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Manual: quikchange® site-directed mutagenesis kit

QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit INSTRUCTION MANUAL Catalog #200518 (30 reactions) and #200519 (10 reactions) For In Vitro Use Only 200518-12 LIMITED PRODUCT WARRANTY This warranty limits our liability to replacement of this product. No other warranties of any kind, express or implied, including without limitation, implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, are provided by Stratagene. Stratagene shall have no liability for any direct, indirect, consequential, or incidental damages arising out of the use, the results of use, or the inability to use this product. ORDERING INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL SERVICES United States and Canada Stratagene 11011 North Torrey Pines Road La Jolla, CA 92037 Telephone (858) Order Toll Free (800) Technical Services (800) 894-1304 Internet World Wide Web www.stratagene.com Stratagene European Contacts Location Telephone +31 (0)20 312 5700 All Other Countries Please contact your local distributor. A complete list of distributors is available at www.stratagene.com. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Materials Provided. 1
Storage Conditions . 1
Additional Materials Required . 1
Introduction . 2
QuikChange® Mutagenesis Control . 4
Mutagenic Primer Design. 5
Primer Design Guidelines. 5 Additional Primer Considerations . 6 Protocol . 7
Mutant Strand Synthesis Reaction (Thermal Cycling). 7 Dpn I Digestion of the Amplification Products. 9 Transformation of XL1-Blue Supercompetent Cells. 9 Transformation Guidelines . 11
Storage Conditions . 11 Aliquoting Cells . 11 Use of 14-ml BD Falcon Polypropylene Round-Bottom Tubes. 11 Length of the Heat Pulse . 11 Preparing the Agar Plates for Color Screening . 11 Troubleshooting . 12
Preparation of Media and Reagents . 13
References . 14
Endnotes. 14
MSDS Information. 14
QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit MATERIALS PROVIDED Catalog #200518a Catalog #200519b Materials provided PfuTurbo® DNA polymerase (2.5 U/ μl) 10× reaction bufferc 500 Dpn I restriction enzyme (10 U/μl) Oligonucleotide control primer #1 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 5´ CCA TGA TTA CGC CAA GCG CGC AAT TAA CCC TCA C 3´ Oligonucleotide control primer #2 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 5´ GTG AGG GTT AAT TGC GCG CTT GGC GTA ATC ATG G 3´ pWhitescript™ 4.5-kb control plasmid (5 ng/ μl) dNTP mixd,e 30 XL1-Blue supercompetent cellsf (blue tubes) pUC18 control plasmid (0.1 ng/μl in TE bufferc) 10 a The QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Catalog #200518) contains enough reagents for 30 total reactions, which includes 5 control reactions. b The QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Catalog #200519) contains enough reagents for 10 total reactions, which includes 5 control reactions. c See Preparation of Media and Reagents. d Thaw the dNTP mix once, prepare single-use aliquots, and store the aliquots at –20°C. Do not subject the dNTP mix to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. e The composition of the dNTP mix is proprietary. This reagent has been optimized for the QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis protocols and has been qualified for use in conjunction with the other kit components. Do not substitute with dNTP mixes provided with other Stratagene kits. f Genotype: recA1 endA1 gyrA96 thi-1 hsdR17 supE44 relA1 lac [F´ proAB lacIqZΔM15 Tn10 (Tetr)] STORAGE CONDITIONS XL1-Blue Supercompetent Cells and pUC18 Control Plasmid: –80°C
All Other Components: –20°C
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS REQUIRED 14-ml BD Falcon polypropylene round-bottom tubes (BD Biosciences Catalog #352059) 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) Isopropyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG) Copyright 2007 by Stratagene. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit In vitro site-directed mutagenesis is an invaluable technique for studying protein structure-function relationships and gene expression, and for carrying out vector modification. Several approaches to this technique have been published, but these methods generally require single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as the template1–4 and are labor intensive or technically difficult. Stratagene's QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit* allows site-specific mutation in virtually any double-stranded plasmid, thus eliminating the need for subcloning into M13-based bacteriophage vectors and for ssDNA rescue.5 In addition, the QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis system requires no specialized vectors, unique restriction sites, or multiple transformations. This rapid four-step procedure generates mutants with greater than 80% efficiency. The protocol is simple and uses either miniprep plasmid DNA or cesium-chloride-purified DNA. For long ( 8 kb) or difficult targets, Stratagene offers the QuikChange® XL site directed mutagenesis kit (Catalog #200516). The QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis kit is used to make point mutations, switch amino acids, and delete or insert single or multiple amino acids. The QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis method is performed using PfuTurbo® DNA polymerase** and a temperature cycler. PfuTurbo DNA polymerase replicates both plasmid strands with high fidelityll and without displacing the mutant oligonucleotide primers. The basic procedure utilizes a supercoiled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) vector with an insert of interest and two synthetic oligonucleotide primers containing the desired mutation (see Figure 1). The oligonucleotide primers, each complementary to opposite strands of the vector, are extended during temperature cycling by PfuTurbo DNA polymerase. Incorporation of the oligonucleotide primers generates a mutated plasmid containing staggered nicks. Following temperature cycling, the product is treated with Dpn I. The Dpn I endonuclease (target sequence: 5´-Gm6ATC-3´) is specific for methylated and hemimethylated DNA and is used to digest the parental DNA template and to select for mutation-containing synthesized DNA.6 DNA isolated from almost all E. coli strains is dam methylated and therefore susceptible to Dpn I digestion. The nicked vector DNA containing the desired mutations is then transformed into XL1-Blue supercompetent cells. The small amount of starting DNA template required to perform this method, the high fidelity of the PfuTurbo DNA polymerase, and the low number of thermal cycles all contribute to the high mutation efficiency and decreased potential for generating random mutations during the reaction. While plasmid DNA isolated from almost all of the commonly used E. coli strains (dam+) is methylated and is a suitable template for mutagenesis, plasmid DNA isolated from the exceptional dam– E. coli strains, including JM110 and SCS110, is not suitable. * U.S. Patent Nos. 5,789,166, 5,932,419, 6,391,548, 7,132,265, 7,176,004, 5,286,632 and patents pending. ** U.S. Patent Nos. 7,045,328, 5,545,552, 5,866,395, 5,948,663, 6,183,997, 6,444,428, 6,489,150, 6,734,293 and patents pending. PfuTurbo DNA polymerase has 6-fold higher fidelity in DNA synthesis than Taq DNA 2 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit FIGURE 1 Overview of the QuikChange® site-directed mutagenesis method. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit QUIKCHANGE® MUTAGENESIS CONTROL The pWhitescript™ 4.5-kb control plasmid is used to test the efficiency of mutant plasmid generation using the QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis kit. The pWhitescript 4.5-kb control plasmid contains a stop codon (TAA) at the position where a glutamine codon (CAA) would normally appear in the β-galactosidase gene of the pBluescript® II SK(–) phagemid (corresponding to amino acid 9 of the protein). XL1-Blue supercompetent cells transformed with this control plasmid appear white on LB–ampicillin agar plates (see Preparation of Media and Reagents), containing IPTG and X-gal, because β-galactosidase activity has been obliterated. The oligonucleotide control primers create a point mutation on the pWhitescript 4.5-kb control plasmid that reverts the T residue of the stop codon (TAA) at amino acid 9 of the β-galactosidase gene to a C residue, to produce the glutamine codon (CAA) found in the wild-type sequence. Following transformation, colonies can be screened for the β-galactosidase (β-gal+, blue) phenotype. 4 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit MUTAGENIC PRIMER DESIGN Mutagenic primers can be designed using Stratagene's web-based QuikChange® Primer Design Program available online at http://www.stratagene.com/qcprimerdesign. Primer Design Guidelines The mutagenic oligonucleotide primers for use in this protocol must be designed individually according to the desired mutation. The following considerations should be made for designing mutagenic primers: ♦ Both of the mutagenic primers must contain the desired mutation and anneal to the same sequence on opposite strands of the plasmid. ♦ Primers should be between 25 and 45 bases in length, with a melting temperature (Tm) of ≥78°C. Primers longer than 45 bases may be used, but using longer primers increases the likelihood of secondary structure formation, which may affect the efficiency of the mutagenesis reaction. The following formula is commonly used for estimating the Tm of primers: • N is the primer length in bases
• values for %GC and % mismatch are whole numbers
For calculating Tm for primers intended to introduce insertions or deletions, use this modified version of the above formula: where N does not include the bases which are being inserted or deleted. Note When using primer design software for QuikChange site- directed mutagenesis applications, be aware that the Tm calculated by the primer design software may differ from the Tm value calculated using the formula presented above. Stratagene recommends verifying primer Tm's using the formula above or by using the QuikChange Tm calculator, available online at http://www.stratagene.com. ♦ The desired mutation (deletion or insertion) should be in the middle of the primer with 10–15 bases of correct sequence on both sides. ♦ The primers optimally should have a minimum GC content of 40% and should terminate in one or more C or G bases. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Additional Primer Considerations ♦ The mutagenesis protocol uses 125 ng of each oligonucleotide primer. To convert nanograms to picomoles of oligo, use the following equation: For example, for 125 ng of a 25-mer: ♦ Primers need not be 5´ phosphorylated but must be purified either by
fast polynucleotide liquid chromatography (FPLC) or by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Failure to purify the primers results in a significant decrease in mutation efficiency. ♦ It is important to keep primer concentration in excess. Stratagene suggests varying the amount of template while keeping the concentration of the primer constantly in excess. 6 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Mutant Strand Synthesis Reaction (Thermal Cycling) Notes Ensure that the plasmid DNA template is isolated from a dam+ E. coli strain. The majority of the commonly used E. coli strains
are
dam+. Plasmid DNA isolated from dam strains (e.g. JM110
and SCS110) is not suitable
.

To maximize temperature-cycling performance, Stratagene
strongly recommends using thin-walled tubes
, which ensure ideal
contact with the temperature cycler's heat blocks. The following
protocols were optimized using thin-walled tubes.

1. Synthesize two complimentary oligonucleotides containing the desired mutation, flanked by unmodified nucleotide sequence. Purify these oligonucleotide "primers" prior to use in the following steps (see Mutagenic Primer Design). Prepare the control reaction as indicated below: 5 μl of 10× reaction buffer (see Preparation of Media and Reagents) 2 μl (10 ng) of pWhitescript 4.5-kb control plasmid (5 ng/μl) 1.25 μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide control primer #1 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 1.25 μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide control primer #2 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 1 μl of dNTP mix 39.5 μl of double-distilled water (ddH2O) to a final volume of 50 μl 1 μl of PfuTurbo DNA polymerase (2.5 U/μl) Prepare the sample reaction(s) as indicated below: Note Stratagene recommends setting up a series of sample reactions using various concentrations of dsDNA template ranging from 5 to 50 ng (e.g., 5, 10, 20, and 50 ng of dsDNA template) while keeping the primer concentration constant. 5 μl of 10× reaction buffer X μl (5–50 ng) of dsDNA template X μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide primer #1 X μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide primer #2 1 μl of dNTP mix ddH2O to a final volume of 50 μl 1 μl of PfuTurbo DNA polymerase (2.5 U/μl) QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit 4. If the thermal cycler to be used does not have a hot-top assembly, overlay each reaction with 30 μl of mineral oil. TABLE I Cycling Parameters for the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Method Segment Cycles Temperature 1 minute/kb of plasmid length* * For example, a 5-kb plasmid requires 5 minutes at 68°C per cycle. 5. Cycle each reaction using the cycling parameters outlined in Table I. (For the control reaction, use a 5-minute extension time and run the reaction for 18 cycles.) Adjust segment 2 of the cycling parameters in accordance with the type of mutation desired (see the following table): Type of mutation desired Number of cycles Single amino acid changes Multiple amino acid deletions or insertions 7. Following temperature cycling, place the reaction on ice for 2 minutes to cool the reaction to ≤37°C. Note If desired, amplification may be checked by electrophoresis of 10 µl of the product on a 1% agarose gel. A band may or may not be visualized at this stage. In either case proceed with Dpn I digestion and transformation. 8 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Dpn I Digestion of the Amplification Products It is important to insert the pipet tip below the mineral oil overlay when adding the Dpn I restriction enzyme to the reaction tubes during the digestion step or when transferring the 1 μl of Dpn I-treated DNA to the transformation reaction. Stratagene suggests using specialized aerosol-resistant pipet tips, which are small and pointed, to facilitate this process. μl of the Dpn I restriction enzyme (10 U/μl) directly to each amplification reaction below the mineral oil overlay using a small, pointed pipet tip. 2. Gently and thoroughly mix each reaction mixture by pipetting the solution up and down several times. Spin down the reaction mixtures in a microcentrifuge for 1 minute and immediately incubate each reaction at 37°C for 1 hour to digest the parental (i.e., the nonmutated) supercoiled dsDNA. Transformation of XL1-Blue Supercompetent Cells Notes Please read the Transformation Guidelines before proceeding with the transformation protocol. XL1-Blue cells are resistant to tetracycline. If the mutagenized plasmid contains only the tetR resistance marker, an alternative tetracycline-sensitive strain of competent cells must be used. 1. Gently thaw the XL1-Blue supercompetent cells on ice. For each control and sample reaction to be transformed, aliquot 50 μl of the supercompetent cells to a prechilled 14-ml BD Falcon polypropylene round-bottom tube. μl of the Dpn I-treated DNA from each control and sample reaction to separate aliquots of the supercompetent cells. Carefully remove any residual mineral oil from the pipet tip before transferring the Dpn I-treated DNA to the transformation reaction. As an optional control, verify the transformation efficiency of the XL1-Blue supercompetent cells by adding 1 μl of the pUC18 control plasmid (0.1 ng/μl) to a 50-μl aliquot of the supercompetent cells. Swirl the transformation reactions gently to mix and incubate the reactions on ice for 30 minutes. Heat pulse the transformation reactions for 45 seconds at 42°C and then place the reactions on ice for 2 minutes. Note This heat pulse has been optimized for transformation in 14-ml BD Falcon polypropylene round-bottom tubes. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit 4. Add 0.5 ml of NZY+ broth (see Preparation of Media and Reagents) preheated to 42°C and incubate the transformation reactions at 37°C for 1 hour with shaking at 225–250 rpm. 5. Plate the appropriate volume of each transformation reaction, as indicated in the table below, on agar plates containing the appropriate antibiotic for the plasmid vector. For the mutagenesis and transformation controls, spread cells on LB–ampicillin agar plates containing 80 μg/ml X-gal and 20 mM IPTG (see Preparing the Agar Plates for Color Screening). Transformation reaction plating volumes pWhitescript mutagenesis control pUC18 transformation control 5 μl (in 200 μl of NZY+ broth)* Sample mutagenesis 250 μl on each of two plates (entire transformation reaction) * Place a 200-μl pool of NZY+ broth on the agar plate, pipet the 5 μl of the transformation reaction into the pool, then spread the mixture. Incubate the transformation plates at 37°C for >16 hours. Expected Results for the Control Transformations The expected colony number from the transformation of the pWhitescript control mutagenesis reaction is between 50 and 800 colonies. Greater than 80% of the colonies should contain the mutation and appear as blue colonies on agar plates containing IPTG and X-gal. Note The mutagenesis efficiency (ME) for the pWhitescript 4.5-kb control plasmid is calculated by the following formula: Number of blue colony forming units (cfu) Total number of colony forming units (cfu) If transformation of the pUC18 control plasmid was performed, >250 colonies should be observed (transformation efficiency >108 cfu/μg) with >98% of the colonies having the blue phenotype. Expected Results for Sample Transformations The expected colony number is between 10 and 1000 colonies, depending upon the base composition and length of the DNA template employed. For suggestions on increasing colony number, see Troubleshooting. The insert of interest should be sequenced to verify that selected clones contain the desired mutation(s). 10 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit TRANSFORMATION GUIDELINES It is important to store the XL1-Blue supercompetent cells at –80°C to prevent a loss of efficiency. For best results, please follow the directions outlined in the following sections. Storage Conditions The XL1-Blue supercompetent cells are very sensitive to even small variations in temperature and must be stored at the bottom of a –80°C freezer. Transferring tubes from one freezer to another may result in a loss of efficiency. The XL1-Blue supercompetent cells should be placed at –80°C directly from the dry ice shipping container. Aliquoting Cells When aliquoting, keep the XL1-Blue supercompetent cells on ice at all times. It is essential that the BD Falcon polypropylene tubes are placed on ice before the cells are thawed and that the cells are aliquoted directly into the prechilled tubes. Use of 14-ml BD Falcon Polypropylene Round-Bottom Tubes It is important that 14-ml BD Falcon polypropylene round-bottom tubes (BD Biosciences Catalog #352059) are used for the transformation protocol because the duration of the heat-pulse step is critical and has been optimized for the thickness and shape of these tubes. Length of the Heat Pulse There is a defined "window" of highest efficiency for the XL1-Blue supercompetent cells resulting from the heat pulse in step 3 of the transformation protocol. Optimal efficiencies are observed when cells are heat pulsed for 45 seconds. Heat pulsing for at least 45 seconds is recommended to allow for slight variations in the length of incubation. Efficiencies decrease sharply when pulsing for <30 seconds or for >45 seconds. Preparing the Agar Plates for Color Screening To prepare the LB agar plates for blue–white color screening, add 80 μg/ml of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal), 20 mM isopropyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG), and the appropriate antibiotic to the LB agar. Alternatively, 100 μl of 10 mM IPTG and 100 μl of 2% X-gal can be spread on the LB agar plates 30 minutes prior to plating the transformations. Prepare the IPTG in sterile dH2O; prepare the X-gal in dimethylformamide (DMF). Do not mix the IPTG and the X-gal before pipetting them onto the plates because these chemicals may precipitate. QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit When used according to the guidelines outlined in this instruction manual, Stratagene's kit will provide a reliable means to conduct site-directed mutagenesis using dsDNA templates. Undoubtedly, there will be variations in the base composition and length of the DNA template and in the thermal cycler that may contribute to differences in mutagenesis efficiency. Stratagene provides the following guidelines for troubleshooting these variations. Observation Suggestion(s) Low transformation efficiency or low Ensure that excess mineral oil is not transferred into the transformation reaction colony number when pipetting the Dpn I-treated DNA. Using the smallest pipet tips available, insert the pipet tip completely below the mineral layer overlay and clear the pipet tip while submerged beneath the mineral oil overlay before collecting the sample. Ensure that sufficient mutant DNA is synthesized in the reaction. Increase the amount of the Dpn I-treated DNA used in the transformation reaction to 4 μl. Visualize the DNA template on a gel to verify the quantity and quality. Nicked or linearized plasmid DNA will not generate complete circular product. Verify that the template DNA is at least 80% supercoiled. It is not uncommon to observe low numbers of colonies, especially when generating large mutations. Most of the colonies that do appear, however, will contain mutagenized plasmid. Ethanol precipitate the Dpn I digested PCR product, and resuspend in a decreased volume of water before transformation. Low mutagenesis efficiency or low Different thermal cyclers may contribute to variations in ramping efficiencies. colony number with the control Adjust the cycling parameters for the control reaction and repeat the protocol for the sample reactions. Ensure that supercompetent cells are stored at the bottom of a –80°C freezer immediately upon arrival (see also Transformation Guidelines). Verify that the agar plates were prepared correctly. See Preparing the Agar Plates for Color Screening, and follow the recommendations for IPTG and X-Gal concentrations carefully. For best visualization of the blue (β-gal+) phenotype, the control plates must be incubated for at least 16 hours at 37°C. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles for the dNTP mix. Thaw the dNTP mix once, prepare single-use aliquots, and store the aliquots at –20°C. Do not subject the dNTP mix to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Adjust the cycling parameters for the sample reaction to overcome differences in ramping efficiencies of thermal cyclers. Low mutagenesis efficiency with the Add the Dpn I restriction enzyme below the mineral oil overlay in the digestion step sample reaction(s) and ensure proper mixing of all components in the reaction especially the Dpn I. Allow sufficient time for the Dpn I to completely digest the parental template; repeat the digestion if too much DNA template was present. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles for the dNTP mix. Thaw the dNTP mix once, prepare single-use aliquots, and store the aliquots at –20°C. Do not subject the dNTP mix to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. The formation of secondary structures may be inhibiting the mutagenesis reaction. Increasing the annealing temperature up to 68°C may help to alleviate secondary structure formation and improve mutagenesis efficiency. Table continues on the following page 12 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Table continues from the previous page Poor quality primers can lead to false positives. Radiolabel the primers and check for degradation on an acrylamide gel or resynthesize the primers. False priming can lead to false positives. Increase the stringency of the reaction by increasing the annealing temperature up to 68°C. Unwanted deletion or Transform the mutagenesis reaction into competent cells that are designed to prevent recombination of plasmid recombination events, such as Stratagene's SURE® 2 Supercompetent Cells (Catalog DNA following mutagenesis #200152). Note that SURE 2 competent cells are not recommended for use with and transformation mutagenized plasmids greater than 10 kb in size; note also that SURE 2 cells are Kanr, Tetr, and Chlr, and are not compatible with plasmid selection using kanamycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol resistance markers. PREPARATION OF MEDIA AND REAGENTS LB Agar (per Liter) LB–Ampicillin Agar (per Liter) 1 liter of LB agar, autoclaved 10 g of tryptone 5 g of yeast extract Add 10 ml of 10-mg/ml filter-sterilized Pour into petri dishes 2O to a final volume of ( 25 ml/100-mm plate) Adjust pH to 7.0 with 5 N NaOH Autoclave Pour into petri dishes ( 25 ml/100-mm plate) NZY+ Broth (per Liter) 10× Reaction Buffer 10 g of NZ amine (casein hydrolysate) 5 g of yeast extract 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.8) Add deionized H2O to a final volume 1% Triton® X-100 Adjust to pH 7.5 using NaOH 1 mg/ml nuclease-free bovine serum albumin Add the following filer-sterilized supplements prior to use: 12.5 ml of 1 M MgCl 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) 12.5 ml of 1 M MgSO 20 ml of 20% (w/v) glucose (or 10 ml of 2 M glucose) QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Kunkel, T. A. (1985) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82(2):488-92. 2. Sugimoto, M., Esaki, N., Tanaka, H. and Soda, K. (1989) Anal Biochem Taylor, J. W., Ott, J. and Eckstein, F. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res 13(24):8765-85. Vandeyar, M. A., Weiner, M. P., Hutton, C. J. and Batt, C. A. (1988) Gene 65(1):129-33. Papworth, C., Bauer, J. C., Braman, J. and Wright, D. A. (1996) Strategies 9(3):3–4. Nelson, M. and McClelland, M. (1992) Methods Enzymol 216:279-303. pBluescript®, PfuTurbo®, QuikChange®, and SURE® are registered trademarks of Stratagene in the United States. pWhitescript is a trademark of Stratagene. Triton® is a registered trademark of Rohm and Haas Co. MSDS INFORMATION The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information for Stratagene products is provided on Stratagene's website at http://www.stratagene.com/MSDS/. Simply enter the catalog number to retrieve any associated MSDS's in a print-ready format. MSDS documents are not included with product shipments. 14 QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit QuikChange® Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit Catalog #200518 and #200519 QUICK-REFERENCE PROTOCOL ♦ Prepare the control and sample reaction(s) as indicated below: Note Stratagene recommends setting up a series of sample reactions using various concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng of dsDNA template (e.g., 5, 10, 20, and 50 ng of dsDNA template). Control Reaction 5 μl of 10× reaction buffer 5 μl of 10× reaction buffer 2 μl (10 ng) of pWhitescript™ 4.5-kb control X μl (5–50 ng) of dsDNA template template (5 ng/μl) X μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide primer #1 1.25 μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide control X μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide primer #2 primer #1 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 1 μl of dNTP mix 1.25 μl (125 ng) of oligonucleotide control ddH O to a final volume of 50 μl primer #2 [34-mer (100 ng/μl)] 1 μl of dNTP mix ddH O to a final volume of 50 μl ♦ Then add 1 μl of PfuTurbo DNA polymerase (2.5 U/μl) to each control and sample reaction. ♦ Overlay each reaction with 30 μl of mineral oil. ♦ Cycle each reaction using the cycling parameters outlined in the following table: Segment Cycles Temperature 1 minute/kb of plasmid length ♦ Adjust segment 2 of the cycling parameters in accordance with the type of mutation desired (see the table in step 6 of Mutant Strand Synthesis Reaction (Thermal Cycling) in the instruction manual). ♦ Add 1 μl of the Dpn I restriction enzyme (10 U/μl) below the mineral oil overlay. ♦ Gently and thoroughly mix each reaction, spin down in a microcentrifuge for 1 minute, and immediately incubate at 37°C for 1 hour to digest the parental supercoiled dsDNA. ♦ Transform 1 μl of the Dpn I-treated DNA from each control and sample reaction into separate 50-μl aliquots of XL1-Blue supercompetent cells (see Transformation of XL1-Blue Supercompetent Cells in the instruction manual).

Source: http://www.zbf.wbbib.uj.edu.pl/documents/3312903/72771414/Quik%20change%20manual.pdf

Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults

Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Douwe F. Postma, M.D., Cornelis H. van Werkhoven, M.D., Leontine J.R. van Elden, M.D., Ph.D., Steven F.T. Thijsen, M.D., Ph.D., Andy I.M. Hoepelman, M.D., Ph.D., Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans, M.D., Ph.D., Wim G. Boersma, M.D., Ph.D., Clara J. Compaijen, M.D., Eva van der Wall, M.D., Jan M. Prins, M.D., Ph.D., Jan J. Oosterheert, M.D., Ph.D., and

tecnologias101.info

POLIPO MULTIPLE DE LA VESICULA BILIAR EN UN NIÑO DE 12 AÑOS. JUNIO 2009. EL SALVADOR. CENTRO-AMERICA. DRA. ANA CONCEPCION POLANCO ANAYA, MEDICA PATOLOGA, JEFA DE DEPARTAMENTO DE ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA. HOSPITAL NACIONAL DE NIÑOS "BENJAMIN BLOOM" PROFESORA DE CATEDRA DE PATOLOGIA, UNIVERSIDAD DE EL SALVADOR. SAN SALVADOR, EL SALVADOR, CENTRO AME RESUMEN: Se discute el caso de un niño de 12 años de edad, en control en Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", por Enfermedad desmielinizante (compatible con Leucodistrofia metacromática), quien consultó en dos ocasiones con historia de hemorragia de tubo digestivo superior siendo la primera consulta en abril 2008, fecha en que fue tratado como gastritis e infección por Helicobacter pylori. En el segundo episodio en el 2009, el gastroenterólogo reportó que no encontraba una causa local de la hemorragia en esófago, estómago y duodeno, por lo que se le efectuaron exámenes de extensión; y ante el cuadro de dolor abdominal, leve ictericia, hiperbilirrubinemia directa leve y un estudio ultrasonográfico que reportaba "síndrome de lodo biliar", el cirujano decidió hacer una colecistectomía extirpando la vesícula biliar, abriéndola durante el acto quirúrgico, encontrando un tumor de aspecto cerebroide alojado en el fondo, el que luego fue diagnosticado por Anatomía Patológica como Pólipo múltiple. Se concluye que el cuadro clínico observado en el segundo evento correspondió a una hemobilia, la que en este caso se atribuyó a Pólipos múltiples de la Vesícula biliar, patología de rara presentación en pediatría. Existen algunos reportes de pólipos en la vesícula biliar acompañando lesiones neurológicas del tipo Leucodistrofia metacromática, y deben de ser sospechadas e investigadas como en este caso. De ahí se establece la enorme importancia de reportarlo como caso interesante. SUMMARY: