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Medical Care





to prevent damage to the body diminishes the skin's structural support and decreases ANTIOXIDANTS WORK before it actually happens.
its elasticity, resilience and suppleness, leads to They protect and nurture cells naturally, combating inflammation, and is the source of liver spots and poor disease and promoting good health. Antioxidants skin condition. In addition to being the main culprit of come in many forms, including minerals, enzymes wrinkles, free radicals, in essence, accelerate the aging and vitamins. Vitamins and minerals with antioxidant process. Studies have shown antioxidants stop this properties are called nutrient antioxidants. The cellular chain reaction of oxidation by neutralizing free family of naturally formed components protects cells from free radicals, which are highly charged oxygen molecules with unpaired electrons that attempt to obtain electrons from other molecules. Antioxidants can improve cell function; increase Free radicals are formed naturally in the body, collagen production; improve elasticity; create but their production is increased by factors such healthier, younger skin cells; and reduce sun damage as smoking, sun damage, stress and toxins like . but the improvement takes time. Like a healthy diet, air pollution and asbestos. The resulting damage the more potent the antioxidants used, the healthier the November 2012 Skin Inc. Reproduction in English or any other language of all or part of this article is strictly prohibited. 2012 Al ured Business Media.
results. Black currants, cherries, OPCs are a special family of polyphenols cantaloupe, grapes, blueberries, (bioflavonoids) capable of renewing the blackberries, cranberries, peppers most important building blocks—such as and spinach are among a growing collagen and elastin fibers—of every part variety of foods found to contain of the human body, including the skin. In surprisingly high levels of disease-fighting the connective tissue, OPCs bind to collagen antioxidant compounds, according to a U.S. to maintain and even restore the cross-links, hence the Department of Agriculture (USDA) study published in flexibility of these essential proteins.2 Grape seeds are the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 2004. one of the richest known sources of OPCs. Red grapes This study is one of the largest, most comprehensive also contain a natural plant antibody, resveratrol, analyses to date of the antioxidant content of which has the effects of an antioxidant.
commonly consumed foods. Vitamin E is a high-potency antioxidant that helps As an ultimate superfruit, the grape's abundance of improve circulation and repair tissue, and is one of the polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory most efficient chain-breaking antioxidants available. It properties not only keeps blood vessels resilient, but helps prevent cell damage by inhibiting the formation also boosts the skin and body's resistance against of free radicals. Vitamin E helps retard aging and may disease. Researchers have found, in particular, that the help prevent age spots. Alpha-tocopherol—a form of skin and seeds of grapes contain large concentrations vitamin E—helps protect enzymes, such as glutathione of compounds that have a positive effect on health, peroxidase 4, which is known to act against cancerous such as bioflavonoids, including quercetin, which cell activity.3 Alpha-tocopherol is the most common has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, and antioxidant source from food. Some of the natural oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), incredibly sources of vitamin E are nut oils, corn oil, tomatoes, effective chemicals in neutralizing free radicals.2 spinach and peppers.
November 2012 Skin Inc. Free Radical-fighting Facial In addition to helping fortify cells against free Duration: 60 minutes
radicals, vitamins A and C also encourage cell and Contraindications: Clients who are allergic to the
tissue growth, helping the body to repair itself. ingredients in this facial and those who use tretinoin Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that plays a major should not receive this treatment.
role in many physical functions, including collagen production, immune function, cell growth and cancer Equipment and supplies needed:
prevention. One of the most potent natural sources of vitamin C is rose hips, and carrots are a primary source for vitamin A. TOPICAL CARE
Antioxidants can come from healthy eating, but only Cleansing milk containing grape seed and OPCs a small percentage of consumed antioxidants actually reach the skin, because they primarily act internally in Toner infused with natural vitamins and minerals the body. However, products containing antioxidants Exfoliator containing natural ingredients, such as corn can be used to directly affect the skin.4 Antioxidants meal, sulphur or enzymes can be found in everything from masks, moisturizers Mask with bioflavonoids, polyphenols and pectins and cleansers to anti-wrinkle and anti-aging creams, Antioxidant-rich serum serums and lotions. Topical applications should contain a potent assortment of stable antioxidants to Moisturizer formulated with OPCs interrupt free-radical damage. Effective antioxidants Physical, biochemical sunscreen for the skin range from green tea, grape extract or vitamin C to idebenone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate or Step 1: Have the client complete a client intake
superoxide dismutase. Certain phytochemicals, such form in order to evaluate her needs. Lead her to as lycopenes and anthocyanins, and zoochemicals, the treatment room and ask her to put on the such as conjugated linoleic acid, are called non-nutrient wrap and get under the sheets, face up. Leave the antioxidants. Selenium, copper and zinc are some of room to allow for her privacy, and return in a few the most common antioxidant minerals. They can be absorbed by plants and can appear as micronutrients in Step 2: Apply warm towels to the décolleté and the
botanical ingredients grown in rich soils that are used face to prepare the pores. Be sure to include the in skin care products. Antioxidant enzymes include catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. neck in your treatment; it is often neglected and, The more the better—the skin does better with a as a result, it shows aging faster.
cocktail of effective antioxidants.
Step 3: Cleanse the skin with a cleansing milk
Although most antioxidants can be used as a containing antioxidant-rich grape seed and OPCs. single agent, studies have shown that they work best Apply a small amount of cleanser over the entire as a team.5 Take a look at nature, for example, and face and neck area, and, using your fingertips, you'll see that plants, including fruits and vegetables, massage it in gently for 30–60 seconds, moving in contain many different phytonutrients—the source circular motions. Then, wipe it off with a warm, of antioxidants. These phytonutrients serve various damp face towel. Repeat this step if necessary, functions in plants—some protect the plant from UV or perform a second step cleansing with a deep radiation while others protect it from insects—all of cleansing product.
which work together to protect the plant's vitality. This reinforces the idea that antioxidants are designed by Step 4: Next, apply a toner to the skin with a gauze
nature to work together. cloth or spritz the face lightly to remove any excess product and to balance the natural pH of AT THE SPA
the skin. Use a toner infused with natural vitamins For clients who want a natural approach to smooth, and minerals to rejuvenate the skin, evening out healthy skin, incorporate antioxidants into their skin the pores and readying the skin for better moisture care routine for a positive effect. Vitamins A, C and E and the mineral selenium—a nutrient that functions Continued on Page 67 as cofactor for the reduction of antioxidant enzymes—are believed to be particularly helpful in skin care. November 2012 Skin Inc. Continued from Page 66 Step 5: After the skin is cleansed, gently apply a thin
layer of exfoliator to the skin, leaving it on for 15 minutes. Look for an exfoliator containing Selenium is the only mineral that functions as an natural ingredients, such as cornmeal, sulfur or antioxidant. Skin care products containing selenium enzymes that work to remove dead keratin cells, help improve the skin's elasticity, fight acne, prevent free stimulate blood circulation and soften the skin. radicals from damaging collagen and elastin in the skin, and reduce the effects of aging. Step 6: Apply a mask to revive collagen fibers. Seek
Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant enzyme that helps out masks that are formulated to bring more to protect cells from damage. CoQ10 is needed to create oxygen to the skin as they detoxify, reduce energy in a cell and, as cells age and are damaged, levels inflammation and stimulate cell reproduction. of CoQ10 decrease, as well. Studies have shown that Most masks should remain on the face 20 minutes CoQ10 can penetrate the skin, reduce wrinkle depth and for maximum results, or until dry. Natural key prevent sun damage.6 ingredients to look for include bioflavonoids, In addition to helping fortify cells against free polyphenols and pectins. radicals, vitamins A and C also encourage cell and tissue growth, helping the body to repair itself. This is Step 7: Apply an antioxidant-rich serum, such as one
very helpful to the skin, which is constantly shedding containing grape seed oil. This is ideal for fighting and re-growing cells. For this reason, any antioxidants free radicals, and the decreased elasticity that is that protect cells and encourage cell growth could be associated with aging, dehydrated or tired skin. helpful in an anti-aging regimen, because they may Grape seed oil is packed with antioxidants, helps help fight fine lines and wrinkles firm the skin by stimulating collagen production, When antioxidants are used on the skin, even if and serves as a key ingredient in hydrating, they don't penetrate beyond the upper layers, they softening and leaving the skin silky smooth.
can help to stop or slow the process of oxidation caused by free radicals and keep the cell membranes more stable.4 The problem with some antioxidants is that they themselves are not stable, so, as soon as they are exposed to oxygen or light, they break down. The trick is to use antioxidants that are stable, effective and nonirritating in adequate concentrations to exert an effect. Reputable skin care lines do contain stable antioxidants. Personal care products are typically preserved by natural or synthetic preservatives that provide a well-tested and well-determined shelf life to the products. This shelf life is the base of the warranties that manufacturers and distributors provide on their products. It is advised to discontinue the use of products after their shelf life expires, because the stability of antioxidants may be Step 8: Apply a thin layer of moisturizer to the skin.
compromised. Also, read ingredient lists carefully and Use a moisturizer formulated with OPCs to help select products that have a treatment manual with renew the collagen fibers, and regenerate the detailed information on all ingredients. Examples of epidermis and the connective tissues. Look for antioxidants used often in skin care products are grape products with grape seed, red grape skin and seed oil, and vitamins A, C, and E.
pine bark, which are known to be the three The market for anti-aging products for appearance most potent OPC sources. Skin will feel toned, enhancement in the United States is expected to reach smoothed and strengthened by the antioxidant more than $5 billion by 2015, according to a report ingredients delivered from each step. by the Global Industry Analysts, Inc. And while a burgeoning baby boomer population has largely fueled Step 9: The final step in the natural free
the growth, other factors contributing to the anti-aging radical-fighting facial is sun protection. Use a surge are an expanded interest among those ages 25–30. sunscreen with physical—such as non-nano The United States and Europe are leading the anti-aging titanium dioxide—and biochemical— market with a 62.8% share, and future growth is only antioxidant-rich herbs and vegetables including expected to continue within the cosmeceutical category tomato and carrot—sunscreen effects.
at an estimated annual rate of 10%. November 2012 Skin Inc. With so much growth potential and so much antioxidants provides the skin with an arsenal to deflect consumer interest to lead healthier lives, there has the assault and minimize the damage created by never been a better time than now to incorporate a natural treatment offering that relies on the powerful benefits that only antioxidants can deliver. Antioxidant facials, massages and body wraps are just a few ways 1. B Hal iwel , R Aeschbach, J Loliger and OI Aruoma, The characterization to add this component to your spa menu. of antioxidants Food and Chemical Toxicology 33 7 601–617 (1995) 2. J Souquet, V Cheynier, F Brossaud and M Moutounet, Polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape skins, Phytochemistry 43 2 509–512 (1996) 3. R Brigelius-Flohé and MG Traber, Vitamin E: Function and metabolism, After providing a client with a customized skin The FASEB Journal 13 10 1145–1155 (1999) analysis, be sure to offer a list of products used during 4. AI Bogdan and L Baumann, Antioxidants used in skin care formulations, the treatment, with a description of each one's benefits Skin Therapy Lett 13 7 5–9 (2008) and active ingredients, and work with clients to ensure 5. L Packer, The Antioxidant Miracle Wiley (1999) their purchases from your retail area will support their 6. HN Bhagavan, Hemmi and RK Chopra, Coenzyme Q10: absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, Free Radical Research 40 5 in-spa care. Today's consumers are more and more ingredient savvy and want to know exactly what is in their skin care products; so, be sure you know the products you are recommending. In between services, Szilvia Hickman is senior vice president
educate your clients on a customized treatment plan of Szép Élet, exclusive distributor of ilike that will help to maintain the services they received organic skin care and Purée Organics.
at your facility. Daily replenishment of topical November 2012 Skin Inc.


Bozen2008 169.182

Systems Chemistry, May 26th – 30th, 2008, Bozen, Italy The Chemistry of Signal Transduction in Harald Lanig and Timothy Clark Na¨gelsbachstraße 25, 90152 Erlangen, Germany Received: 28th October 2008 / Published: 16th March 2009 Signal transduction proteins in biological systems must be very flexibleto undergo the allosteric changes necessary for their function. It iscurrent practice to investigate the modes of action of these systemsby X-ray spectroscopy of the different states trapped as crystals. Un-fortunately, the forces acting on the proteins by packing effects maylead to distortions comparable to the changes that occur during theallosteric movements. This makes it questionable as to whether X-raystructures can be used to deduce induction mechanisms. In this work,we show for DNA-binding tetracycline repressor proteins that molecu-lar dynamics simulations offer an interesting alternative for determin-ing the induction state and possible mechanisms switching betweenthem. Based on data sampled for different repressor classes with sev-eral force field parameter sets, we show that MD simulations haveconvincing advantages over the analysis of static structures influencedby crystal packing.

The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for polycystic ovarian syndrome management in adolescents: a systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol

Al Khalifah et al. Systematic Reviews (2015) 4:125 DOI 10.1186/s13643-015-0105-4 The effectiveness and safety of treatmentsused for polycystic ovarian syndromemanagement in adolescents: a systematicreview and network meta-analysis protocol Reem A. Al Khalifah1,2,3, Iván D. Flórez1,4* Brittany Dennis1, Binod Neupane1, Lehana Thabane1,5,6and Ereny Bassilious2 Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease that is seen amongadolescent women. Currently, there is limited evidence to support treatment options leading to considerable variationin practice among healthcare specialists. The objective of this study is to review and synthesize all the available evidenceon treatment options for PCOS among adolescent women.