnancy disappear
When can fetal movement or
by the end of the fifth month or twenty weeks in first pregnancies
"quickening" be felt by the mother?
and a few weeks earlier in subsequent pregnancies
Which trimester is usually the most
pleasant for most women, and theone in which woman sometimesshow increased sexual desire?
What are the three preferred
female superior; side by side; rear-entry positions
positions for sexual intercourseduring the second trimester?
What is the size and weight of the
3-4 inches long, weighing about an ounce; second:
fetus at the end of the first trimester;
inches long, weighing about 2 lbs.
Does the fetus dream at the end of
yes; in fact, premature babies dream more at birth than do full-term
the second trimester?
babies - that is, they spend more time in REM (rapid eye movement)sleep
What is the ideal weight gain for a
there is no ideal weight gain during pregnancy; it will depend on the
full term pregnancy?
woman, her overall health, how her pregnancy is progressing andconsulting with her doctor.
Can a woman who has no history
yes, but she should not have sexual intercourse if her membranes
of complications and who is other-
have ruptured, the cervix is soft or is partly effaced (early stage of
wise healthy engage in sexual
labour - effacement), the mucus plug has fallen out, or there are any
intercourse in the third trimester?
other complications which could harm the baby or is advised not toby her doctor for some reason.
Why do some women lose sexual
There may be no physical dangers to mother or child yet some
interest during the third trimester?
women may lose all interest in sexual intercourse due to physicaldiscomfort, feelings of loss of attractiveness, or anxiety associatedwith fear of the actual labour and delivery or of giving birth to anabnormal child, i.e. the woman may focus her thoughts completelyon the baby, and thereby lose interest in the father. This can causeobvious problems between the prospective parents.
What alternatives are available for
oral sex; mutual masturbation; intracrural (between the thighs), or
women who cannot have sexual
any form of sexual expression which is agreeable to both partners.
intercourse during the third
blowing into the vagina should be avoided during pregnancy as air
trimester or for that matter at any
getting into the uterine veins could result in damage to the placenta,
time during the pregnancy for either
medical or psychological reasons?
How does a woman differentiate
: the contractions occur at irregular intervals, and they
between the contractions in false
do not increase in intensity. true labour
: the contractions occur
labour and true labour?
regularly in successively shorter intervals, and continue to increasein intensity.
What takes place during the three
cervix softens and flattens out (effacement); cervix dilates to
stages of labour?
about 8 cm (dilatation); completion of dilation of cervix to 10 cm.
baby's head (or presenting part) moves into birth canal;
baby is bornthird:
delivery of the placenta.
For what reasons are Caesarean
cervix doesn't fully dilate; the woman's pelvic structure is too narrow
for the size of the baby; abnormal presentation or prolapsed cordwhich could suffocate baby; placenta previa (placenta first insteadof baby first); excessive bleeding or any difficulties which couldendanger mother or child.
Can a woman have more than one
yes, she can have several sections; however, a section in one
delivery does not necessarily require a section in future deliveries.
What are the possible psychological
the new added responsibilities of a new family member may
and physiological causes of post
overwhelm her; fatigue from irregular sleep (baby feedings at night);
feeling of neglect or rejection by the husband whose attention maynow be completely with baby (this may also be a problem in reversefor the husband - mother's attention is completely with the baby);drastic hormonal changes are only some of the factors involved.
What are the advantages of breast
there is always close intimate contact between mother and child
(contact-comfort), it's inexpensive and convenient (no bottles toprepare); antibodies to fight infection are passed from mother tochild; uterus contracts faster; mother's nutrition is likely to be bettersince the baby's nutrition is dependent on mother's (sometimesviewed as a disadvantage -i.e. mother has to be careful of her diet);the milk is always the right temperature and consistency.
What are the advantages of bottle
the husband or any one can participate easier in the feedings
(actually this is possible also by hand expressing milk from thebreast into a bottle - but it does take longer); a good method forwomen who have difficulty producing enough milk, or who feel self-conscious about breast feeding, or who have to return to a full timejob soon after delivery.
When does the menstrual period
within about four weeks (though it may only be one week) after
resume in nursing mothers, in non-
delivery, the woman has a bloody vaginal discharge called lochia.
One or two months later a mother who is not nursing may have amenstrual period. If she is nursing, her periods may not resume foras long as 19 months, though 5 months is more common.
What effect does the birth control
with some women milk production decreases
pill have if taken by a nursingmother?
Is nursing an effective means of
no, nursing does not prevent a women from becoming pregnant.
When can a woman resume sexual
sexual activity, other than vaginal intercourse can resume anytime.
activity following delivery?
However, vaginal intercourse can resume as soon as the episiotomyor any lacerations of the perineum (area between the vaginal orificeand anus) have healed and the flow of lochia has ended (lochia isnot necessarily a deterrent for all couples).
PART V: Contraception
1. What is the best type of contraceptive
The answer to that question depends on how you define "best".
or birth control?
What may be the "best" for an individual may not be "best" for another individual. The choice of birth control depends on factors suchas a person's health, frequency of sexual activity, number ofpartners, desire to have children in the future and effectiveness ofthe method. Abstinence (not having heterosexual intercourse) is theonly 100% effective form of birth control.
2. Brief summary of birth control methods? Barrier method
Barrier methods are contraceptives that work by physically trying toprevent the passage of bodily fluids from one person to another.
Hormonal methods of birth control basically work by preventing
pregnancy by blocking the release of eggs from the female's
ovaries. When used correctly and consistently it is a highly effective
and convenient method of birth control.
Surgical sterilization is a contraceptive option requiring a medicaloperation performed on men or women. It is intended for people
who don't want children in the future and is considered permanentbecause reversal requires major surgery that is often unsuccessful.
Intrauterine Devices (IUD's)
IUD's are small plastic devices usually T-shaped and wrapped withcooper (e.g. copper T) and placed inside the uterus by a doctor. It'snot entirely clear how IUD's prevent pregnancy. The standard type
seem to prevent sperm and eggs from meeting or by preventing
fertilized eggs from implanting themselves in the uterus.
This method requires keeping a chart of the women's menstrual
cycle to determine fertile periods. You then avoid unprotected sexduring the presumed fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Themethod has a high risk of failure.
In this method, also called coitus interruptus, the man withdraws hispenis from the vagina before ejaculation. Fertilization is preventedbecause the sperm don't enter the vagina. Effectiveness dependson the male's ability to withdraw before ejaculation. It should benoted that some sperm may be emitted along with pre-ejaculatoryfluid.
None of the above birth control
methods adequately protect against sexually
transmitted infections (STI's) or HIV except
latex male and female condoms. Condoms, even when correctly used,
make penetrative sex safer, not safe
Effectiveness Rates of various Birth Control Methods
Spermicides: foam, creams, jellies,
tablet, Vaginal Contraceptive Film (VCF)
Combination birth Control Pill
Progestin only pill (mini-pill)
The Patch (Ortho Evra)
Emergency Contraceptive Pill
(the "morning after" pill)
Plan B (emergency contraception)
Tubal Ligation (Female Sterilization)
Vasectomy (Male Sterilization)
Intrauterine Devices (IUD's)
Mirena ® levonorgestrel releasing
Natural Family Planning
Calender method, Basel Body Temperature (BBT) method, Cervical Mucus (Billings) method
1 used with spermicide
2 effectiveness rates will vary between women with previous births and those with no previous births*
It should be noted that the lower percentages are more realistic of "real world" user effectiveness rates.
Whereas the higher percentages represent the highest expected rate of effectiveness of a method
under ideal conditions (using it perfectly), which is seldom achieved in everyday usage.
3. How is the female condom used?
The female condom is a strong, soft, clear sheath made ofpolyurethane with a ring at each end, and when inserted lines thewalls of the vagina. The ring at the closed end is used to put thecondom against the cervix and helps to hold it in place. The openend of the condom stays outside of the vagina and is held in placeby the outer ring. Like the male condom it acts as a barrier toprevent the sperm and egg from joining to protect againstpregnancy and STI's (including HIV). Can be inserted 6 hoursbefore intercourse. Do not use a female condom together with amale condom - they will stick together and tear.
-can be expensive $3 -$4 each verses $1.00 or less for each male condom and are less widely available -may slip around and might be noisy (if there isn't enough lubricant)-outer ring may be cumbersome -not as effective as other methods of contraception-can only be used once
How is the condom used?
A condom acts as a barrier or wall to keep blood, semen or vaginalfluids from passing from one person to the other during sex. Mostcondoms are made from latex rubber or polyurethane, while a smallpercentage are natural membrane condoms made from lambintestines (sometimes called "sheepskin" or "lambskin" condoms).
The thin condom sheath is unrolled onto the erect penis prior tointercourse, care must be taken if the condom does not have areservoir tip to allow enough room at the tip to accommodate theejaculate. Care must also be taken to hold the ring uponwithdrawal, which should occur before complete loss of erection orthe device may be left behind. Condoms come lubricated or non-lubricated, with or withoutspermicide. Only water-based lubricants (e.g. K-Y Jelly, Astroglide,Probe) should be used with latex condoms if further lubrication isdesired. Never use petroleum or oil-based lubricants, they will breakdown the latex (rubber) condoms. Always check the expiry datebefore use, and avoid storing condoms in warm places (in a walletor car glove box) since this can also cause the latex to deteriorate.
Do not use a male condom together with female condom - they willstick together and tear.
What advantage does the condom
Except for abstinence, latex and polyurethane condoms are the
provide over all other contraceptive
most effective method for reducing the risk of infection from the
viruses that cause HIV/AIDS, and other STI's. Note: Natural membrane ("sheepskin") condoms are notrecommended for protection against STI's since certain bacteriaand viruses can pass through the small pores in the material. Novelty item condoms that carry no disease or pregnancyprevention claim on their label should not be used for protectionagainst pregnancy or STI's including HIV.
-some individuals might have an allergy to the lubricant, spermicide or latex condoms -some people notice a decrease in sensation -risk of breakage or slippage if it is improperly used -some people feel that condoms can inhibit spontaneity
How effective is the condom?
highly effective especially when used with a spermicidal foams,creams, or jellies.
Describe the Diaphragm & Cervical
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped, thin rubber shield that is
stretched over a flexible round ring, and varies in diameter from 2 to4 inches. The muscles of the vagina hold it in place. The cervicalcap is a small piece of rubber with a hard rim and soft, domed top.
It fits snugly over the cervix (the opening to the uterus at the top ofthe vagina) and stays in place by suction. To ensure a correct fit, aphysician does the initial fitting for a prescription.
How is the Diaphragm & Cervical
Both work by blocking sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing
the egg. They may have to be refitted if there is a weight gain orloss of more than 10 lbs or a vaginal birth. It is highly recommendedthat they be used with a spermicide which increases theireffectiveness. Both may be inserted up to four hours beforeintercourse, and must be left in place for at least 6 hours afterintercourse.
10. What are some difficulties with the
Both, if left in place beyond 24 hours for the diaphragm and 48
diaphragm and cervical cap?
hours for the cervical cap, is not recommended because of the risk,although low, of toxic shock syndrome. For intercourse after the six-hour period with the diaphragm, or for repeated intercourse withinthis period, fresh spermicide should be placed in the vagina with thediaphragm still in place. Some women find the cervical cap difficultto insert.
What is a Sponge?
The contraceptive sponge is a very soft, small, round disposablepolyurethane foam device that measures approximately fivecentimetres in diameter that is inserted into the vagina and coversthe cervix. It prevents conception in three ways: 1) it acts as aphysical barrier for sperm, 2) it absorbs semen, and 3) spermicidalfoam, contained in the sponge, is released while it is in place. It canbe inserted just prior to intercourse, or up to 2 hours before. Itshould be left in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse, butshould not be left in for more than 24 hours. The sponge does notrequire a prescription. Each sponge is used only once.
-possibility of irritation or allergic reactions to the spermicide contained in the sponge -the sponge may contribute to an increase in the risk of yeast infections-possibly cost? - about $2.50 each
What is Lea's Shield?
Lea's Shield is a reusable soft silicone rubber device that can beinserted into the vagina to cover the cervix. It is designed with aone-way flutter valve that prevents trapping of air between thedevice and the cervix, and allows for a snug and unobtrusive fit onthe cervix. It is designed to fill the rear of the vagina (posteriorfornix) at the cervix reducing the chance of becoming dislodged. Asone size fits all, it does not have to be fitted by a physician and canbe purchased over the counter at many pharmacies. It can beinserted anytime before intercourse and can be left inside awoman'‘s vagina for up to 48 hours. It should be used with a spermicide and after using the device it should be washed with warm water and soap, and rinsed and dried.
Spermicides either kill sperm, or makes them inactivate. They areavailable as foams, creams, gels, or suppositories (tablets). Thechemical Nonoxynol-9 is the active ingredient in most availablespermicide products. Spermicides are placed in the vagina or usedin conjunction with other methods. They must be inserted about 15minutes prior to intercourse. Foam and gel usually require anapplicator for use. When used (and it is recommended) incombination with other methods (e.g. condom, diaphragm)protection against pregnancy is further improved. Using a condomwith a spermicide is very effective in preventing pregnancy. Oralsex is not recommend after the application of a spermicide due tothe chemical taste.
Spermicides might offer some protection against some STI's, butthey should NOT be relied upon as the only means of diseaseprevention. Spermicides are not an adequate means of STIprotection.
Note: Spermicidal preparations that contain Nonoxynol-9 mayirritate (especially if used regularly) the vagina, penis and/or rectalwalls. In such cases, continued use can actually put one at higherrisk for STI's and HIV if the irritation has caused open sores orlesions.
14. Vaginal Contraceptive Film (VCF)
VCF is a very small 2-inch square of thin translucent material thatcontains spermicide - Nonoxynol -9 that kills sperm. It is folded andinserted in the vagina next to the cervix and dissolves quickly. Itshould be inserted not less than 15 minutes and not more than 1hour before intercourse. One VCF is to be used for each act of sex.
It can be carried around easily and is less messy than spermicidalcreams, foams and gels. Its effectiveness are the same as notedabove under spermicides. And like other spermicides it has limitedeffectiveness when used alone and is best used with another birthcontrol method. Not an adequate means of STI protection.
How does the birth control pill
There are two types of birth control pills, the combination pill
containing estrogen and progestin and the "minipill" containingonly the hormone progestin. Combined oral contraceptivessuppresses ovulation (the monthly release of an egg from theovaries) by the combined actions of the hormones estrogen andprogestin. These pills come in different dosages andcombinations. Progestin only minipills work by thickening cervicalmucus to prevent sperm from entering the uterus and fallopiantubes and reaching the egg. They also keep the uterine liningfrom thickening, which prevents a fertilized egg from implantingin the uterus. These pills are slightly less effective than combinedoral contraceptives.
On which day of the menstrual
You begin taking the pill on the 5th day of your menstrual cycle;
cycle do you begin taking the pill;
you continue taking the pill daily until all 21 pills have been taken;
when do you stop; when do you
you stop for 7 days at which time you will have menstrual flow
and then you begin taking them again. The Pill, should be taken at approximately the same time each day. If you feel nausea,take the Pill with a meal or after a snack at bedtime.
17. What are the four common side
nausea, weight gain, headaches, and vaginal discharge.
effects of the Pill?
What is the one serious side effect
Women with certain medical conditions, such as a history of
of the Pill which has been
blood clots or breast or endometrial cancer, may be advised
substantiated by research?
against taking the pill. The pill may contribute to cardiovasculardisease, including high blood pressure, blood clots, and blockageof the arteries. The risk is also greater in smokers, especiallywomen over 35.
If you miss taking the Pill one day,
yes, take the forgotten pill as soon as you remember it and take
should you take two the next day?
the next pill at the time you would normally take the pill for thatday.
What should you do if you forget
take two pills as soon as you remember, then take two pills the
two pills in a row?
next day to catch up and use an additional method ofcontraception for the rest of that cycle.
What should you do if you miss
withdrawal bleeding will probably begin, so act as though you are
three to four pills in a row?
at the end of a cycle. Don't make up the missed pills, stop takingyour pills and start a new package after you have been off for 7days. Use another contraceptive measure from the day yourealize you forgot the pills through two weeks of the next cycle.
What is Depro-Provera?
Depo-Provera is an injection of a hormone (progesterone) andacts similarly to other progestin-only contraceptives. Depo-Provera works by preventing the development of the egg in thewoman. One injection provides 3 months of protection and maybe given in the upper arm or buttocks. Then every 12 weeks youmust return to your doctor for another injection. Depo-Proveradoes not contain estrogen and can be used safely and effectivelyby most women.
Disadvantages of Depro-Provera
-causes menstrual cycle irregularities; spotting between periods
is common (majority will stop menstruating after 6 to 12 months) -some women may experience other side effects, which may include weight gain, mood changes and headaches -once it is in a woman''s body, she cannot stop any side effects that she may experience -may experience weight gain, some water retention
23. The Patch (Ortho Evra)
Ortho Evra is a thin plastic squarish patch which adheres (band-aid like) to the skin. It may be placed on the buttocks, stomach,upper outer arm or upper torso -front or back (except for thebreasts). The patch works on a 28-day, or four-week cycle and ischanged each week for 3 consecutive weeks and then 1 week notwearing the patch. This method of birth control works by slowlyreleasing a combination of hormones (estrogen and progestin)through the skin. It works by preventing ovulation, and bythickening the cervical mucous, making it difficult for sperm toenter the uterus. The patch will adhere during daily activities (e.g.
showering, bathing swimming). The patch works much like thepill. It dos not protect against STI's.
Disadvantages of the Patch
-basically the same as the pill
24. What is the Emergency
The Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) is a method of birth
Contraceptive Pill (ECP)?
control that can be used after unprotected intercourse or if a
(the "morning after" pill)
condom breaks. Emergency contraceptives (EC) work by alteringthe cervical mucus so that it becomes "hostile" to sperm. Theyalso thin out the lining of your uterus, making it very difficult for afertilized egg to implant. In the unlikely event that implantationdoes occur, EC does not interrupt the pregnancy or put the fetusat risk. ECP should be taken within 72 hours after intercourse,although it should be used as soon as possible. ECP is not anabortion pill.
Plan B -emergency contraception
Plan B emergency contraception requires a prescription and must
be taken with 72 hours of having unprotected sex, and if takenwithin 24 hours has a higher effectiveness rate. Plan B mayprevent pregnancy by temporarily stopping the release of an eggfrom a woman's ovary, or by preventing fertilization. Each Plan Bpacket includes a single course of treatment and consists of twotablets, each containing 0.75 mg levonorgestrel (a syntheticprogestogen). The first tablet should be taken as soon aspossible within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected intercourse. Thesecond tablet must be taken 12 hours later. This is not anabortion treatment.
Emergency contraception (EC), is not
a substitute for regular contraception.
How is an IUD inserted?
most IUD's (e.g. copper-T) measure about an inch in diameter,and can be compressed for insertion through a thin, straw-likeinstrument; most have plastic or nylon strings that extend into theupper vagina, but do not interfere with intercourse - the stringenables the wearer to check if the device is in place. IUD's areinserted through the cervix and into the uterus by a physician; theprocedure requires less than 5 minutes. The standard type seemto prevent sperm and eggs from meeting by either immobilizingthe sperm on their way to the fallopian tubes or preventing fertilized eggs from implanting themselves on the uterine wall.
A second type available in Canada, the Mirena ® works in twoways by delivering a small quantity of hormone (levonorgestrel),which makes the mucus at the neck of the womb (the cervix
)much thicker, preventing sperm from getting through and it alsomakes the lining of the womb extremely thin, stoppingimplantation. In some women it seems to prevent ovulation (theegg releasing). The Mirena ® costs approximately $350 or more.
What are the two most common
Some women experience irregular bleeding and/or cramps using
side effects of the IUD.?
What are the rare, but possible
infection of the pelvis, perforation of the uterus, and there is a
other complications which may
slightly higher risk of ectopic pregnancy when using an IUD;
arise with an IUD?
remember these are rare occurrences.
Does the IUD have any effect on
no; following removal, if there were no serious complications,
60% of women become pregnant within three months; 90% withinone year.
26. Describe the methods of female
Tubal ligation: the fallopian tubes are sealed, or cut and tied, thus
sterilization. (Tubal Ligation).
preventing the egg and sperm from reaching one another. Women having the surgery continue to ovulate (release eggs)and menstruate. It is a major surgical procedure done undergeneral anaesthesia. Tubal ligation can be done by eithervaginal or abdominal surgery and should be considered apermanent, irreversible method. Laparoscopic or "Band-Aid" sterilization: After anaesthesia isgiven, a tiny incision is made at the bottom of the navel andcarbon dioxide or nitrous oxide gas is injected into the abdominalcavity in order to move the intestines out of the way making iteasier to view the pelvic organs and close off the tubes withoutinjuring other tissues. The laparoscope, or light source, is theninserted through the incision to locate the tubes. Another incisionis made lower in the abdomen for insertion of a forceps device tograsp and close off the tubes. This procedure is often refereed toas "band-aid surgery" because the small abdominal incision iscovered by one or two band-aids after completion.
Vaginal method. After anaesthesia is given, the surgeon makesa small cut at the top of the vagina to reach the Fallopian tubes.
This method leaves no visible scars.
In the three procedures the closing off of the fallopian tubes maybe done by cauterization (burning) or by means of rings, bands,cutting and tying, or clips. Incisions are then closed withabsorbable suture and covered.
27. What is a Hysterectomy?
A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, usually donebecause of some pathology. A partial (or supracervical)hysterectomy is the removal of just the upper portion of the uterusleaving the cervix intact. A total hysterectomy is the removal ofthe entire uterus and the cervix. A radical hysterectomy is theremoval of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and theupper part of the vagina. A hysterectomy may be recommendedfor conditions such as uterine fibroids, (fibroids are benigntumours), abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, (e.g. thegrowth of endometrium tissue on the uterus or ovaries), uterineprolapse (descent of the uterus into or beyond the vagina) andcancer. The procedure is done under general anaesthesia andsome risks include infections, bleeding and injury to kidneys, andbladder. Usually within six to eight weeks sexual activity may beresumed. While a hysterectomy leaves the woman sterile, itwould usually not be performed for the purpose of sterilization.
28 Describe the method of
vasectomy: involves sealing, tying or cutting a man's vas
sterilization available to men?
deferens, which otherwise would carry sperm from testicle to thepenis. After the procedure when a man ejaculates the ejaculatedoes not contain sperm. A man still produces sperm after the vasectomy, and this sperm is naturally absorbed by the body. Vasectomies are generally safer and simpler procedurescompared to tubal ligations.
Are there any side effects to male
none have been demonstrated to date, the man can still obtain an
erection, ejaculation still occurs since the seminal fluid originatesfrom the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland which are notaffected by the vasectomy; libido or sex drive is not affected;hormone production still continues as does sperm production.
The procedure is done under a local anaesthetic, and causediscomfort such as pain at the site of the surgery or swelling.
What is the principle behind the
avoidance of intercourse during the presumed fertile period of the
rhythm method or natural family
menstrual cycle. This method requires keeping a chart of the
women's menstrual cycle to determine fertile periods. You thenavoid unprotected sex during these times. Charting is done bycalendar, checking vaginal mucus, or body temperature readings. Both partners must make the commitment to the procedure andto abstinence from having sex during fertile periods. Accurateobservations may be difficult due to factors such as irregularmenstrual cycles, stress, fevers and vaginal infections. Themethod has a high risk of failure.
During what time should a couple
the ovum or egg has an active life of about 24 hours, in which
abstain from intercourse in order to
time it can be fertilized by a sperm; however, since the sperm has
practice the calendar method?
an active life of about 48 to 72 hours, but a few may live as longas 5 days; (using 5 days to be safe), fertilization can occur as aresult of sexual intercourse any time within this 120 hour period (5days); normally a woman ovulates 12 to 14 days before Day 1 ofher next menstrual period; add this to the 120 hour period inwhich fertilization may take place, and you will see that there is aperiod of least 13 to 18 days each month in which sexualintercourse can result in pregnancy - it is during that time when acouple should abstain from intercourse.
What measures can be used to
There are 3 other fertility awareness methods, each requiring the
help a woman determine the time
same great deal of planning and daily attention as the calender
method. All methods must be charted for 8 or more successive
months before the method is actually used as a contraceptive.
The basal body temperature (BBT)
method charts a woman's
lowest body temperature (BBT) to determine time of ovulation.
Usually the temperature drops slightly before ovulation and rises
thereafter. She should take her temperature every day
immediately upon waking. The cervical mucus method
observes changes in the appearance and consistency of the
women's cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle to determine
time of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method
BBT with the cervical mucus method to determine time of
ovulation. A woman observes changes in the cervical mucus
before ovulation and BBT to confirm that ovulation is occurring.
How effective is the rhythm
it can be fairly effective if a woman has a very regular menstrual
cycle each month and she and her partner are committed toabstaining form sex during the time she may be fertile, the"unsafe" period; however, it is useless for women who have anirregular cycle or during the post-partum period.
Why is coitus interruptus or
the clear sticky fluid secreted by Cowper's gland during the
withdrawal not an effective method
plateau phase of sexual intercourse may have stray sperm; the
time between the point at which most men can accurately andconsistently determine the imminence of orgasm and the point atwhich ejaculation occurs is a matter of 3-5 seconds; furthermore,since complete ejaculation does not always occur in a singleemission, but rather in intermittent spurts or in a slow stream,withdrawal is often neither fast enough, nor complete enough toprevent conception.
Why is douching not an effective
douching involves trying to washing sperm out of the vagina
method of contraception?
immediately after intercourse with water and vinegar or lemonjuice or soap or salt; it is ineffective since within one or twominutes or less after ejaculation some sperm are already on theirway up the cervical canal and beyond reach of the douche.
PART VI: Abortion
Abortion, in its most commonly used sense, refers to the deliberate early termination of pregnancy,
resulting in the termination of the embryo or fetus. Medically, the term also refers to the early termination
of a pregnancy by natural causes, usually within the first 13 weeks. The material that follows is on deliberate
or "induced" abortions.
Abortion was completely banned in Canada in 1869. As in other countries illegal abortions were stillperformed, leading to the deaths of many women every year.
The movement to liberalize Canada's abortion laws began in the 1960's. Then Justice Minister PierreTrudeau introduced a bill in 1967 that provided for abortions when the health of the mother was indanger as determined by a three-doctor hospital committee. This same bill also legalizedhomosexuality and contraception, and would be the subject of one of Trudeau's most famous lines:"The state has no business in the bedrooms of the nation."
Many felt the law didn't go far enough, and that the rulings of the three-doctor committees wereinconsistent and often untimely (taking perhaps several weeks). Montreal doctor Henry Morgentaler,not wanting to break the law, initially turned away women from his practices seeking abortions. Soon,however, he began performing safe abortions in his clinic contrary to the law, and in 1973 statedpublicly that he had performed 5000 abortions without the permission of the three-doctor-committees,even going so far as to videotape himself performing operations.
The Quebec government took Dr. Morgentaler to court twice, and both times juries refused to convicthim despite his outright admission that he had performed many abortions. The government appealedagainst one acquittal and the appeal court overturned the jury's verdict. Dr. Morgentaler wassentenced to 18 months in jail. Public outcry over Dr. Morgentaler's treatment caused the federalgovernment to pass a law preventing appeal courts from overturning a jury's not guilty verdicts. Havinga government take exceptional steps to jail Morgentaler was especially unpalatable because he is aHolocaust survivor. Dr. Morgentaler was again acquitted at a third trial, causing the Quebecgovernment to declare the law unenforceable.
Dr. Morgentaler struggle prompted a nation-wide movement to reform Canada's abortion laws. In1970, 35 women chained themselves to the parliamentary gallery in the House of Commons, closingparliament for the first time in Canadian history.
Upon his release from prison in Quebec Dr. Morgentaler decided to challenge the law in otherprovinces, and over the next 15 years he would open and operate abortions clinics across the countryin direct violation of the law. Following a fourth jury acquittal in 1984 the federal government appealedthe decision and the appeals court reversed the decision. Dr. Morgentaler in turn appealed to theSupreme Court of Canada, which in a stunning 1988 decision declared the entirety of the country'sabortion law unconstitutional.
In its decision the court stated:
"The right to liberty. guarantees a degree of personal autonomy over important decisions intimately affecting his or her private life. The decision whether or not to terminate a pregnancy is essentially a moral decision and in a free and democratic society, the conscience of the individual must be paramount to that of the state."
The count did, however, encourage the government to introduce a new and improved abortion law,which it attempted to do in 1989. This new bill, which threatened doctors with a two-year jail term ifthey approved an abortion when the mother's health was not in danger, was widely and loudlycondemned by the country's doctors. While the bill was approved by the House of Commons, it wasdefeated in the Senate by a tie vote. This failure prompted the government to give up on legislatingabortion entirely, leading to the unique situation of Canada having no abortion law whatsoever.
The above history is from Abortion in Canada an article from Wikipedia. All text is available under the terms of theGNU Free Documentation License. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_Canada
2. Abortion: General Information
Abortions in Canada are performed in hospitals (not all hospitals perform abortions) and private clinics*, and usually are unavailable outside urban areas. Abortions like any medical procedure require a patient's informed consent, which doctors are legally required to obtain. Informed consent means that a patient has been given enough information about the procedure's risks, complications and alternatives to make a knowledgeable decision about having it. Most abortions are performed during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy (first trimester), and are usually performed either under a general anaesthetic (usually in hospitals) or a local anaesthetic. To calculate how may weeks pregnant a woman is, a doctor will count from the fist day of her last period. For example, if a woman had unprotected sex one week ago and her period started two weeks before that and she finds out today that she is pregnant, she would be considered to be three weeks pregnant by her doctor.
Although abortion is not a
Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA)
is a surgical procedure that
contraceptive measure, it is a
can be done between 4- 12 weeks from the start of your last
means of birth control which must
menstrual period (LMP). The cervix is numbed with an
sometimes be used - cases of
anaesthetic, and a flexible plastic tube is inserted into the uterus.
Pulling back on the syringe that is attached to the tube creates a
pregnancy through rape, or incest,
gentle suction and the contents of the uterus are removed. You
health dangers to the woman, etc.
are awake during the procedure and it takes about 10 minutes.
What are the two most commontypes of abortion procedures
Vacuum Suction Curettage (VSC)
is a surgical procedure that
performed in Canada?
can be done up to 14 weeks in the hospital and up to 20 weeks atsome clinics. The cervix is dilated (opened up) using Laminariatents (thin pieces of sterile seaweed that are put into the cervix).
The laminaria insert slowly absorbs moisture from the cervix and itexpands the cervical opening. After the cervix is dilated a thinplastic tube is inserted into the uterus and is connected to asuction pump which provides a gentle suction to remove the contents. Laminaria tents are used in all procedures done at thehospital, and for clinic procedures when the pregnancy is 14weeks or over. The procedure takes about 10 to 20 minutes.
* Note: Abortion services are available in all provinces except Prince Edward Island. Drug-induced abortions are currently not available in Canada.
PART VII: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)
Sexually transmitted infections (STI's) are infectious diseases that are passed from one person to anotherthrough intimate sexual contact, such as vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or oral sex. STI's are not onlyunpleasant, but also can be very serious, some can lead to chronic diseases, infertility, some forms of canceror even death. A lot of people with STI's are asymptomatic (do not have symptoms). You may not be able totell if someone is infected just by looking at him/her or some one who has been treated may not tell you theyhave been infected. While men may have mild and/or severe complications such as generalized andlocalized infections, women are more susceptible to STI's and the resulting complications. Many STI's aremore easily transmitted to women than they are to men; and some STI's lead to increased risk of ectopicpregnancies, infertility or to the development of cancer of the cervix in some women. Infections can also bepassed on to a baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)
Women often show no
Passed on through
If left untreated can
cause pelvic disease
Chlamydia has spread
elsewhere but may
notice extra discharge
infects your pelvic
and pain when passing
region and can lead
to infertility in
Men may get symptoms
women and men.
of NSU1 if infected: a
white cloudy discharge
from the penis and a
burning sensation when
Males: urethral dis-
Passed on through
It can affect the
often a symptomatic;
throat. It can cause
vaginal discharge, pain
sterility, arthritis or
1st stage: A few weeks
Passed on through
2nd stage: About 2 -
after infection a
painless sore (chancre)
infection, a rash
appears usually on the
may appear on the
genitals lasting about 2
body and flu-like
- 3 weeks. Often no
but the infection
remains. 3rd stage:
organs, e.g. heart,
discharge or odour;
Yeast infection may
vaginal itching; burn
become a chronic or
are not. (e.g.
Males: very often
symptom free; but may
have itching or rash on
Often there are no
The virus is passed
Warts may grow in
symptoms - no visible
on by skin-to-skin
size and number.
warts. Small to large
growths that appear in
others certain types
the genital and anal
oral, and anal sex.
cause (CIN) that can
area. Often cauliflower
like in appearance and
cancer in women.
maybe in clusters or
Cervical cancer is
caused by HPV.
(Non Specific Urethritis) Urethritis is an inflammation of a man's urethra (the passage in the penis that urine
and semen pass through). It can be caused by chlamydia or gonorrhoea, although frequently the cause is not
identified. If neither gonorrhoea nor chlamydia can be isolated, the condition is known as non-specific urethritis.
(Pelvic inflammatory disease) An infection of the upper genital tract. PID can affect the uterus, ovaries,
fallopian tubes, or other related structures. Untreated, PID causes scarring and can lead to infertility, tubal
pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and other serious consequences. Many different organisms can cause PID, but
most cases are associated with gonorrhea and genital chlamydial infections.
"No scientific data support condom use specifically for genital HPV prevention; however, condoms should be
recommended for prevention of other STDs." (and for more information on HPV see) Prevention of Genital HPV
infection and Sequelae: Report of an External Consultants' Meeting Division of STD Prevention December 1999.
report is available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/ Reports_Publications/ 99HPVReport.htm (CIN) cervical
intra-epithelial neoplasia. CIN is usually the result of a virual infection: the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is
important to know that most women with CIN do not develop cancer.
(Table continues, next page)
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)
Small painful blister-like
HSV remains in the
by vaginal, oral or
body as a lifelong
HSV Type II 4
infection which may
around them appear on
the vaginal lips, penis,
Attacks can be made
anal area or mouth
less severe and/or
(they can also be inside
the vagina, urethra,
rectum and on the
any visible blisters
may be contagious
accompanied by fever,
(Note: It is poss-
swollen glands, aches
and pains, burning
infection to pass
HSV II is related to
from the mouth to
Herpes Simplex Virus
Type I: cold sores
through oral sex.)
Hepatitis B (HBV)
Ranges from being
asymptomatic to flu-
like symptoms fatigue,
cancer of the liver.
appetite loss and more
serious symptoms may
include abdominal pain
blood on them) or
(yellowish) skin and
Mother to child.
Most infected people
Virus (HIV) 5
asymptomatic (have no
Syndrome) is char-
symptoms) until their
acterized by fever,
condition progresses to
weight loss, fatigue,
full blown AIDS. HIV is
night sweats, skin
a virus that continually
rashes and diarrhea
attacks your immune-
system until your body
infections such as
losses its ability to fight
other diseases and
infections that may be
trying to enter your
Intense itching, which
Mainly sexual, but
worsens at night. in the
genital and anal areas
where eggs and crabs
may occur because
become visible. Scrat-
of skin breakdown
ching worsens the
situation by risking
proliferation of other
4 Other strains of the herpes virus that cause disease in humans other than HSV type I & II are: Varicella Zoster
Virus: Chicken Pox and Shingles, Human Herpes Virus 6: Roseola, Human Herpes Virus 8: Kaposi's Sarcoma and
the Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpes virus family and one of the most
common human viruses.5 HIV
is a retrovirus. Usually, the genetic material in cell is DNA, and when genes are expressed, the DNA is
initially copied into messenger RNA which then functions as the model for the production of proteins. In a
retrovirus, this process is essentially reversed: the RNA is covered into DNA before it can be expressed or
duplicated. In other words, retroviruses reverse what had seemed to be the normal flow of genetic coding.
(Haseltine, W.A., and Wong-Staal, F., "The molecular biology of the AIDS virus," Scientific American 259 (4):52-
62, October 1988).
- short for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid - is found within the nucleus of most types of cells.
is short for RiboNucleic Acid. Like DNA , RNA molecules are manufactured in the nucleus of the cell. However,
unlike DNA, RNA is not restricted to the nucleus. It can migrate out into other parts of the cell. Some RNA, called
messenger RNA (mRNA) communicate the genetic message found in the DNA out to the rest of the cell for the
purpose of promoting the synthesis of proteins. Strategis.ga.ca
Industry Canada, "
Bio Building Blocks"
For more extensive and in-depth information on any of the above topics see related materials at the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevent (CDC), http://www.cdc.gov/ or Panned Parenthood Federation of Canada,
Sex between a married person and a person other than their spouse.
Stimulation of the anus with mouth and tongue.anus
The opening through which feces are eliminated.balls
Slang for Testiclesbeating Off
Slang usually for male masturbationbestiality
See zoophiliablow job
Slang for Fellatio (which usually does not involve "blow[ing].")blue balls
Slang expression for pain in the groinal area due to prolonged vasocongestion.boner
Slang of an erectioncircle jerk
Slang for masturbation in a group.circumcision
The removal of the foreskin by a surgical procedure. Done in some cultures and religions as a rite of passage, or in
some cultures, the clitoral hood, clitoris and/or labia.clitoridectomy
The surgical removal of the clitoris and all or part of the labia. Also known as female circumcision.clitoris
A small, fleshy fold at the top of the vaginal area which fills with blood during sexual arousal and can cause an orgasm if
stimulated. The clitoris is developmentally analagous to the male penis, so it contains many nerve endings that deliver pleasure
sensations when stimulatedcock
Slang for peniscowper's Gland
A part of the male reproductive system that secretes pre-ejaculatory fluid.cum
Slang, as a noun, it usually refers to semen; as a verb, it means to reach orgasm. Also sometimes spelled "come."cunnilingus
The act of putting the mouth in the vaginal area and stimulating the vagina and clitoris with the tongue.cock
Slang for penisdeep throat
Slang term for a type of oral sex in which a man's partner is able to overcome his or her gag-reflex and allow the penis
to go deeply into their mouth, and sometimes actually down their throat.dildo
A device made of plastic or rubber used by females to penetrate the vagina, or males to penetrate the anus, during
masturbation or sex play. Some battery-powered dildos vibrate.domination and submission (D&S)
Sexual arousal derived from the acting out of sexual fantasies in which one person dominates
while the other submits.dominatrix
In bondage and discipline, a woman who specializes in "disciplining" a submissive partner.drag
A gay man who dresses as a woman for comic effect.dry humping
Slang term for rubbing the genitals against a part of another person's body (such as the thigh), often through clothes.dyke
A term referring to a lesbian who dresses and acts in a stylized masculine manner.dysmenorrhea
Painful intercourse.eat out
Slang for performing cunnilingus.ejaculation
The emission of semen from the penis, usually at the climax of sexual intercourse or masturbation.erection
The stiff, hard state of a penis that has filled with blood during sexual arousal. Erection can also happen spontaneously
without sexual arousal, particularly among teens or during sleep.fag
Pejorative, slang term for a homosexual.fellatio
Oral stimulation of the male genitals.female circumcision
The surgical removal of the clitoris and all or part of the labia. Also known as clitoridectomy.fellatio
The act of placing the mouth on the penis and sucking and/or stimulating with the tongue.fetishes
Obtaining sexual excitement primarily or exclusively from an inanimate object or a particular part of the body.fist fucking
Slang term for a sexual variation in which an individual inserts his or her entire hand into their partner's vagina or anus.foreskin
A piece of skin surrounding the head of the penis. It is removed in the operation known as circumcision. In uncircumcised
men, the foreskin often rolls back during erection.fornication
Sexual intercourse between two unmarried people.frenulum
The extra-sensitive, loose piece of skin under the head of the penis.frottage
Rubbing one's genitals against another person, either clothed or unclothed.fuck
Slang term for intercourse.G-Spot
Abbreviation for Grafenberg spot; a bean or dime-sized, extra-sensitive area located approximately 3 inches inside the
vagina, where the urethra runs closest to the top of the vaginal wall.getting laid
Slang term for having sex.getting off
Slang term for having an orgasm; usually used in reference to a male.gigolo
A male prostitute.giving head
Slang term for fellatio.going down
Slang for performing either fellatio or cunnilingus.golden showers
Slang expression for a sexual variation involving urinating on a partner.gynecomastia
A condition that causes enlargement of a male's breasts during puberty.hand job
Slang term for manual stimulation of the genitals by a partner.Hard-on
Slang term for an erection.hermaphrodite
A person with both male and female primary sex characteristics.heterosexism
The tendency to see the world in exclusively heterosexual terms and to dismiss or devalue homosexuality. Also
known as heterosexual bias.heterosexual
A person who is sexually attracted primarily to members of the other gender.HIV
Acronym for human immunodeficiency virus; the virus that causes AIDS.homo
Pejorative, slang term for a homosexual.homophobia
An irrational fear of and hostility towards homosexuals.homosexual
A person who is sexually attracted primarily to members of her or his own gender.homosexuality
Sexual relationships with individuals of the same gender.horny
Slang term for being sexually aroused or excited.human papilloma virus (HPV)
The virus that causes genital warts.incest
Sexual activity between relatives or family members.introitus
The opening to the vagina.jacking off
Slang term for male masturbationjerking off
Slang term for male masturbationJilling
Slang term for female masturbation.
A formerly rare cancer of the blood vessels that is now common as one of the opportunistic infections that
strike people with AIDS; it appears as lesions on the skin.Kegel exercises
A set of exercises designed to strengthen and give voluntary control over the muscles surrounding the genitals
(known as the pubococcygeus muscles) and thereby increase sexual pleasure and awareness.lesbian
A female homosexual.lesbo
Pejorative, slang term for a lesbian.masturbation
Self-stimulation of the genitals for sexual pleasure.menarche
The onset of menstruation; the first menstrual period.menopause
The cessation of menstruation at the end of a woman's reproductive capacity, usually during late middle age.mutual masturbation
Two people masturbating each other at the same time.necrophilia
A paraphilia characterized by sexual arousal from, or activity with, a corpse.nocturnal emission
Ejaculation of semen during sleep. It is usually accompanied by erotic dreams and is most prevalent during
the teen years — though males who masturbate regularly may experience it rarely or not at all.nuts
Slang for testiclesnymphomania
A pejorative, unscientific term that is used to refer to sexual behavior or desire in women that is considered
"excessive" or "abnormal."on the rag
Pejorative, slang term referring to a woman having her period.Onanism
An archaic term referring to masturbation based on the story of Onan in the Bible, who withdrew during sexual
intercourse with his deceased brother's wife and thereby ejaculated onto the ground.oral Sex
) Sexual activity in which the mouth is used to stimulate the genitals.orgasm
The pleasurable release of sexual tension; the climax. In males who have reached puberty, it is normally accompanied by
A sexual behavior characterized by intense recurrent sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies lasting at least 6
months and involving nonhuman objects or parts of human objects, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or
children or other nonconsenting individuals.PC Muscles
The cylinder-shaped external male sexual organ, used for copulation (sexual intercourse).perineum
The area of skin between the anus and the scrotum in a male, or the anus and the vagina in a female.phallus
Another word for Penis.pre-cum
Slang for pre-ejaculatory fluid, a clear, sticky liquid, produced by the Cowper's gland, which lubricates the urethra during
sexual arousal, preparing it for ejaculation.pederasty
Sex between an adult and a child, usually an adult male and a male child.pedophile
An individual who is sexually attracted to prepubescent children.pedophilia
A paraphilia characterized by intense, recurring sexual urges or fantasies involving sexual activities with a
A condition in which the foreskin is so tight against the glans that it cannot be pulled back and must be loosened or
Another word for Foreskin.prostate
An organ located beneath the male bladder in front of the rectum, which produces one of the fluid components of semen.puberty
The stage of development in which the body becomes capable of reproducing sexually. It can start as early as age 8 or as
late as age 18, but usually it begins between ages 10 and 14.Pubococcygeus (PC) Muscle
Actually, a group of muscles at the floor of the pelvis stretching from the pubic bone in front to the
tailbone in back; Sometimes known as the PC muscle, it controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm. The PC can be
controlled voluntarily (you relax it when you want to urinate); it also contracts involuntarily at orgasm. See Kegel exercises.queer
Pejorative, slang term for a homosexual.queef
Slang, refers to a vaginal fart. Sometimes, when the penis goes all the way in the vagina and all the way out periodically, air
gets trapped within the vaginal walls causing the expulsion of air, and causing what is commonly known as a fart.rectum
The internal canal leading from the intestines to the anus.rape
Forcible sexual relations with an individual without that person's consent under actual or threatened force.refractory period
The period of time in men immediately following ejaculation, during which further erection or orgasm is not
possible; not present in the female's sexual response cycle.retarded ejaculation
A sexual dysfunction in which the male is unable to have an orgasm despite sufficient arousal and
A condition in which, during orgasm in the male, the semen is expelled backward into the bladder rather
than out of the urethral opening.retrovirus
A virus capable of altering the normal genetic writing process, causing the host cell to replicate the virus instead of
itself. HIV is an example of such a virus.rimming
Slang term for anilingus.rubber
Slang term for condom.refractory period
The period of time in men immediately following ejaculation, during which further erection or orgasm is not
possible; not present in the female's sexual response cycle.
In psychology, a scatology is an obsession with excretion or excrement, or the study of such
Abbreviation for sadomasochism.sadism
A sexual variation in which the person derives sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on someone else.sadomasochism (S&M)
A popular, nonclinical term for behaviors that involve both sexual sadism as well as masochism, often in
a consensual, role-playing manner.safer sex
Sexual activities that do not involve the exchange of bodily fluids. Used to prevent the transmission of diseases such as
A pejorative, unscientific term that is used to refer to sexual behavior or desire in men that is considered "excessive" or
"abnormal ". It is the male analogue of the more common term "nymphomania."screw
Slang term for intercourse.semen
The alkaline fluid expelled from the penis during ejaculation, containing fluids combined from several glands as well as
One of two glands lying on either side of the prostate which secrete much of the fluid in semen.seminiferous tubules
Tightly coiled tubules in the testes that manufacture sperm.serial monogamy
An increasingly common form of dating and marriage in which a person mates with just one other person at a
time but then ends that relationship and forms another.sex flush
A rash that appears on the skin during sexual arousal due to vasocongestion.sex toy
A device, such as a vibrator or dildo, designed to enhance sexual pleasure.sexual dysfunction
A difficulty with sexual responding that causes a person subjective distress (e.g. anorgasmia).sexual masochism
A sexual variation in which the individual derives sexual pleasure from experiencing pain.
The pattern of sexual, social, romantic, cognitive and emotional attraction based on the gender of one's
A sexual variation in which the individual derives sexual pleasure from inflicting pain.sexual selection
An evolutionary theory used sometimes in an attempt to explain gender differences.sexual surrogate
A member of a sex therapy team who has sexual interactions with a client as part of their therapy.sexual variation
Sexual behavior that is not part of the norms for a given culture; atypical sexuality.smegma
A cheesy substance formed by several small glands beneath the foreskin of the penis and hood of the clitoris.sodomy
An ambiguous legal term which, depending on the jurisdiction, which refers to so called "unnatural acts" such as anal
intercourse, sexual relations with animals, or oral sex.softcore
Nonexplicit sexually oriented material.spermarche
The beginning of the ability to ejaculate sperm in adolescent boys.spermatic cord
The cord suspending the testicle within the scrotum, containing nerves, blood vessels, and the vas deferens.spermatogenesis
The production of sperm.spermatozoan
A substance that acts to kill or immobilize sperm; usually used as a contraceptive.spinnbarkeit
The elasticity of preovulatory cervical mucus.spirochete
The type of spiral shaped bacteria that causes syphilis.spontaneous abortion
The natural expulsion of the conceptus; commonly referred to as miscarriage.squeeze technique
A technique used by sex therapists for the treatment of premature ejaculation in which the man or his partner
squeezes the erect penis below the glans when he feels the likelihood of ejaculating, thereby reducing the urge.statutory rape
Sexual intercourse with a person who is under the legal age of consent.STI
Acronym for Sexually Transmitted Infection.sterilization
A surgical procedure performed to make an individual incapable of reproduction.straight
Individuals who do not believe in monogamy, or engage in activities involving sexual activities with their primary partner
and others simultaneously, such as in "wife swapping."semen
The white, yellowish, or clear sticky fluid that carries and nourishes sperm.snatch
Slang for vaginasperm
Microscopic, tadpole-like reproductive cells contained in semen. A sperm cell contains half the genes necessary to create
a child; the other half is contributed by the mother's egg.stiffy
Slang for an erectionsucking Off
Slang for fellatiotit fuck
Slang term for a form of intercourse in which a man thrusts his penis between a woman's breasts.tits
Slang term for a woman's breasts.transsexual
An individual whose individual gender identity is different from his or her anatomical sex. They thus feel trapped in the
body of the wrong gender.transvestism
Dressing in the clothing of the other gender.transvestite
A person who enjoys wearing the clothes of the other gender.tribadism
A sexual activity in which one woman lies on top of another, often "scissoring" her legs with her partners', and moves
rhythmically for mutual clitoral stimulation.troilism
A sexual behavior in which three people engage in sexual activity together.TS
Slang term for a transsexual.TV
Slang term for a transvestite. Uncut
Slang Uncircumcised (see Circumcision).urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra.urophilia (or urolagnia)
A sexual variation in which the person derives sexual excitement from urine or urination. Such activities
are often referred to as "water sports."Vulva
A general terms referring to the entire external female genitalia, including every part of a woman's genital area that can be
seen: the mons, labia, clitoris, and perineum.wank (off)
Slang term for masturbation.wet dream
Slang term for nocturnal emission.Whacking Off
Slang for Masturbationwoody
Slang term for an erection.wet dream
Slang term for nocturnal emissionzoophilia
A nonspecified paraphilia referring to sexual excitement derived from sexual interactions with animals; often referred to
Why Do Females Live Longer Than Males? Abstract. In most countries, females live several years longer than men, due to genetic and hormonal differences; they than males. Many biological and behavioral reasons have been benefit more from advances in medical science and economic presented in the scientific literature to explain this "female ad-
It Can Happen to Anyone… • Anyone can get seasick. It won't kill you, but for a while you may wish it would. • If you've had motion sickness before, plan ahead and take an OTC drug before embarking. Or get a prescription for The English words "nautical" and "nausea" derive brain incorrectly interprets the distress caused by scopolamine or another powerful antiemetic (antinausea) drug.