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Section i_ii

ANABOLICS,10th ed.
ISBN-10: 0-9828280-0-4 ISBN-10: 0-9828280-1-2 This information was gathered from sources including, but not limited to medical journals, pharmaceutical reports, laboratory reports, textbooks, as well as interviews with medical experts, athletes, andsteroid distributors. Neither the author nor publisher assumes any liability for the information presented. Thisbook is intended to provide a compendium of information for the reader. None of the information is meant to beapplied and is for entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to provide nor replace medical advice. Readersare advised that the substances described in this reference book are to be used only under a physician's care andmay be prohibited in certain jurisdictions. Readers should consult with appropriate medical authorities before usingany drug, and proper legal authorities on the status of substances described herein. Neither the publisher norauthor advocate readers engage in any illegal activities.
Copyright 2011 and published by Molecular Nutrition, LLC in Jupiter, FL 33458. All rights reserved. None of the content in this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, resold, redistributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means (digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recorded, or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS are trademarks used herein under license.
Molecular Nutrition LLC, 5500 Military Trail, Ste. 22-308, Jupiter, FL 33458
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
ANABOLICS is a reference manual of drug compounds used to enhance body composition, strength, and/or athleticperformance. This book includes an extensive review of the history, global availability, and application ofanabolic/androgenic steroids, as well as related performance-enhancing drugs such as human growth hormone, insulin,anti-estrogens, diuretics, reductase inhibitors, and fat loss agents. The core focus of ANABOLICS is to provide a nonbiasedand comprehensive review of the current science surrounding these drugs, as well as their medical and non-medical use.
The effort of this book is always to help readers understand the potential risks of these drugs, in addition to their benefits.
ANABOLICS is not intended to promote steroid or other drug use, but is designed to help readers, may they be physicians,patients, or illicit users, better understand these drugs, and make well-informed decisions about them.
Regular readers will notice the latest edition includes updates and new additions in the following sections: Anabolic Overview (Part I):
Part I was extensively updated in the 9th Edition of ANABOLICS, though the 10th Edition has seen some minor edits, andthe addition of a section on AAS-linked tendon injury.
Practical Application (Part II):
A new chapter of Counterfeit Steroid Detection has been added. It discloses techniques for identifying deviant productswith a handheld microscope.
The Harm Reduction section has been modified, along with a follow-up chapter on Sterilizing Injectable AAS preparations.
The Post-Cycle Therapy section has been updated to include a modified PCT program, and Start of PCT timing calculations.
An Off-Cycle Therapy (OCT) section has been added, which discusses ways to better retain muscle mass between cycles,and make follow up programs more productive.
A chapter on Obtaining AAS has been added, which covers the popular ways these medications are obtained. This sectionincludes advice about reducing risks.
Drug Profiles (Part III):
Updates concerning drug manufacture and global availability have been made in most of the commonAnabolic/Androgenic Steroid Profiles.
New or extensively re-written profiles have been added for Catapres (clonidine), Geref (sermorelin), Glucophage(metformin), and BP Stabil.
Steroid Availability Tables (Appendix A):
Global steroid manufacturing status has been extensively updated. Many dozens of new steroid preparations have beenadded, and numerous out of commerce steroids have been removed.
Photographic Database (Appendix B):
The photographic database has been extensively expanded, and includes approximately 3,000 pictures ofanabolic/androgenic steroids and other drugs. Legitimate pharmaceuticals are labeled and grouped by their country ofmanufacture. The following terms are used to identify the origin of individual drug products.
Real (or no specification other than country): These legitimate pharmaceutical products are distributed in
pharmacies or veterinary clinics in the labeled country of origin. Real drugs offer the greatest assurance of product
purity and safety, although production standards may vary by country or market (veterinary/human).
Counterfeit (CF): This is an illicit duplicate of a real drug product and/or manufacturer. These items are of
unknown quality and safety, and often contain substitute or no steroid ingredients.
Export (EX): These are drugs made by registered pharmaceutical companies, but are not licensed for sale in their
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
country of origin. They must be exported. Export products should be made in legitimate pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, but depending on the region may not be made under the same close government supervision as locally distributed products.
Underground (UG): These products are made from unlicensed illegal manufacturers specifically for sale on the
black market. Due to the completely unregulated nature of these drugs, they offer little assurance of quality, and
are generally not recommended.
Fake: This is an illicitly manufactured drug that purports to be a real pharmaceutical, but bears no relation to an
actual product. Fake is a distinction that suggests all forms of the photographed steroid should be considered
NLM: Indicates a drug that is No Longer Manufactured. This distinction is important because when NLM drugs are
still found in active black market commerce they usually turn out to be illegitimate.
New Service (HRT-Rx):
As longtime advocates of the legitimate medical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids, we have launched HRT-Rx, a national
referral service to help patients find progressive HRT/Anti-Aging physicians. Network doctors are the type that regularly
work with testosterone medications, and understand the value of hormone replacement and optimization therapies. You
can find a physician near you at Note that most offices require you are at least 30 years of age to make
an appointment.
New Service (HRT-Labs):
We have also partnered with a laboratory that can run extensive blood tests including hormone levels, liver/kidneyenzymes, and general health markers. The service is available in all 50 states and can be accessed at
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
An Introduction to Testosterone . 5Direct and Indirect Anabolic Effects . 7Free vs. Bound Testosterone . 10Estrogen Aromatization . 12 DHT Conversion . 14Brief History of Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids . 15Synthetic AAS Development . 16Synthetic AAS Chemistry . 21Steroid Nomenclature . 26Clinical Applications . 27Side Effects . 33 Acute Steroid Safety: Studies with Real-World Dosages . 55The Endocrinology of Muscle Growth . 57 PART II: PRACTICAL APPLICATION
Steroid Cycles . 65 Sample Steroid Cycles . 69PCT: Post Cycle Therapy . 84 OCT: Off Cycle Therapy . 89 Injection Protocols . 92Steroid Frequently Asked Questions . 95Understanding Blood Tests . 97Harm Reduction/Safer Use Guidelines . 112 Sterilizing Injectable AAS . 115 Counterfeit Steroids . 117Counterfeit Steroid Identification . 121 Country Specifics . 128Underground Steroids . 130Designer Steroids . 135Anabolic Steroid Possesion and the Law . 137Acquiring AAS (Best Practices) . 140 PART III: DRUG PROFILES
1-Testosterone (dihydroboldenone) . 14920 AET-1 (testosterone buciclate) . 152Agovirin Depot (testosterone isobutyrate) . 155 Anabol 4-19 (norclostebol acetate) . 158Anabolicum Vister (quinbolone) . 160Anadrol®- 50 (oxymetholone) . 163 Anadur® (nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate) . 168Anatrofin (stenbolone acetate) . 171 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Anavar (oxandrolone) . 173 Andractim® (dihydrotestosterone) . 177 Andriol® (testosterone undecanoate) . 180 Androderm® (testosterone) . 183 AndroGel® (testosterone) . 186 Andromar Retard (testosterone cyclohexylpropionate) . 189Andronaq (testosterone suspension) . 192 Bolfortan (testosterone nicotinate) . 196Cheque Drops® (mibolerone) . 199 Danocrine® (danazol) . 202Deca-Durabolin® (nandrolone decanoate) . 204 Delatestryl®(testosterone enanthate) . 208 Depo®-Testosterone (testosterone cypionate) . 212 Deposterona (testosterone blend) . 217 Dianabol®(methandrostenolone, methandienone) . 220 Dimethyltrienolone (dimethyltrienolone) . 224Dinandrol (nandrolone blend) . 227 Drive® (boldenone/methylandrostenediol blend) . 230 Durabolin® (nandrolone phenylpropionate) . 232 Dynabol® (nandrolone cypionate) . 235 Dynabolon®(nandrolone undecanoate) . 238 Emdabol (thiomesterone) . 241Equilon 100 (boldenone blend) . 244 Equipoise® (boldenone undecylenate) . 247 Equitest 200 (testosterone blend) . 250 Ermalone (mestanolone) . 253Esiclene® (formebolone, formyldienolone) . 256Estandron (testosterone/estrogen blend) . 259 Fherbolico (nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate) . 262 Finajet (trenbolone acetate) . 265 Genabol (norbolethone) . 269Halodrol (chlorodehydromethylandrostenediol) . 272Halotestin® (fluoxymesterone) . 275 Havoc (methepitiostane) . 279Hydroxytest (hydroxytestosterone) . 282Laurabolin® (nandrolone laurate) . 285 Libriol (nandrolone/methandriol blend) . 288 Madol (desoxymethyltestosterone) . 290Masteron® (drostanolone propionate) . 293 Megagrisevit-Mono® (clostebol acetate) . 296MENT (methylnortestosterone acetate) . 299Metandren (methyltestosterone) . 303 Methandriol (methylandrostenediol) . 306 Methosarb (calusterone) . 309Methyl-1-testosterone (methyldihydroboldenone) . 311Methyl-D (methyldienolone) . 314Metribolone (methyltrienolone) . 317Miotolan® (furazabol) . 320MOHN (methylhydroxynandrolone) . 323Myagen (bolasterone) . 326Nandrabolin (nandrolone/methandriol blend) . 329Nebido (testosterone undecanoate) . 331 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Neo-Ponden (androisoxazol) . 334Neodrol (dihydrotestosterone) . 337Neotest 250 (testosterone decanoate) . 339Nilevar® (norethandrolone) . 342 Omnadren® 250 (testosterone blend) . 345 Orabolin® (ethylestrenol) . 348 Oral Turinabol (4-chlorodehydromethyltestosterone) . 351 Oranabol (oxymesterone) . 354Oreton (testosterone propionate) . 357 Orgasteron (normethandrolone) . 362Parabolan® (trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate) . 365 Perandren (testosterone phenylacetate) . 368Primobolan® (methenolone acetate) . 371 Primobolan® Depot (methenolone enanthate) . 374 Promagnon (chloromethylandrostenediol) . 377Prostanozol (demethylstanozolol tetrahydropyranyl) . 379Proviron® (mesterolone) . 381 Roxilon (dimethazine) . 384Roxilon Inject (bolazine caproate) . 386Spectriol (testosterone/nandrolone/methandriol blend) . 388 Sten (testosterone cypionate & propionate) . 390 Steranabol Ritardo (oxabolone cypionate) . 393Sterandryl Retard (testosterone hexahydrobenzoate) . 395Striant® (testosterone) . 398Superdrol (methyldrostanolone) . 401Sustanon® 100 (testosterone blend) . 404 Sustanon® 250 (testosterone blend) . 407 Synovex® (testosterone propionate & estradiol) . 411 Testoderm® (testosterone) . 414Testolent (testosterone phenylpropionate) . 417 Testopel® (testosterone) . 420Testoviron® (testosterone propionate/enanthate blend) . 423 THG (tetrahydrogestrinone) . 427Thioderon (mepitiostane) . 430Trenabol® (trenbolone enanthate) . 432 Tribolin (nandrolone/methandriol blend) . 434 Triolandren (testosterone blend) . 436Winstrol® (stanozolol) . 439 ANABOLIC/ANDROGENIC STEROIDS (Listed by Generic Name)
androisoxazol (Neo-Ponden) . 334bolasterone (Myagen) . 326bolazine caproate (Roxilon Inject) . 386boldenone blend (Equilon 100) . 244 boldenone undecylenate (Equipoise®) . 247 boldenone/methylandrostenediol blend (Drive®) . 230 calusterone (Methosarb) . 309chlorodehydromethylandrostenediol (Halodrol) . 2724-chlorodehydromethyltestosterone (Oral Turinabol) . 351 chloromethylandrostenediol (Promagnon) . 377clostebol acetate (Megagrisevit-Mono®) . 296 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
danazol (Danocrine®) . 202demethylstanozolol tetrahydropyranyl (Prostanozol) . 379desoxymethyltestosterone (Madol) . 290dihydroboldenone (1-Testosterone) . 149dihydrotestosterone (Andractim®) . 177 dihydrotestosterone (Neodrol) . 337dimethazine (Roxilon) . 384dimethyltrienolone (Dimethyltrienolone) . 224drostanolone propionate (Masteron®) . 293 ethylestrenol (Orabolin®) . 348 fluoxymesterone (Halotestin®) . 275 formebolone, formyldienolone (Esiclene®) . 256furazabol (Miotolan®) . 320hydroxytestosterone (Hydroxytest) . 282mepitiostane (Thioderon) . 430mestanolone (Ermalone) . 253mesterolone (Proviron®) . 381 methandrostenolone, methandienone (Dianabol®) . 220 methenolone acetate (Primobolan®) . 371 methenolone enanthate (Primobolan® Depot) . 374 methepitiostane (Havoc) . 279methylandrostenediol (Methandriol) . 306 Methyldienolone (Methyl-D) . 314methyldihydroboldenone (Methyl-1-testosterone) . 311methyldrostanolone (Superdrol) . 401methylhydroxynandrolone (MOHN) . 323methylnortestosterone acetate (MENT) . 299methyltestosterone (Metandren) . 303 methyltrienolone (Metribolone) . 317mibolerone (Cheque Drops®) . 199 nandrolone blend (Dinandrol) . 227 nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate (Fherbolico) . 262 nandrolone cypionate (Dynabol®) . 235 nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin®) . 204 nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate (Anadur®) . 168nandrolone laurate (Laurabolin®) . 285 nandrolone phenylpropionate (Durabolin®) . 232 nandrolone undecanoate (Dynabolon®) . 238 nandrolone/methandriol blend (Libriol) . 288 nandrolone/methandriol blend (Tribolin) . 434 nandrolone/methandriol blend (Nandrabolin) . 329norbolethone (Genabol) . 269norclostebol acetate (Anabol 4-19) . 158norethandrolone (Nilevar®) . 342 normethandrolone (Orgasteron) . 362oxabolone cypionate (Steranabol Ritardo) . 393oxandrolone (Anavar) . 173 oxymesterone (Oranabol) . 354oxymetholone (Anadrol®- 50) . 163 quinbolone (Anabolicum Vister) . 160stanozolol (Winstrol®) . 439 stenbolone acetate (Anatrofin) . 171 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
testosterone (Androderm®) . 183 testosterone (AndroGel®) . 186 testosterone (Striant®) . 398testosterone (Testoderm®) . 414testosterone (Testopel®) . 420testosterone blend (Deposterona) . 217 testosterone blend (Equitest 200) . 250 testosterone blend (Omnadren® 250) . 345 testosterone blend (Sustanon® 100) . 404 testosterone blend (Sustanon® 250) . 407 testosterone blend (Triolandren) . 436testosterone buciclate (20 AET-1) . 152testosterone cyclohexylpropionate (Andromar Retard) . 189testosterone cypionate & propionate (Sten) . 390 testosterone cypionate (Depo®-Testosterone) . 212 testosterone decanoate (Neotest 250) . 339testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl®) . 208 testosterone hexahydrobenzoate (Sterandryl Retard) . 395testosterone isobutyrate (Agovirin Depot) . 155 testosterone nicotinate (Bolfortan) . 196testosterone phenylacetate (Perandren) . 368testosterone phenylpropionate (Testolent) . 417 testosterone propionate & estradiol (Synovex®) .411 testosterone propionate (Oreton) . 357 testosterone propionate/enanthate blend (Testoviron®) . 423 testosterone suspension (Andronaq) . 192 testosterone undecanoate (Andriol®) . 180 testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) . 331 testosterone/estrogen blend (Estandron) . 259 testosterone/nandrolone/methandriol blend (Spectriol) . 388 tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) . 427thiomesterone (Emdabol) . 241trenbolone acetate (Finajet) . 265 trenbolone enanthate (Trenabol) . 432 trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate (Parabolan®) . 365 ANABOLIC AGENTS (NON-STEROID)
Arachidonic acid (eicosa-5,8,11,14-enoic acid) . 447 Kynoselen® . 450 Lutalyse® (diniprost) . 452 Accutane (isotretinoin) . 457 Arimidex® (anastrozole) . 461 Aromasin® (exemestane) . 463Clomid® (clomiphene citrate) . 465 Cytadren® (aminoglutethimide) . 467 Evista (raloxifene) . 470Fareston® (toremifene citrate) . 472 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Faslodex® (fulvestrant) . 474Femara® (letrozole) . 476 Fertodur® (cyclofenil) . 478 Lentaron® (formestane) . 480 Nolvadex® (tamoxifen citrate) . 482 Teslac® (testolactone) . 484 Dostinex® (cabergoline) . 489Parlodel® (bromocriptine mesylate) . 491 Periactin (cyproheptadine hydrochloride) . 495 Lipid StabilTM . 499Lovaza® (omega-3 ethyl esters) . 500 Aldactone® (spironolactone) . 503 Dyrenium® (triamterene) . 505Hydrodiuril® (hydrochlorthiazide) . 507Lasix® (furosemide) . 509 Aranesp® (darbepoetin alfa) . 513Epogen® (epoetin alfa) . 515 Provigil® (modafinil) . 517 FAT LOSS AGENTS – SYMPATHOMIMETICS
Adipex-P (phentermine hydrochloride) . 521Albuterol (albuterol sulfate) . 522Clenasma (clenbuterol hydrochloride) . 524 Ephedrine (ephedrine hydrochloride) . 527Meridia® (sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) . 529 Zaditen® (ketotifen fumarate) . 531 FAT LOSS AGENTS – THYROID
Cytomel® (liothyronine sodium) . 535 Synthroid® (levothyroxine sodium) . 537 FAT LOSS AGENTS – OTHER
DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol) . 541Lipostabil N (phosphatidylcholine/sodium deoxycholate) . 543 GROWTH HORMONES & RELATED
Geref®(sermorelin acetate) . 547 Human Growth Hormone (somatropin) . 550 Increlex® (mecasermin) . 553Protropin® (somatrem) .555 William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Essentiale forte N . 577LIV-52® . 578Liver StabilTM . 579 Avodart® (dutasteride) . 583 Proscar® (finasteride) . 585 Oxsoralen (methoxsalen) . 589Trisoralen® (trioxsalen) . 591 TESTOSTERONE STIMULATING DRUGS
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) . 595 DRUG AVAILABILITY TABLES: COUNTRY
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Anabolic/androgenic steroids are approved for sale by symptoms of low testosterone levels. To begin with, prescription in virtually every pharmaceutical market raising testosterone levels above 350ng/dL (the very low around the world. Having been applied for many decades end of the normal range) will often restore normal sexual to treat a variety of diseased states, today these drugs function and libido in men with dysfunctions related to have a number of well-established medical uses. They hormone insufficiency. With regard to bone mineral have been used to treat most patient populations, hormone replacement therapy is also including men and women of almost all ages, ranging documented to have a significant positive effect. For from children to the elderly. In many instances example, studies administering 250 mg of testosterone anabolic/androgenic steroids have proven to be life enanthate every 21 days showed a 5% increase in bone saving medications, which is a fact easily overlooked with mineral density after six months.51 Over time this may all of the discussion about steroid abuse. This section prevent some loss of height and bone strength with details some of the most common and accepted medical aging, and may also reduce the risk of fracture. Hormone applications for anabolic/androgenic steroids.
replacement therapy also increases red blood cellconcentrations (oxygen carrying capacity), improving energy and sense of well-being.Therapy also supports theretention of lean body mass, and improves muscle The most widely used medical application for strength and endurance.
anabolic/androgenic steroids in the world is that ofandrogen replacement therapy. Also referred to as Unlike steroid abuse, hormone replacement therapy may Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) or Testosterone have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease risk.
Replacement Therapy (TRT), this therapy involves the For example, studies tend to show hormone replacement supplementation of the primary male hormone as having a positive effect on serum lipids. This includes a testosterone to alleviate symptoms of low hormone levels reduction in LDL and total cholesterol levels, combined (clinically referred to as hypogonadism). Patients may be with no significant change in HDL (good) cholesterol adolescent males suffering from childhood levels.52 53 Testosterone supplementation also reduces hypogonadism or a specific disorder that causes midsection obesity, and improves insulin sensitivity and androgenic hormone disruption, although most of the glycemic control.54 These are important factors in treated population consists of adult men over the age of metabolic syndrome, which may also be involved in the 30. In most cases hormone levels have declined in these progression of atherosclerosis. Additionally, testosterone men as a result of the normal aging process.
replacement therapy has been shown to improve theprofile of inflammatory markers TNF·, IL-1‚, and IL-10.55 The The most common complaints associated with low reduced inflammation may help protect arterial walls testosterone in adult men include reduced libido, erectile from degeneration by plaque and scar tissue. The medical dysfunction, loss of energy, decreased strength and/or consensus today appears to be that replacement therapy endurance, reduced ability to play sports, mood in otherwise healthy men generally does not have a fluctuations, reduced height (bone loss), reduced work negative effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and may performance, memory loss, and muscle loss.50 When actually decrease certain risk factors for the disease in associated with aging, these symptoms are collectively some patients.
placed under the label of "andropause".In a clinical settingthis disorder is referred to as late-onset hypogonadism.
There are some concerns with initiating testosterone Blood testosterone levels below 350ng/dL are usually replacement therapy when the individual is in poor regarded as clinically significant, although some health. One study examined the safety of HRT in men physicians will use a level as low as 200ng/dL as the aged 65 and older with limited mobility and various threshold for normal. Hypogonadism is, unfortunately, still health conditions such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, widely under-diagnosed. Most physicians will also not or hyperlipidemia.56 Each subject took a transdermal recommend treatment for low testosterone unless a testosterone gel (10g/100mg) or placebo gel daily for six patient is complaining about symptoms (symptomatic months. During the course of treatment, a total of 23 men in the testosterone group had cardiovascular-relatedadverse events. This was compared to only 9 in the Androgen replacement therapy effectively alleviates most placebo group. Another study with middle-aged William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
hypogonadal men found that testosterone replacement some patients, causing some to seek out injectable forms therapy (testosterone enanthate 250mg/2 weeks) of testosterone as an alternative.
reduced vascular reactivity, an important factor in Injection: Testosterone enanthate and testosterone atherosclerosis.57 These studies suggest that care should cypionate are the most widely prescribed injectable be taken when considering HRT in men with heart testosterone drugs in the United States and Canada. In disease, strong contributing factors to heart disease, or many other markets the blended ester products Sustanon other chronic health conditions.
100 and Sustanon 250 are also commonly prescribed.
There are other areas of concern with elderly patients. To Injection of one of these testosterone ester products will begin with, testosterone administration may increase provide the patient supplemental androgen levels for prostate volume and PSA values.58 59 While this does not approximately 2 to 3 weeks after each application. The appear to be of clinical significance with normal healthy most common protocol among hormone replacement patients, benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate doctors is to administer 200 mg of testosterone enanthate cancer can be stimulated by testosterone. Men with or cypionate once every 2 to 3 weeks. It is important to prostate cancer, high PSA values, or breast cancer are remember that testosterone esters will deliver varying generally not prescribed testosterone. Androgen levels of testosterone to the body on a day-to-day basis supplementation has also been linked to sleep apnea, throughout each application window. Levels will be which can interfere with the most restful (REM) phase of highest the first several days after injection, and will slowly sleep.60 The studies have produced conflicting data, decline to baseline over the following weeks. Physicians however, and the potential relationship remains the are usually encouraged to monitor their patients closely to ensure androgen supplementation is sustaining replacement therapy has demonstrated negative, hormone levels within the normal range (and alleviating positive, and neutral effects on cognitive functioning in symptoms of hypogonadism) throughout the entire elderly men.62 63 64 Studies do suggest that the dose can therapeutic period. The longer acting injectable dictate the level of response, with the most positive testosterone preparation Nebido (testosterone effects noted when the androgen level reaches the mid- undecanoate) is undergoing review in the U.S., and has to upper-range of normal, not supraphysiological.65 already been approved in other markets. This drug Elderly patients with preexisting deficits in cognitive requires only 4 to 5 injections per year for most patients.
function should have their cognitive performance and Oral: Testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) is the only blood hormone levels monitored closely during hormone prescription medication that delivers testosterone via an oral capsule. This medication is not approved for sale in Common Treatment Protocols: the United States, but is a prescription drug in Canada andmany other markets around the world. Patient compliance Transdermal: Transdermal application is the most and comfort are high with this form of therapy, as there commonly prescribed method for supplementing are no special routines or requirements aside from taking testosterone in the United States and Canada, and is a few capsules each day with meals. Oral testosterone generally the first course of therapy initiated with undecanoate is usually given at an initial dosage of 120 to androgen replacement therapy patients. This method of 160 mg per day, which equates to three to four 40 mg drug delivery offers a number of advantages to the capsules. This dosage may be reduced in subsequent patient when compared to injection. Since the weeks to 120 mg per day. The capsules are given in two transdermal application is painless, patient compliance divided doses per day, which are usually taken with and comfort is increased in comparison. Transdermal breakfast and dinner. While this form of therapy is highly application also provides stable day-to-day hormone convenient, serum hormone levels can fluctuate greatly levels, and does not produce the broad fluctuations on a day-to-day basis. The amount of fat consumption has usually noticed with injectable testosterone esters. The a particularly strong impact on hormone bioavailability, most common protocol among hormone replacement and meals providing at least 20 grams of fat are doctors is to prescribe a dosage of 2.5-10 mg of recommended when taking the capsules for maximum testosterone per day (approximate absorbed dose). This is absorption. Note that as with transdermal testosterone, applied as a rub-on gel or adhesive transdermal patch oral testosterone undecanoate tends to increase serum that is replaced daily. Note that due to metabolism in the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels more profoundly than skin, transdermal application of testosterone tends to increase serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels moreprofoundly than testosterone injection. This mayexacerbate androgenic side effects during therapy in William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
including aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis,agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, and anemias caused by Anabolic steroids are commonly prescribed for the malignancy or myelotoxic drugs.The level of response will treatment of hereditary angioedema, a rare and vary depending on the patient, type of therapy, and form potentially life-threatening disorder of the immune of anemia, but in many cases the management of a system. Hereditary angioedema is caused by genetic normal hematocrit level can be achieved.
mutations of blood clotting factors, characterized by adecrease in the level or functioning of the protein C1 In the United States, both oxymetholone (Anadrol 50) and esterase inhibitor. This protein controls C1, which is a nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) are approved by "complement system" protein that plays an important role the FDA for the treatment of severe anemia. The in the control of inflammation. Symptoms of hereditary guidelines for using oxymetholone with both male and angioedema include an intermittent but rapid swelling of female anemic patients (children and adults) recommend the hands, arms, legs, lips, eyes, tongue, or throat. Swelling a dosage of 1-2 mg/kg/per day. This would equate to a may also be noticed in the digestive tract, resulting in daily dosage of 75-150 mg for an individual weighing abdominal cramping, nausea, or vomiting. In the most about 160 lbs. Doses as high as 5 mg/kg/day are serious cases, the patient may notice a swelling of the sometimes necessary to achieve the desired therapeutic throat and a blockage of the airway passages, resulting in response. The guidelines for nandrolone decanoate asphyxiation and sydden death. Many attacks occur recommend a dosage of 50-100 mg per week for women without a specific trigger, although stress, trauma, surgery, and 100-200 mg per week for men. Children (2 to 13 years and dental work are commonly associated with of age) are recommended a dosage of 25- 50 mg every 3 angioedema attacks.
Oral c-17 alpha alkylated anabolic/androgenic steroids In recent years, the advent of recombinant erythropoietin have been shown to be a useful form of preventive as a prescription drug has changed the face of anemia therapy, stabilizing complement system protein levels and treatment considerably. While anabolic/androgenic reducing the frequency and severity of angioedema steroids still offer therapeutic value here, and are still attacks.66 They are usually administered in a low dose, marketed and sold to treat anemic patients, they are which is to be taken for long-term support of this disorder.
presently regarded as adjunct or fallback medications for The anabolic steroids that have been most commonly use only when therapy with an erythropoietin alone has used in the United States for this purpose are stanozolol failed to achieve a desired response. The hematocrit and danocrine, although historically many other agents increase from anabolic/androgenic steroids is generally have also been prescribed including oxandrolone, less predictable and positive methyltestosterone, oxymetholone, fluoxymesterone, and erythropoietins, and these drugs also tend to produce methandrostenolone. The amount of steroid needed can very noticeable side effects when given in the levels vary depending on the individual, and is usually necessary to stimulate erythropoiesis, especially in maintained at the lowest therapeutically effective dosage women and children. In many instances the risks to in an effort to offset undesirable side effects. FDA therapy strongly outweigh the benefits of approved prescribing guidelines for stanozolol anabolic/androgenic steroids, given that there are newer recommended an initial dosage of 2 mg three times daily and directly targeted medications available with much (6 mg per day). This would be slowly adjusted downward lower side effect potential.
to a maintenance level after a positive response wasnoted, usually to 2 mg given once every 1 to 2 days.
Breast Cancer
Anabolic/androgenic steroids are sometimes prescribed to treat beast cancer in postmenopausal women or As a class of drugs, anabolic/androgenic steroids stimulate premenopausal women who have had their ovaries the synthesis of erythropoietin in the kidneys, a hormone removed. These drugs are of value when the cancer is that supports the manufacture of new red blood cells. By hormone responsive, which means that its growth can be doing this, the administration of steroids tends to increase affected (positively or negatively) by hormonal the red cell count and hematocrit level, making them of manipulation. Androgens and estrogens have opposing tangible therapeutic value for treating certain forms of actions on hormone-responsive tumors, with estrogens anemia (a disease characterized by insufficient red blood supporting the growth of breast cancer tissue and cell production). Forms of anemia likely to respond to androgens inhibiting it67. The supplementation of an steroid therapy include anemias caused by renal anabolic/androgenic steroid can shift the androgen to insufficiency, sickle cell anemia, refractory anemias estrogen balance in a direction that favors a reduction in William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
tumor size, a therapy that has elicited a successful response in a fair number of patients. The masculinizingside effects of steroid therapy can be very pronounced in In a small percentage of cases, anabolic/androgenic women, however, so therapy is usually initiated with great steroids may be prescribed for the treatment of male caution. An oral androgen such as fluoxymesterone is infertility. When the cause of infertility is low sperm usually preferred to a slower acting injectable steroid such concentration due to Leydig-cell secretion deficiencies, an as nandrolone decanoate as well, as it can be abruptly androgen might be able to alleviate the condition. In such halted if undesirable side effects become too apparent.
cases the steroid may increase the sperm count, sperm Both primarily anabolic agents, however, have been quality and the fructose concentration,71 72 which can widely prescribed for this purpose.
increase the chance of conception. The oral androgenmesterolone (Proviron) is most commonly prescribed for In recent years the development of newer and more this purpose, although has not been granted FDA targeted anti-estrogenic drugs such as selective estrogen approval for sale in the United States. Note that receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibiting anabolic/androgenic steroids usually reduce male fertility, drugs have almost completely eliminated the use of so the potential for these agents to successfully treat male anabolic/androgenic steroids for breast cancer treatment.
fertility is limited.
Medicative treatment for breast cancer today usuallyconsists of a SERM like Nolvadex (tamoxifen), which may be used with a strong aromatase inhibitor such asArimidex (anastrozole) or Femara (exemestane).
Anabolic steroids may be prescribed to treat growth Anabolic/androgenic steroids are still made available in failure in children, both with and without growth the United States and many other nations for treating hormone deficiency. These agents have been shown to breast cancer, and are sometimes still applied. They are have positive effects on both muscle and bone mass.
very much regarded as adjunct or fallback medications, When they are administered before the ends of the long however, for use only when therapy with anti-estrogenic bones (epiphysis) have fused and further linear growth drugs alone has failed to achieve a desired response.
has been halted, their anabolic effects on bone maysupport an increase in height.73 This can occur both Decreased Fibrinolytic Activity
through direct anabolic action of the steroid on bonecells, and indirectly via the stimulation of growth Anabolic steroids may be prescribed to treat conditions hormone and IGF-1 release.74 An anabolic steroid that is associated with decreased fibrinolytic activity. Fibrinolysis non-aromatizable and non-estrogenic is typically used for is the process in which a blood clot is broken down and this purpose, as estrogen is known to cause an metabolized by the body. It represents a counter to blood acceleration of growth arrest. Anabolic steroid therapy coagulation, with the two systems working together to must always be used with caution in pediatric patients, maintain the hemostatic balance. Disorders of the however. In addition to the possibility of common adverse fibrinolytic system are rare, although can be very serious effects, even non-aromatizable steroids may accelerate in nature when they do occur. Decreased fibrinolytic the rate of epiphysis closure.75 activity can result in a shift in blood clotting factors thatgreatly favor coagulation (hypercoagulability), increasing In the United States, oxandrolone is the anabolic steroid the risk of a serious cardiovascular event such as most widely prescribed for the treatment of growth thromboembolism, heart attack, or stroke. Oral C-17 alpha failure. It is usually given as a supportive medication, used alkylated anabolic steroids are recognized to increase to augment the anabolic effects of human growth fibrinolytic activity, and as a result have been beneficial in hormone therapy.The drug is typically taken for periods of many patients suffering from decreased fibrinolytic 6-12 months at a time, in an effort to accelerate the activity linked to Antithrombin III deficiency or fibrinogen growth rate without substantially affecting the rate of excess.68 69 Stanozolol has been most commonly used in epiphysis fusion. A dosage of 2.5 mg per day is often used the United States for this treatment, although similar for this purpose, although this may be adjusted upwards therapeutic benefits can be seen with many other or downwards depending on the patient's sex, age, anabolic steroids. The maintenance dose is tailored to the bodyweight, and sensitivity to adverse effects. When used individual, and is determined with close monitoring of under optimal conditions, the result may be an both side effects and changes to blood coagulation enhancement of the growth rate and an increase in total parameters. Esterified injectables and oral non-alkylated height compared to not initiating therapy.This benefit has steroids do not produce the same fibrinolytic response.70 been difficult to achieve consistently in clinical studies,however. A number of trials with oxandrolone have failedto produce a statistically significant effect on total height,

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Steroid Side Effects
While anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are generally with stable or increased LDL levels. Triglyceride levels may regarded as therapeutic drugs with high safety, their use also increase.The shift can be unfavorable in all directions.
can also be associated with a number of adverse cosmetic, Note that in some cases, the total cholesterol count will physical, and psychological effects. Many of these side not change significantly. The total cholesterol level can, effects are often apparent during therapeutic-use therefore, give a false representation of uncompromised conditions, although their incidence tends to increase lipid health. Almost invariably the underlying HDL/LDL profoundly as the dosages reach supratherapeutic ranges.
ratio will decrease.While this ratio should return to normal Virtually everyone that abuses anabolic/androgenic following the cessation of steroid intake, plaque deposits steroids for physique- or performance-enhancing in the arteries are more permanent. If unfavorable shifts in purposes notices some form of adverse effects from their lipids are exacerbated by the long-term use of steroidal use. According to one study, the exact frequency of compounds, significant damage to the cardiovascular tangible side effects in a group of steroid abusers was system can result.
96.4%. This shows very clearly that it is far more rare toabuse these drugs and not notice side effects than it is toendure them.90 In addition to the side effects thatanabolic/androgenic steroids can have on various internalsystems, there are others which may not be immediatelyapparent to the user. The following is a summary of thebiological systems and reactions effected by AAS use.
The use of anabolic/androgenic steroids insupratherapeutic (and often therapeutic) doses can havea number of adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.
This may be noticed in several areas including unfavorablealterations in serum cholesterol, a thickening ofventricular walls, increased blood pressure, and changes Over time, plaque deposits may begin to narrow and clog
in vascular reactivity. In an acute sense these drugs are admittedly very safe. The risk of an otherwise healthyperson suffering a heart attack from an isolated steroidcycle is extremely remote. The risk of stroke is also Anabolic/androgenic steroids are most consistent in their extremely low. When these drugs are abused for long lowering of HDL levels. This adverse effect is mediated periods, however, their adverse effects on the through the androgenic stimulation of hepatic lipase, a cardiovascular system are given time to accumulate. An liver enzyme responsible for the breakdown of HDL increased chance of early death due to heart attack or (good) cholesterol.91 With more hepatic lipase activity in stroke is, likewise, a valid risk with long-term steroid abuse.
the body, the favorable (anti-atherogenic) HDL cholesterol In order to better understand this risk, we must look particles are cleared from circulation more quickly, and specifically at how anabolic/androgenic steroids affect their levels drop. This is an effect that seems to be very the cardiovascular system in several key ways.
pronounced at even modest supratherapeutic dosagelevels. For example, studies with testosterone cypionate noted a 21% drop in HDL cholesterol with a dosage of 300mg per week.92 Increasing this dosage to 600 mg did not Anabolic/androgenic steroids use can adversely affect have any significant additional effect, suggesting that the both HDL (good) and LDL (bad) cholesterol values. The dosage threshold for strong HDL suppression is fairly low.
ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol fractions provides a rough Oral steroids, especially c-17 alpha alkylated compounds, snapshot of the ongoing disposition of plaque in the are particularly potent at stimulating hepatic lipase and arteries, either favoring atherogenic or anti-atherogenic suppressing HDL levels. This is due to first pass actions. The general pattern seen during steroid use is a concentration and metabolism in the liver. A drug like lowering of HDL concentrations, which is often combined William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
stanozolol may, therefore, be milder than testosterone with regard to androgenic side effects, but not when itcomes to cardiovascular strain. A study comparing the The human heart is a muscle. It possesses functional effects of a weekly injection of 200 mg testosterone androgen receptors, and is growth-responsive to male enanthate to only a 6 mg daily oral dose of stanozolol steroid hormones. This fact partly accounts for men demonstrates the strong difference between these two having a larger heart mass on average than women.95 types of drugs very well.93 After only six weeks, 6 mg of Physical activity can also have a strong effect on the stanozolol was shown to reduce HDL and HDL-2 growth of the heart. Resistance exercise (anaerobic) tends cholesterol levels by an average of 33 and 71% to increase heart size by a thickening of the ventricular respectively. HDL levels (mainly the HDL-3 subfraction) wall, usually without an equal expansion of the internal were reduced by only 9% in the testosterone group. LDL cavity. This is known as concentric remodeling. Endurance cholesterol levels also rose 29% with stanozolol, while (aerobic) athletes, on the other hand, tend to increase they dropped 16% with testosterone. Esterified injectable heart size via expansion of the internal cavity, without steroids are generally less stressful to the cardiovascular significant thickening of the ventricles (eccentric system than oral agents.
Even with concentric or eccentric remodeling, diastolic function usually remains normal in It is also important to note that estrogens can have a the athletic heart. The heart muscle is also dynamic. When favorable impact on cholesterol profiles.
regular training is removed from a conditioned athlete, aromatization of testosterone to estradiol may, therefore, the wall thickening and cavity expansion tend to reduce.
prevent a more dramatic change in serum cholesterol. Astudy examined this effect by comparing the lipid Anabolic steroid abusers are at risk for thickening of the changes caused by 280 mg of testosterone enanthate per left and right ventricular walls,96 known as ventricular week, with and without the aromatase inhibitor hypertrophy. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle (the main testolactone.94 Methyltestosterone was also tested in a pumping chamber) in particular is extensively third group, at a dose of 20 mg daily, to judge the documented in anabolic/androgenic steroid abusers.97 comparative effect of an oral alkylated steroid. The group While left ventricular hypertrophy is, again, also found in using only testosterone enanthate in this study showed a natural power athletes, substance-abusing athletes tend small but not significant decrease in HDL cholesterol to have a much more profound wall thickening. They also values over the course of the 12-week investigation. After tend to develop pathological issues related to this only four weeks, however, the group using testosterone thickening, including impaired diastolic function, and plus the aromatase inhibitor displayed an HDL reduction ultimately reduced heart efficiency.98 The level of of an average of 25%.
impairment is closely associated with the dose and methyltestosterone experienced the strongest HDL duration of steroid abuse. A left ventricle wall exceeding reduction in the study, which dropped 35% after four 13mm in thickness is rare naturally, and may be indicative weeks. This group also noticed an unfavorable rise in LDL of steroid-abuse or other causes.99 It may further suggest cholesterol levels.
that pathological left ventricular hypertrophy hasdeveloped. Additional testing of such patients is The potential positive effect of estrogen on cholesterol values also makes the issue of estrogen maintenancesomething to consider when it comes to health risks. To Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent begin with, one may want to consider whether or not predictor of mortality in overweight individuals with high estrogen maintenance drugs are actually necessary in any blood pressure.100 It has also been linked to atrial given circumstance. Are side effects apparent, or is their fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden collapse use a preventative step and perhaps unnecessary? The and death.101 While LVH in non-steroid-using athletes maintenance drug of choice can also have a measurable tends to be without clinical significance, pathological impact on cholesterol outcomes. For example, the increases in QT dispersion are noticed in steroid abusers estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen citrate does not with LVH.102 These changes tend to be similar to the seem to exhibit anti-estrogenic effects on cholesterol increases in QT dispersion noted in hypertensive patients values, and in fact tends to increase HDL levels in some with LVH.103 Among other things, this could leave a steroid patients. Many individuals decide to use tamoxifen to abusing individual more susceptible to a serious adverse combat estrogenic side effects instead of an aromatase event, including arrhythmia or heart attack. Isolated inhibitor for this reason, particularly when they are using medical case studies of longtime steroid abusers support steroids for longer periods of time, and are concerned an association between LVH and related pathologies about their cumulative cardiovascular side effects.
including ventricular tachycardia (arrhythmia originatingin the left ventricle), left ventricular hypokinesis William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
(weakened contraction of the left ventricle), and taking steroids.114 Hypertension, or consistently high decreased ejection fraction (reduced pumping volume blood pressure at or above 140/90 for either systolic or and efficiency).104 diastolic measures, has been reported in steroid users,115although in most cases the elevations are more modest.
Heart mass can increase or decrease in relation to the Increased blood pressure may be caused by a number of current state of anabolic/steroid use, the average dosage, factors, including increased water retention, increased and duration of intake. Likewise, the heart usually begins vascular stiffness, and increased hematocrit. Aromatizing to reduce in size once anabolic/androgenic steroids are or highly estrogenic steroids tend to cause the greatest no longer being used. This effect is similar to the way the influences over blood pressure, although elevations heart will reduce in size once an athlete no longer follows cannot be excluded with non-estrogenic a rigorous training schedule.105 Even with this effect, anabolic/androgenic steroids. Blood pressure tends to however, some changes in heart muscle size and function normalize once anabolic/androgenic steroids have been caused by the drugs may persist. Studies examining the effects of steroid use and withdrawal on left ventricularhypertrophy noted that athletic subjects who abstained Hematological (Blood Clotting)
from steroid abuse for at least several years still had aslightly greater degree of concentric left ventricular Anabolic/androgenic steroids can cause a number of hypertrophy compared to non-steroid-using athletic changes in the hematological system that affect blood controls.106 The disposition of pathological left ventricular clotting. This effect can be very variable, however. The hypertrophy following long-term steroid abuse and then therapeutic use of these drugs is known to increase abstinence remains the subject of investigation and plasmin, antithrombin III, and protein S levels, stimulate fibrinolysis (clot breakdown), and suppress clottingfactors II, V, VII, and X.116 117 These changes all work to Heart Muscle Damage
reduce clotting ability. Prescribing guidelines foranabolic/androgenic steroids warn of potential increases Anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse is suspected of in prothrombin time, a measure of how long it takes for a producing direct damage to the heart muscle in some blood clot to form.118 If prothrombin time increases too cases. Studies exposing heart cell cultures to AAS have greatly, healing may be impaired. The effects of reported reduced contractile activity, increased cell anabolic/androgenic steroids on prothrombin time are fragility, and reduced cellular (mitochondrial) activity, generally of no clinical significance to healthy individuals providing some support for a possible direct toxic effect using these drugs in therapeutic dosages. Patients taking to the heart muscle.107 108 Furthermore, a number of case anticoagulants (blood thinners), however, could be reports have found such pathologies as myocardial adversely affected by their use.
fibrosis (scar tissue buildup in the heart), myocardialinflammation (inflammation of heart tissue), cardiac Conversely, anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse has been steatosis (accumulation of triglycerides inside heart cells), linked to increases in blood clotting ability. These drugs and myocardial necrosis (death of heart tissue) in long- can elevate levels of thrombin119 and C-reactive term steroid abusers.109 110 111 112 A direct link between protein,120 as well as thromboxane A2 receptor density,121 drug abuse and cardiac pathologies is assumed in these which can support platelet aggregation and the cases, but cannot be proven given the slow nature in formation of blood clots. Studies of steroid users have which these cardiac pathologies develop, and the demonstrated statistically significant increases in platelet influence many other factors (such as diet, exercise, aggregation values in some subjects.122 There are also a lifestyle, and genetics) can have on them. Individuals growing number of case reports where (sometimes fatal) remain cautioned about the possibility of cardiac muscle blood clots, embolisms, and stokes have occurred in damage with long-term steroid abuse.
steroid abusers.123 124 125 126 127 Although it has beendifficult to conclusively link these events directly to steroid abuse, the adverse effects of anabolic steroids oncomponents of the blood coagulation system are well Anabolic/androgenic steroids may elevate blood understood. These serious adverse effects are now pressure. Studies of bodybuilders taking these drugs in regarded as recognized risks of steroid abuse among supratherapeutic doses have demonstrated increases in many that study these drugs.
both systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings.113Another study measured the average blood pressure In therapeutic levels, the anti-thrombic effects of reading in a group of steroid users to be 140/85, which anabolic/androgenic steroids seem to dominate was compared to 125/80 in weight lifting controls not physiology, and decreases in blood clotting ability may be William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
noted. At a certain supratherapeutic dosage point, point until the hematocrit issues have been corrected.
however, the pro-thrombic changes appear to overtake Minor elevations in hematocrit may be addressed with the anti-thrombic changes, and physiology begins to phlebotomy. For this, 1 pint of blood may be removed favor fast and abnormally thick clot formation periodically during steroid intake, often every two (hypercoagulability). The exact dosage threshold or months. Proper hydration is also important, as conditions required to increase blood clotting has not dehydration can temporarily cause the hematocrit level to been determined, and some studies with steroid users elevate, giving a false positive for polycythemia. The daily taking supraphysiological doses fail to demonstrate intake of aspirin is also commonly advised if the increased coagulability.128 Individuals remain warned of hematocrit is above normal, as this will reduce platelet the potential increases in thrombic risk with aggregation, or the tendency for platelets to stick anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse. Blood clotting together and form clots. Individuals remain cautioned of tendency should return to the pretreated state after the the potential cardiovascular danger of high hematocrit discontinuance of anabolic/androgenic steroids.
levels associated with anabolic/androgenic steroid use.
Anabolic/androgenic steroids stimulate erythropoiesis Anabolic/androgenic steroids may elevate homocysteine (red blood cell production). One potential adverse effect levels. Homocysteine is an intermediary amino acid of this is polycythemia, or the overproduction of red blood produced as a byproduct of methionine metabolism. High cells. Polycythemia can be reflected in the hematocrit levels of homocysteine have been linked to elevations in level, or the percentage of blood volume that is made up the risk for cardiovascular disease.131 It is believed to play of red cells. As the hematocrit rises, so too does the a direct role in the disease, increasing oxidative stress, viscosity of the blood. If the blood becomes too thick, its including the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, and ability to circulate becomes impaired. This can greatly Elevated levels of increase the risk of serious thrombic event including homocysteine may also induce vascular cell damage, embolism and stroke. A high hematocrit level is also an support platelet aggregation, and increase the likelihood independent risk factor for heart disease.129 The normal of thrombic event.133 134 135 The normal range for hematocrit level in men is 40.7 to 50.3%, and in women it homocysteine levels in men aged 30 to 59 years is 6.3- is 36.1 to 44.3% (numbers may vary very slightly 11.2umol/L. For women of the same age the average is depending on the source). For the sake of scale, while a 4.5-7.9umol/L. Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, or hematocrit of 50% may be normal, a hematocrit of 60% or other thrombic event are noted with even modest above is considered critical (life threatening).
elevations in homocysteine. According to one study, ahomocysteine level exceeding 15umol/L in patients with Anabolic/steroid administration tends to raise the heart disease is associated with a 24.7% increased hematocrit level by several percentage points, sometimes likelihood of death within five years.136 more. As a result, many steroid-using bodybuilders willhave hematocrit levels that are above the normal range.
Androgens stimulate elevations in homocysteine,137 and For example, one study measured the average hematocrit men have an approximately 25% higher level on average in a group of steroid abusing competitive bodybuilders to than women.138 Anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse has be 55.7%.130 This level is considered clinically high, and been associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, or would increase blood viscosity enough to raise the risk of consistent clinically high homocysteine levels.139 One serious cardiovascular event. Although not likely to be an study found that the average homocysteine isolated cause, high hematocrit is believed to have been a concentration in a group of 10 men that had been self- contributing factor in the deaths of a number of steroid administering anabolic/androgenic steroids (in a cyclic abusers, usually paired with high blood pressure, pattern) for 20 years was 13.2 umol/L.140 Three of these homocysteine, and/or atherosclerosis. The average men died of a heart attack during the investigation, and hematocrit level in bodybuilders not taking had homocysteine levels between 15umol/L and anabolic/androgenic steroids was 45.6%, well within the The average homocysteine level in normal range for healthy adult men.
bodybuilders who had never taken steroids was8.7umol/L, while it was 10.4umol/L in previous steroid Many physicians that specialize in hormone replacement users (3 months abstinence). One study did show that therapy consider a hematocrit level of 55% to be an administering 200 mg of testosterone enanthate (with absolute cutoff point. At or above this point, and and without an aromatase inhibitor) for three weeks failed anabolic/androgenic steroid therapy cannot be to produce a significant elevation in homocysteine.141 It is continued safely. Drug intake would be ceased at this unknown if the moderate dosage, drug type (esterified

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
injectable vs. c17-aa), or short duration of intake were vascular reactivity. Studies at the University of Innsbruck in factors in the differing outcome from other studies.
Austria compared the level of endothelial dilation in 20 Individuals remain warned of the potential for elevations steroid users to a group of control athletes.144 Those in the homocysteine level with steroid abuse.
individuals using anabolic steroids noticed slight butmeasurably impaired vascular dilation and endothelial function. Additional studies at the University of Wales inCardiff comparing vascular dilation in active, previous, and The endothelium is a layer of cells that line the entire non- steroid users, also demonstrated anabolic steroids to circulatory system. These cells are found on the inside of cause a decline in endothelial-independent all blood vessels, and help increase or decrease blood flow vasodilation.145 These effects leave the steroid user with and pressure by relaxing or constricting the vessels more relative "stiffness" in the vascular system, which (referred to as vasodilation and vasoconstriction, could increase the chance of an adverse cardiovascular respectively). These cells also help regulate the passage of event. In both studies, vascular reactivity improved after materials in and out of blood vessels, and are involved in a the discontinuance of anabolic/androgenic steroids.
number of important vascular processes including bloodclotting and new blood vessel formation. Having a more Proving an Association
flexible (reactive) endothelium is generally considereddesirable for health, and, likewise, the endothelium is Direct links between steroid abuse and individual cases of often compromised in individuals with cardiovascular stroke and heart attack have been difficult to prove. There disease. Patients with endothelial dysfunction tend to are a number of things that have made this difficult. For notice greater vasoconstriction, restricted blood flow, one, cardiovascular disease is very common in men. It also higher blood pressure, local inflammation, and reduced usually takes decades to develop. This makes individual circulatory capacity.142 This may place them at greater risk contributing factors (which include many things such as for heart attack, stroke, or thrombosis (blood clot).
diet, lifestyle, health status, and genetic variables)extremely difficult to isolate. Data concerning the long- Endothelial cells are androgen responsive, which may term use of steroids in physique- or performance- partly account for men exhibiting less vascular reactivity enhancing doses is also very limited. It would be unethical than women.143 Similarly, anabolic/androgenic steroid use to conduct a controlled study where participants were has been shown to impair endothelial activity and given abusive doses of steroids for many years, so the data Anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse can produce changes in a number of areas of cardiovascular health that can work together
to increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, or embolism.

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
The Endocrinology of Muscle Growth
The road to anabolic insight must include a biological regulation. The following is a rundown of the chain of understanding of what muscle growth actually entails.
hormones and growth factors that mediate muscle Often simplified by the term "protein synthesis", muscle growth, from the initiation of damage, to final recovery, growth is actually a highly complex process involving repair, and growth. For the sake of organization, I have much more than just building proteins from amino acids.
presented them in what I consider to be three logical Muscle hypertrophy, the correct scientific term for the way phases of action. These are not scientifically accepted we adult humans build skeletal muscle, actually requires definitions. Additionally, we could continue to go deeper the fusion of new cells (called satellite cells) with existing and deeper into each of the various compounds, muscle fibers. Since this discovery of satellite cells in 1961, messengers, binding proteins, and receptors involved in a great deal of research into the mechanisms of muscle this intricate and amazing biological activity. I believe the hypertrophy has been undertaken. Scientists have come included text will demonstrate the process of muscle to understand that unlike normal muscle cells, these anabolism in a very tangible way, however, without too satellite cells can be regenerated throughout adult life.
much unnecessary information. Each of the key areas of Furthermore, they serve not as functional units of their this section can be further researched for more detail if own, but provide some of the necessary components to you are interested. For one so inclined, the medical repair and rebuild damaged muscle cells. These satellite references in the endnotes would be an excellent place to cells are normally dormant, and sit resting in small indentations on the outer surface of the muscle fibers,waiting for something to trigger them into activation.
Injury or trauma will provide the stimulus necessary to We all understand that weight training is fundamental to activate satellite cells. Once activated, they will begin to growing muscle tissue. To date, no "sit on your ass and get divide, multiply, and form into myoblasts (myoblasts are huge and ripped"pill has been invented.The reason is that essentially donor cells that express myogenic genes). This a number of changes take place in your local muscle stage of hypertrophy is often referred to as satellite cell tissues during intense training that are vital to the growth proliferation. The myoblasts will then fuse with existing process. Without these early changes, growth is difficult if muscle fibers, donating their nuclei. This stage of the not impossible to stimulate. So for our purposes, we will process is usually called differentiation. Skeletal muscle start here. Training is the "trigger" in the anabolic process.
cells are multinucleated, which means they possess many More specifically, it is the localized cellular damage that nuclei. Increasing the number of nuclei allows the cell to weight training produces that will first set us down the regulate more cytoplasm, which allows more actin and road of anabolism.The body will respond by repairing this myosin, the two dominant contractile proteins in skeletal damage, and in the process will try to adapt by making muscle, to be produced. This increases the overall cell size itself stronger. Muscle growth is always a circular process, and protein content of the muscle cell. Incidentally, the with a step back (damage) being necessary to take any number of nuclei in relation to cross-sectional area also steps forward.
helps to determine the fiber type of the cell, namely slowtwitch (aerobic) or fast twitch (anaerobic)332 333. It is Phase I: Initial Response
important to note that we are not increasing muscle cellnumber with muscle hypertrophy. We are only increasing The Initial Response phase covers those changes in cell size and protein content, even though we are using muscle chemistry that begin immediately, during training, satellite cells to help accomplish this. It is possible for which will lay the groundwork for later repair and growth.
myoblasts to fuse together and actually form new muscle In many regards, the Initial Response Phase will control fibers.This is called muscle hyperplasia, and equates to the the potential magnitude of other signals to follow. In the legitimate growth of new muscle tissue. This is, however, anabolic process, this phase is categorized by the release not the primary mechanism of muscle growth in adult life.
of arachidonic acid from muscle cells, and the formation ofactive messengers including prostaglandins, cytokines, The Anabolic Chain
leukotrienes, and prostacyclins. This begins with thebreakdown of the outer phospholipid layer of muscle Now that we know what muscle hypertrophy is really cells, which is initiated by the cellular disruption of about, let's look at anabolic stimulus and ongoing damaging exercise.334 Phospholipases are released in William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Quiescent Satellite Cell Satellite Cell Activation and Proliferation Regenerated Myofiber with Added Nuclei Migration to Injured Fiber Fusion to Damaged Myofiber (Hypertrophy) Fusion to Produce New Myofibers (Hyperplasia) MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY AND THE 4 STAGES OF THE SATELLITE CELL CYCLE
During the Activation stage, dormant satellite cells are stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Proliferation marks the formation of
new myoblasts (active donor cells). These myoblasts will fuse with existing damaged muscle fibers during the Differentiation
phase. This allows for greater protein synthesis and the expansion of cell size. Quiescence marks the return to a dormant
state, where the inactive satellite cells will again rest on the outer layer of the fibers. Myostatin, a known inhibitor of muscle
growth, is believed to be a key regulator in this stage.
335 336
response to this trauma, which causes some of the dilating blood vessels (to increase the flow of nutrients phospholipids stored in the outer layer of the muscle cells and hormones to the muscles) and increasing the to be released. The eccentric part of the exercise production of HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) for satellite movement is of particular importance here, which is the cell activation.
Arachidonic acid contributes to "negative" part of the lift, where the muscle is stretched inflammation and pain signaling as well, and its release under resistance.
plays an integral role in the soreness that follows aproductive bout of training.
The amount of arachidonic acid, which is the centralbioactive lipid in the anabolic process, liberated will Training intensity and the relative density of arachidonic largely control what occurs during this phase. Arachidonic acid in the phospholipid layer (arachidonic acid acid is converted locally and immediately via enzymes to availability is ultimately the rate-limiting step in the a number of active anabolic end products, the most formation of anabolic prostaglandins) will dictate how notable of which (in terms of muscle growth) are much of this potent lipid can be liberated during exercise.
prostaglandins, which are produced via interaction with The amount of arachidonic acid stored in skeletal muscle cyclooxygenase enzymes. These prostaglandins (PGE2 tissue is also in a state of constant flux. A number of factors and PGF2alpha mainly) will control much of the next are involved with its regulation, the most notable of which phase, identified here as the Localized Tissue Priming are dietary intake and daily utilization. Regular resistance phase. Additionally, the prostaglandin PGE2 will work to training depletes arachidonic acid stores, replacing it with increase local nitric oxide levels, which is also an active other, more abundant, fatty acids.337 With less arachidonic molecule in the anabolic process. It has such actions as acid available, the responsiveness of the prostaglandin William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
system to regular exercise starts to diminish.338 Have you To put it in perspective, we need to remember that there ever wondered why you were so sore when you first start are two separate components that interact before any training, or after you took a long break? Or why those early message is sent to a muscle cell telling it to increase workouts tended to be so much more productive than later growth. We have a hormone or growth factor on one ones, where you struggle to notice even moderate soreness? hand, such as testosterone, IGF-1, MGF, or insulin, and its Much of this is directly tied to your arachidonic acid corresponding receptor on the other. Injecting exogenous stores. The more arachidonic acid you have, the easier it is anabolic drugs facilitates greater receptor binding and to liberate during training, and vice versa.Thankfully, levels anabolic signaling by providing more messenger can be augmented with dietary intervention (for more hormones/growth factors (obviously).
information, see the arachidonic acid profile).
hormones or growth factors you have around the cell, themore binding and activation of receptor sites will take Phase II: Localized Tissue Priming
place. We cannot forget, however, that having morereceptor sites (instead of more hormones) can also Phase II is characterized by a localized increase in growth facilitate the process too. More receptors mean the factor expression and tissue sensitivity to anabolic existing hormones or growth factors will find them faster.
hormones. Those who have always wondered why Faster binding means the anabolic message is sent more anabolic drugs do not work without training will find a quickly, and once completed that the anabolic messenger good explanation right here. Simply put, your muscles will be more likely to find another receptor site (to send need to be primed for the actions of these drugs first. One another message) before it is broken down by enzymes. It way the body accomplishes this is to increase the density is all about how much signal can be sent in a given time of certain receptors in those specific muscles (fibers really) period, and both sides of the equation are equally where it needs to initiate repair. This includes, among important in determining this.
others, androgen, IGF-1, MGF, and insulin receptors.
Stretch-induced muscle damage and the Phase I response While on one hand we have an increase in tissue are both principle triggers here. Receptor density sensitivity to anabolic hormones and growth factors, also regulation is important because it prevents anabolic vital during the Localized Tissue Priming phase is an hormones from stimulating tissue growth in areas of the increase in the localized expression of certain vital growth body that do not require it. Receptor density can, factors themselves. This includes IGF-1, MGF, FGF, HGF, TNF, therefore, be as strong a regulating force on the IL-1, and IL-6. These compounds will be released, and will pharmacological activity of anabolic drugs as the serum work together on the existing damaged muscle fibers and levels of the drugs themselves.
satellite cells, in a sort of grand symphony of muscleanabolism, with each playing its own vital role in the Focus on eccentric movement Note: Inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme with
anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen,
acetaminophen, or aspirin, prevents the formation of

active prostaglandins. The anabolic cascade is stalled
Catabolizes outer phospholipid layer without sufficient prostaglandin formation (Am J
Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E551-6), interfering
with the normal increase in protein synthesis rates
after exercise. It is often advised to use such drugs

Arachidonic Acid Release
only when necessary if muscle growth is a key focus.
The body's core anabolic lipid And other active end products of arachidonic acid William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
process. In many cases, the actions of one compound will increases protein synthesis, and supports the proliferation support the other, either by enhancing its levels, and differentiation of satellite cells. The prostaglandin suppressing restricting binding proteins, or supporting its PGF2alpha is known to strongly up-regulate local IGF-I signaling via intertwined mechanisms. A detailed receptor expression.342 343 PGE2 is also believed to play a roadmap to all such interactions would go well beyond role in increasing local IGF-1 synthesis.344 the scope of this book, and in fact are as of yet not even Insulin-Like Growth Factor II (IGF-II): IGF-II is a second
fully understood to science. A general overview of what is insulin-like growth factor that plays a role in the going on with each compound itself, however, is provided proliferation of satellite cells. Unlike IGF-I, IGF-II expression in our review of Phase III.
does not appear to drastically increase in response to Phase III: Repair
Mechano-Growth Factor (MGF): Mechano-Growth
Your local muscle tissues are primed during Phases I and Factor is a recently discovered variant of Insulin-Like II. During Phase III, the hormones and growth factors go to Growth Factor I. This growth factor is produced during an work to finish the job. We categorize this phase as one of alternate splicing sequence of the IGF protein, and plays a ongoing anabolic action, action mediated by the strong role in the support of myoblast proliferation. MGF combined effects of many anabolic hormones and growth expression, like many of the growth factors discussed factors including androgens, insulin, IGF-1, IGF-2, MGF, FGF, here, is strongly up-regulated in muscle tissue in response HGF, TNF, IL-1, and IL-6. This is the time when repair and to stretch stimulus.346 hypertrophy are physically taking place in your muscles,and each compound will play an intricate role in the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF): FGF is actually a family
process. We must not forget, however, that everything of growth factors, with nine different isoforms (FGF-1 leading up to this point (the actions in Phase I & II) has still through FGF-9). The full role that FGF plays in muscle been determining how strong the growth response will be, hypertrophy in adulthood is not fully understood, via modifying receptor densities and hormone/growth however, it is believed to be a strong proliferator of factor expression. We will follow the individual actions of satellite cells, serving to expand their population.347 FGF's the anabolic components very closely here. During the may also play a role in cell differentiation. As with many third phase, tissue repair and growth will be finalized with growth factors, FGF expression up-regulation is the help of the following hormones and growth factors.
proportional to the degree of tissue damage.348 FGF-2 andFGF-4 seem to be the most prolific representatives of this Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF): HGF is a heparin-
family in mature muscle tissue.
binding growth factor that resides on the outer surface ofuninjured cells. Upon injury, it migrates to satellite cells Insulin: In addition to having some ability to increase
where it triggers their activation and entry into the cell protein synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown, insulin is cycle.339 HGF expression is regulated via nitric oxide the body's chief nutrient transport hormone. The actions release,340 which is stimulated upon injury to also aid in of insulin allow cells to transport glucose and amino acids the flow of nutrients and hormones to the area. PGE2 through the plasma membrane. Insulin receptor plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide synthesis and HGF expression is strongly up-regulated after traumatic exercise, so as to provide more immediate nutrition to theaffected area. This up-regulation has been closely linked Androgens (the hormones that to the prostaglandin PGE2.349 350 anabolic/androgenic steroids mimic) are strongsupporters of protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle Cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF): Cytokines are a group of
tissue. They are also known to stimulate local IGF-1 immunomodulatory compounds, though in the context expression, so the effects of these hormones extend to the of this section we are loosely referring to them as growth satellite cell cycle (perhaps explaining why they are such factors. The IL cytokines are called interleukins, and TNF is strong stimulators of muscle growth). It is also of note that short for Tumor Necrosis Factor. Among other things, arachidonic acid increases androgen receptor density in cytokines are known to stimulate the migration of skeletal muscle tissue. This helps to further piece together lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and other healing the biochemical links between the Phase I and Phase II cells to a site of tissue damage, to aid in cell repair. They help in a number of other ways too, such as aiding in theremoval of damaged cells and regulating certain Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I): IGF-I is an insulin-
inflammatory responses, including the production of like hormone with marked anabolic effects. Owing to its some prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are known to play name, it also has some insulin-like effects as well. IGF-I important roles in the expression of all three of the

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
cytokines mentioned here,351 352 however, they may not confounding scientists for decades, and undoubtedly will be the sole stimulus. Other pathways of arachidonic acid for decades more. We still have a great way to go before metabolism may also be involved.
being able to explain fully how it is that musclehypertrophy occurs in humans. But as you can see, we Prostaglandins: Although these are the key initial
have traveled a great distance as well. During the mid- reactionary chemicals, prostaglandins continue to play a 1960s, scientists were only first learning that we grow role throughout the muscle building process (including muscle with the help of satellite cells. More than forty Phase III). This includes their support of hormone receptor years later we have identified, and are experimenting proliferation, the enhancement of protein synthesis rates, with, dozens of growth factors that were unheard of back and an intensification of the anabolic signaling of IGF-1 via a then. It is a new world today, and despite not having all the shared pathway (PI3K).353 answers, we know enough to enhance human Estrogens: Although not specifically highlighted in this
performance in many exciting new ways. But please don't outline, estrogens also play a minor role in the anabolic mistake the intention of this section. It is not here to give process. This includes helping to increase androgen you a functional roadmap of the entire anabolic process, receptor density in certain tissues (though perhaps not or to guide you in the ultimate polydrug program. It is skeletal muscle), stimulating the GH/IGF-1 axis, and here simply to open your mind to the true complexity of enhancing glucose utilization for tissue growth and repair.
anabolism. When we start to see muscle growth from itsvarious angles and intricacies, we begin to see our own Bringing it All Together
potential opportunities for successful exploitation. Howmany of these opportunities you act upon will depend on So that, in a very loose nutshell, is what is going on inside your own goals and interests. But no matter how much or your body from the time you pick up a weight to the time how little you actually apply this information, I hope you your muscles are repaired, stronger, and ready for more. If feel better equipped by having it.
the above seems confusing to you, it should. The fact is,the whole process of muscle growth has been Skeletal muscle growth is a complex process that involves a variety of signaling compounds.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Anabolic/androgenic steroids are not medically approved definition. Drugs with low or no significant estrogenicity to promote excessive muscle mass gains (bodybuilding) tend to produce less dramatic size gains in comparison, or improve athletic performance. Aside from early but the quality is higher, with greater visible muscularity experimentation on athletes by a handful of sports and definition. In reviewing the most popular AAS drugs, physicians, an extensive effort to study the physique- and we can separate them into these two main categories as performance-enhancing properties of these drugs, specifically with an eye on developing strategies for usingthem to maximize benefits and minimize adverse effects,has not been undertaken by the medical community.
Because of this, illicit users have been left to develop their own protocols for administering these drugs. The result Methandrostenolone – Oral has been a large variety of different approaches to usingthese agents, some safer or more effective than others.
Oxymetholone – Oral While it would not be possible to comprehensively Testosterone (cypionate, enanthate) – Injectable evaluate all known approaches, this section will discusssome of the most fundamental and time-proven methodsfor using AAS.
Lean Mass:
Boldenone undecylenate – Injectable When first considering what steroid(s) to use, one willnotice there are many different medications that fall Methenolone enanthate – Injectable under the category of anabolic/androgenic steroids. This Nandrolone decanoate – Injectable has been the result of many years of development, wherespecific patients and needs are addressed with drugs that Oxandrolone – Oral have specific characteristics. For example, some drugs are Stanozolol – Oral considered milder (less androgenic), and produce fewerside effects in women and children. Others are moreandrogenic, which makes them better at supportingsexual functioning in men. Some are injectable The early stages of AAS use usually involve cycles with a medications, and others made for oral administration.
single anabolic/androgenic steroid. Building muscle mass There are limits to this diversity, however. All AAS drugs is the most common goal, and usually entails the use of activate the same cellular receptor, and as such share one of the more androgenic substances such as similar protein anabolizing properties. In other words, testosterone, methandrostenolone, or oxymetholone.
while different AAS drugs may have some differing Those looking for lean mass often find favor in such properties, if your objective is to gain muscle mass and anabolic staples as nandrolone decanoate, oxandrolone, strength, this could be accomplished with virtually any or stanozolol. First time users rarely welcome injecting one of the commercially available agents.
anabolic/androgenic steroids, and will usually choose anoral compound for the sake of convenience.
While all AAS drugs may be capable of improving muscle Methandrostenolone is the most common choice for mass, strength, and performance, it would not be correct mass building, and is almost universally regarded as to say there are no advantages to choosing one agent highly effective and only moderately problematic (in over another for a particular purpose.
terms of estrogenic or androgenic side effects). Stanozolol fundamentally, the quantity and quality of muscle gained is the oral anabolic steroid most often preferred for may be different from one agent to another. In a general improving lean mass or athletic performance.
sense, AAS that are also estrogenic tend to be moreeffective at promoting increases in total muscle size.These The potential for adverse reactions should also be steroids also tend to produce visible water (and considered when choosing a steroid to use, especially if sometimes fat) retention, however, and are generally AAS use is to be regularly repeated. For example, the listed favored when raw size is more important than muscle oral medications present greater strain on the William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
cardiovascular system, and are also liver toxic. For these - Boldenone undecylenate: 200-400 mg/wk reasons, the injectable medications listed are actually - Methandrostenolone: 10-30 mg/day preferred for safety (testosterone most of all). Potentialcosmetic side effects may also be taken into account. For - Methenolone enanthate: 200-400 mg/wk example, men with a strong sensitivity to gynecomastiasometimes prefer non-estrogenic drugs such as - Nandrolone decanoate: 200-400 mg/wk methenolone, stanozolol, or oxandrolone. Individuals - Oxandrolone: 10-30 mg/day worried about hair loss, on the other hand, may isolatetheir use to predominantly anabolic drugs, such as - Oxymetholone: 50-100 mg/day nandrolone, methenolone, and oxandrolone. A detailed - Stanozolol: 10-30 mg/day review of personal goals, health status, and potential sideeffects of each drug is advised before committing to any - Testosterone (cypionate, enanthate): 200- AAS regimen.
There are additional considerations other than the costeffectiveness of a particular dosage. To begin with, high The dosage used is important in determining the level of doses of anabolic/androgenic steroids tend to produce benefit received. Anabolic/androgenic steroids tend to be stronger negative cosmetic, psychological, and physical most efficient at promoting muscle gains when taken at a side effects. In light of diminishing returns, the tradeoff moderately supratherapeutic dosage level. Below this between results and adverse reactions becomes less and (therapeutic), potential anabolic benefits are often less favorable. Gains made on lower doses also tend to be counterbalanced, at least to some extent, by the better retained after steroid discontinuance than those suppression of endogenous testosterone. At very high resulting from excessive intake. It is generally not realistic doses (excessive supratherapeutic), smaller incremental to expect that rapid double-digit weight gains induced by gains are noticed (diminishing returns). In the case of massive dosing will remain long after a cycle is over.
testosterone enanthate or cypionate, for example, a Slower steadier gains are advised. It is also very important dosage of 100 mg per week is considered therapeutic, and to remember that higher doses aren't always what are is generally insufficient for noticing strong anabolic needed to achieve greater gains. An individual more benefits. When the dosage is in the 200-600 mg per week focused on his or her training and diet will often make range, however, the drug is highly efficient at supporting better gains on lower dosages of AAS than a less muscle growth (moderate supratherapeutic). Above this dedicated individual taking higher doses. With this range, a greater level of muscle gain may be noticed, but understanding, AAS should only be considered when all the amount will be small in comparison to the dosage other variables of training and diet have been addressed, increase. Below are some commonly recommended and always limited to the minimum dosage necessary to dosages for the steroids listed earlier.
achieve the next realistic training/performance goal.
Dosage vs. Weight Increase Figure 1. Anabolic/androgenic steroids tend to be most effective in moderately supratherapeutic doses. The anabolic benefits
diminish in relation to the amount of drug given at both the high and low ends of the dosage range.

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
8-12 weeks. Some AAS abusers have difficulties withcomplete drug abstinence, and will initiate "bridging" The administration of anabolic/androgenic steroids at a routines between full-dose cycles. This may involve the given dosage will typically produce noticeable increases periodic low-dose administration of an injectable steroid, in muscle size and strength for approximately 6-8 weeks.
such as 200 mg of testosterone enanthate or After this point, the rate of new muscle gain typically methenolone enanthate every 2-3 weeks. Such practice is slows significantly. A plateau may be reached soon after, discouraged, however, as it can interfere with hormonal where all forward momentum has ceased. To continue recovery, and prevent a return to metabolic homeostasis.
making significant progress beyond this point can entailescalating dosages, which is likely to coincide with a When concluding a cycle, some steroid users also follow a greater incidence of adverse reactions and diminishing practice of first slowly reducing their dosages (tapering).
anabolic returns. Even without dosage escalation, This tapering may proceed for a 3-4 week period, and will negative health changes are already likely to be apparent, involve an even stepping down of the dose each week and should be corrected fairly quickly. The practice of until the point of drug discontinuance. It is unknown, extended or continuous steroid administration is however, if such tapering offers any tangible value. This discouraged for these reasons.
practice has never been evaluated in a clinical setting, and recommended to use AAS drugs for no longer than 8 is not widely recommended with steroid medications as it weeks at a time (10-12 weeks at the maximum), followed is with some other drugs such as thyroid hormones or by an equal or longer period of abstinence before another Virtually every high-dose AAS steroid regimen is initiated. This pattern of rotating administration study can also be found to end at the between "on" and "off" periods is referred to as cycling.
maximum dosage, with no time allotted to tapering. Oneflaw in the logic of using a tapering program is that they Off-Cycle (Recovery, Bridging, and
are ostensibly designed to aid hormone recovery.
Recovery is not possible, supraphysiological levels of androgens are present, and The period immediately following steroid cession can such levels are usually found during all weeks of a normal involve a state of hypogonadism (low androgen levels), (nonmedical) steroid taper. Individuals remain cautioned and as a result protein catabolism. In an effort to minimize that dosage tapering is not a proven way to reduce post- muscle loss, the objective here is usually on restoring cycle muscle catabolism.
natural testosterone production, maintaining an optimallevel of muscle stimulation, and remaining dedicated to proper nutrition. A hormonal recovery program is usuallyinitiated, which may involve the use of HCG, tamoxifen, individuals become more and clomiphene (see PCT: Post Cycle Therapy). A anabolic/androgenic steroid use they may begin substantial off-cycle period is also advised, involving experimenting with the use of more than one steroid at a abstinence from anabolic/androgenic steroids for at least time. This practice is referred to as stacking. Stacking is Duration vs. Weight Increase Week of Intake - / + Figure 2. Anabolic/androgenic steroids tend to be most effective at a given dosage for approximately 6-8 weeks. After this
point, the rate of new muscle gain will slow, and soon after will usually hit a full plateau.

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
most common with advanced bodybuilders who find that specifically designed to emphasize muscle-building at a certain level of physical development they begin properties, but is repeatedly noticed by users. The reason hitting plateaus that are difficult to break with a previous the basic androgenic steroids are more anabolically single-agent approach. In many cases, however, it may productive is not fully understood, but is believed to simply be the greater cumulative steroid dosage that is involve the interplay of estrogenic hormones, androgenic necessary for the resumed progress. Stacking usually stimulation in the central nervous system, and potentially involves the combination of a more androgenic steroid other unidentified synergisms necessary for optimal with one or more primarily anabolic agents. On the muscle growth.
anabolic side, common steroids of choice include Today, the availability of drugs that can reduce estrogenic boldenone, methenolone, nandrolone, oxandrolone, and activity makes the continued use of single agent cycles based on a strong androgen like testosterone enanthate methandrostenolone will serves as the androgenic base or cypionate much more viable than it was decades ago.
of most stacks.
Side effects like gynecomastia and water retention can The reasons for stacking androgenic and anabolic steroids now be effectively minimized with anti-estrogens or together in this manner are two fold. On the one hand, aromatase inhibitors, even when taking higher doses.
high doses of testosterone, Individuals should be aware that stacking is, likewise, not methandrostenolone are prone to producing strong a necessary practice. It is likely to remain commonly androgenic and estrogenic side effects. Stacking first applicable in competitive bodybuilding circles, however, became very popular during the 1960s, a time when or when an individual is sure they have progressed as far effective estrogen maintenance drugs were not widely as they possibly can with a single-agent approach.
available. An anabolic-androgen stack allowed the use of for many athletes and recreational a higher total steroid dosage than would be tolerable with bodybuilders, the periodic use of a single steroid will be a single androgen. Anabolic-androgen pairing also more than sufficient to maintain optimal levels of muscle appears to offer efficacy advantages over the use of mass and performance, and it may never be necessary to primarily anabolic agents alone, even when they are taken deviate from this approach.
in higher doses. This conflicts with the originalexpectations for "anabolic" steroids, which were William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Sample Steroid Cycles
The following cycles are presented as examples of common steroid administration protocols. These programs have notbeen evaluated in a clinical setting for safety and efficacy, and are provided for informational purposes only. These are notrecommendations for anabolic/androgenic steroid use. As with any supplemental drug program, it is important to examineyour own individual health status, health risks, and performance goals before deciding to engage in anyanabolic/androgenic steroid use. For those who have made the decision, it is important to emphasize again that therecommended approach to AAS use is to limit drug intake to the lowest levels necessary to achieve the next rational goal.
More aggressive cycles should not be attempted unless one is sure they cannot achieve the results needed on a moremoderate program. Note that given the difficulty in predicting androgenic threshold and dosages for female users, thebelow cycles are examples of programs for men only.
Single Agent Cycles
Dianabol Cycle #1 (Mass)
100 tablets 5 mg Methandrostenolone All Weeks:
Liver Support: Liver Stabil, Liv-52, or Essentiale Forte (label recommended dosage).
Cholesterol Support: Lipid Stabil (3 caps/day) and Fish Oil (4 g/day).
Estrogen Support: tamoxifen (10-20 mg/day).
This is a very common first cycle for building muscle mass, and utilizes a single standard bottle ofmethandrostenolone. This cycle is likely to produce very noticeable muscle growth in a first-timesteroid user, often in excess of 8-10lbs of weight gain. This is usually not accompanied by significantvisible side effects such as gynecomastia and water retention. Although this is considered a beginner'scycle, methandrostenolone is a c-17 alpha alkylated oral steroid, and presents significant cardiovascularand liver toxicity. The repeated use of such drugs should be limited.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Stack Cycles
Deca/Dianabol Cycle #1 (Mass)
10 mL 200 mg/mL nandrolone decanoate 100 tablets 5 mg methandrostenolone All Weeks:
Liver Support: Liver Stabil, Liv-52, or Essentiale Forte (label recommended dosage).
Cholesterol Support: Lipid Stabil (3 caps/day) and Fish Oil (4g/day).
Estrogen Support: tamoxifen (20-40 mg/day).
This is an extremely old and widely repeated steroid combination, based on the predominantly anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate. Methandrostenolone serves as the androgenic component of this stack, and is added during week 3, which is a time that side effects of reduced androgenicity (with the exclusive use of nandrolone decanoate) are commonly noticed, such as loss of libido and sexual dysfunction. The doses used in this cycle are not high by most bodybuilding standards, but are sufficient to impart a noticeable increase in muscle size and strength.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Deca/Dianabol Cycle #2 (Mass)
20 mL 200 mg/mL nandrolone decanoate 200 tablets 5 mg methandrostenolone All Weeks:
Liver Support: Liver Stabil, Liv-52, or Essentiale Forte (label recommended dosage).
Cholesterol Support: Lipid Stabil (3 caps/day) and Fish Oil (4g/day).
Estrogen Support: tamoxifen (20-40 mg/day).
A more popular manifestation of the Deca/Dianabol Cycle, with more commonly accepted dosages for a moderately experienced steroid user. Incidences of side effects are expected to be higher at these dosages, although overall this stack is likely to be less problematic than a combination of testosterone and oxymetholone.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Testosterone/Anadrol Cycle (Mass)
20 mL 200 mg/mL testosterone (enanthate or cypionate) 100 tablets 50 mg oxymetholone All Weeks:
Liver Support: Liver Stabil, Liv-52, or Essentiale Forte (label recommended dosage).
Cholesterol Support: Lipid Stabil (3 caps/day) and Fish Oil (4g/day).
Estrogen Support: tamoxifen (20-40 mg/day).
A combination of testosterone and oxymetholone is generally regarded as the most potent 2-drug stack for gaining raw muscle mass. Both drugs will present significant estrogenicity, and will be likely to induce gynecomastia quickly unless an estrogen maintenance drug such as tamoxifen is used.
Inexperienced steroid users have been known to gain over 25-30 pounds on a cycle such as this. Water retention will be very high with this stack, however, and a rapid loss of water weight (possibly up to 10 pounds or more) is expected soon after the cycle is discontinued.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Harm Reduction / Safer Use Guidelines
Harm reduction is a concept among healthcare workers harm reduction principles can (and should) also be that seeks to reduce the negative health consequences of developed for steroid users, a group that rarely has the drug abuse. The principles of harm reduction call for an benefit of full physician oversight in its drug programs. In acceptance of the fact that, good or bad, illicit drugs exist an effort to further this goal, ANABOLICS has outlined the in today's society. Instead of ignoring drug users, harm following principles of steroid harm reduction. If followed, reduction practitioners actively work with them to these principles should measurably reduce the negative promote safer use strategies and decrease the health health impact of steroid use, making it a safer (although damage of drug abuse. The effort of harm reduction is not completely safe) practice.
always helping, not judging, the individual. Althoughpreviously focused exclusively on narcotic drugs of abuse, Principles of Anabolic Steroid Harm Reduction
1. Avoid Counterfeit and Underground
arteries. Over time this may increase the risk of Steroids. Anabolic steroids produced by illicit
heart disease. C-17 alpha alkylated steroids are manufacturers are often of low quality, and may also the drugs exclusively associated with strong present additional health risks to the user liver stress and (rarely) liver cancer. If injection can beyond what are presented by the steroids be tolerated, and moderate physique or themselves. Even if they contain actual steroids in performance improvement is the goal, all of the properly labeled doses, underground drugs may same results can be achieved without oral contain toxic heavy metals, use dirty raw steroids. Note that injectable forms of otherwise materials, or even carry bacterial, viral, and other oral steroids (such as stanozolol and forms of contamination. Pharmaceutical drug methandrostenolone) should also be avoided, as purity is assured to the public only by an they provide a similar level of hepatic and extremely costly, tedious, and methodical process cardiovascular strain regardless of the differing of quality assurance and government oversight.
route of administration.
There is little financial and even logistical 3. Think of Testosterone First. Of all the
incentive for most underground drug makers to anabolic/androgenic steroids produced, produce their drugs at such high levels of purity.
testosterone esters like cypionate, enanthate, and Counterfeit and underground drugs are not Sustanon tend to have the lowest negative considered equal substitutes for real impact on health when taken in muscle building pharmaceutical products, and should be avoided.
and performance-enhancing doses. Testosterone 2. Avoid Toxic Oral Steroids. Aside from Andriol,
drugs provide a hormone identical to that Primobolan, and Proviron, every oral steroid already produced in the body, presenting the discussed in this reference book is a c-17 alpha same spectrum of physical and physiological alkylated compound and should be avoided effects. In addition to being one of the most whenever possible. While there may be a number efficient muscle-builders available, testosterone of clinical reasons to prescribe such a drug, when generally has a positive (not negative) effect on used in the higher doses necessary for muscle supports a positive mood, growth these agents tend to have significant supplements necessary estrogen so that negative impacts on certain health markers.Their cholesterol levels are less negatively shifted. The most notable effect is to increase the ratio of LDL exclusive use of testosterone drugs for body or (bad) to HDL (good) cholesterol in the body, performance enhancement is advised if possible.
which favors increased plaque deposition in the William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
4. Limit Yourself to the "Safest" Drugs. If the
developing long-term fertility and hormonal exclusive use of an injectable testosterone is not issues, which are sometimes caused by the feasible, limiting use to the safest group of uninterrupted use of steroids for many months or steroids is advised. Of the injectable class, the years. Cycling also lets your general markers of following drugs have the lowest cardiovascular health (such as cholesterol levels, hematocrit, and strain and are recommended: Deca-Durabolin blood pressure) return to their normal state (nandrolone decanoate), Durabolin (nandrolone periodically, reducing the impact temporary Equipoise (boldenone changes may have over time. Those individuals and Primobolan Depot who use anabolic/androgenic steroids for long (methenolone enanthate). If an oral steroid is periods of time without interruption run a greater desired, only Andriol, Primobolan, or Proviron risk that these negative changes in health should be used. These drugs are not c-17 alpha markers will result in long-term health issues.
alkylated, and can all provide additional steroid 7. Use Reasonable Dosages. High doses of
activity without the same level of cardiovascular steroids are not necessary to achieve significant and hepatic strain seen with other common oral muscle growth, especially if moderate physique steroids including Anadrol (oxymetholone), or performance enhancement is desired. A Anavar (oxandrolone), dosage limit of 400 mg per week on injectables is (methandrostenolone), and Winstrol (stanozolol).
advised. In the case of testosterone cypionate, Use Health Support Supplements.
400 mg per week equates to at least 4 to 5 times Anabolic/androgenic steroid users can help lower the level of hormone naturally produced in a the negative health impact of steroid use with the healthy male body. This level of use will produce consumption of natural health support dramatic muscle gain if combined with proper supplements. To begin with, the negative training and diet. In fact, during the 1970s and 80s cardiovascular effects of these drugs can be offset the dosage range of 200-400 mg per week was (at least to some degree) with cholesterol considered "standard" for the bodybuilding use of supplements. Fish oil is recommended as a base, which should be stacked with a number of other methenolone. There is actually little real need for clinically studied cholesterol support ingredients extreme doses of 750-1,000 mg or more of including green tea, garlic powder, resveratrol, steroid per week, or to supplement an injectable phytosterols, niacin, and policosinol. The blended base with additional orals. High doses may product Lipid Stabil (Molecular Nutrition) produce a faster rate of gain, but are generally not includes these ingredients and is recommended.
cost effective for the extra muscle they provide.
Cholesterol support supplements should be Additionally, high doses of steroids greatly taken at all times during anabolic steroid therapy.
increase cardiovascular strain and the incidence Next, those taking oral steroids should be of other side effects.
reducing liver strain with a liver support 8. Avoid Aromatase Inhibitors. Aromatase-
supplement. Recommended products include inhibiting drugs counter estrogenic side effects Liver Stabil (Molecular Nutrition), by preventing the production of estrogen in the (Himalaya Drug Company), and Essentiale Forte body. While an effective practice, they also (Aventis). One of these products should be taken deprive the body of a hormone that is important at all times during therapy with hepatotoxic to cardiovascular health. In particular, estrogen supports the production of good (HDL) 6. Always Cycle Steroids. A steroid cycle usually
cholesterol, which means that aromatase consists of 6 to 12 weeks of drug use followed by inhibitors may inadvertently increase the an equal period of time or more abstaining from cardiovascular strain of a steroid cycle. If all anabolic/androgenic steroids. This practice is estrogenic side effects are apparent and a advised for a number of reasons. For one, as you reduction or elimination of the offending supplement male steroid hormones your body steroid(s) is not considered an option, the SERM will reduce the production of its own (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator) drug testosterone. Cycling helps reduce the risk of Nolvadex could be used instead. This drug offers William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
partial estrogenic action in the liver, which may 12. Watch Your Diet. Anabolic/androgenic
allow it to counter estrogenic side effects without steroids can allow an individual significantly the same negative shift in cholesterol.
more latitude with their diet than normal. Thecaloric demand typically increases due to the 9. Get Regular Blood Tests. Comprehensive
effects of these drugs on muscle mass and blood testing including an examination of metabolism, allowing more calories to be hormones, cholesterol, blood cell concentrations, consumed each day without adding fat mass. It is and enzymes is the most useful tool for assessing important not to let this latitude affect your the negative health impact of steroid use.
health in a negative way. Remember, the use of Changes in cholesterol, for example, can help steroids at physique- and performance- quantify for the user what effect a particular drug enhancing doses is expected to cause an regimen is having on their cardiovascular health.
unfavorable shift in cholesterol levels and other The individual then has the opportunity to better cardiovascular health markers, favoring a higher assess long-term risk if this cycle is to be risk of cardiovascular disease. Simultaneously repeated. At a minimum, blood testing should be feeding your body greater amounts of saturated conducted before a cycle is initiated, 3 to 4 weeks fats, cholesterol, and simple carbohydrates can into a cycle, and a couple of months after a cycle.
make the impact of these drugs even worse. Diets This allows for 1) a baseline for later comparison; low in saturated fats, cholesterol, and simple 2) a snapshot of the on-cycle health impact; and sugars are recommended, and are known to 3) an opportunity to assess if natural homeostasis reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Note, however, has been restored post-cycle.
that diet alone is not effective at countering the 10. Use Proper Injection Procedures. Careful
negative cardiovascular effects of steroid use, but attention to correct injection procedures can dietary restrictions can reduce these risks.
help eliminate some of the complications 13. Always Consider Reward AND Risk. It can
associated with nonmedical steroid use. Steroids be easy to ignore the potential health impact of are given via deep intramuscular injections. The steroid use when the positive benefits are so most common site of application is the upper rapid and the negative consequences so remote.
outer quadrant of the gluteus muscle, although At the end of the day, however, it is very the drugs are also commonly injected to the important to remember that the use of steroids in upper outer thigh and shoulder. Site injections (in doses sufficient to support short term muscle smaller muscle groups like the biceps, triceps, or gain are virtually always going to have some calf muscles) for cosmetic purposes are negative impact on your body. Your cholesterol discouraged, as they are technically more difficult will shift in an unfavorable direction, your blood to navigate and more prone to complications.
pressure may go up a little bit, and you may ever Comfortable injection volumes should also be so slightly thicken the ventricles in your heart.
used, generally no more than 3 mL per Your hormones are out of balance when you take application. Each injection site should be rotated steroids, which will invariably cause other things so that the same muscle is not injected more to go out of balance. Steroid use is rarely than once every two weeks. A general focus dangerous over a short term period. These should be made on cleanliness, including the use hormonal drugs are acutely very safe. As use of alcohol pads on the vials and skin before continues over the years, however, these short- injection, and the proper disposal of all needles term periods accumulate, and total on-cycle time and empty vials/ampules after use.
may become very long. Always remember to 11. Sterilize. Though never advised, should the
consider the risks as well as the rewards of each choice be made to use an injectable steroid of cycle. Choosing your drug program carefully and underground origin, an effort should be made to keeping the negative effects of steroid use in sterilize the solution before use. This will reduce check over the short term is the best way to the likelihood of illness or infection due to reduce long term risks.

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
This section pertains to methods for differentiating these steps entirely. Real ampules, vials, and tablets are between legitimate pharmaceutical products and sometimes smuggled loose, but let someone else take the illegitimate copies (counterfeits). Before we begin, I need risk. The box for a pharmaceutical product should be to remind you that counterfeiting anabolic steroids is a structurally sound, closing tightly and evenly. Some very lucrative business these days. Counterfeiters are counterfeiters seal their own boxes by hand, and they may investing a lot of money in printing and packaging be uneven or poorly glued. Real boxes should be printed equipment so that you'll have a hard time picking out (ink directly on cardboard). Some counterfeiters cover their products. Furthermore, there are now many large plain white boxes with stickers. If the vial, ampule, or bottle "commercial scale" counterfeiting operations, with the has a label, machines should have put it on straight.
capacity to manufacture all product formats including Counterfeiters often apply labels by hand, so many will be ampules, logo imprinted pills, and push-through tablet crooked. Some counterfeiters use ampules, but blank strips. Given this high level of sophistication, steroids laboratory samples. These are filled by hand and sealed purchased on the black market need to be inspected with over a flame. They are a bit larger than the average great care. The mistakes made by counterfeiters are often ampule, and somewhat unusual in appearance. A good minor, and noticed in the fine (not obvious) detail.
rule of thumb is to avoid any steroid that does not comein a professional looking package.
Step #1: Eliminate the Obvious
When counterfeit steroids first appeared decades ago,they were often very easy to spot. The manufacturersoperated on a small scale, and made small-scale mistakes.
For example, the printing might be sloppy, or the The ampule [right] is a
containers thin and flimsy. They might have lacked the laboratory blank, meant to be
equipment to put the product in a box, or even affix an sealed by hand over a flame. It is
expiration date and lot number to it. No legitimate larger and more unusual in
pharmaceutical would be sold like this. Much has changed appearance than most
over the years, however. Few counterfeiters still make the basic mistakes that were once common. Don't expectidentifying these products to be easy. Still, that is not tosay that obvious counterfeits aren't available. Indeed, theycan be found on the black market from time to time. Thisfirst set of instructions, therefore, seeks to eliminate onlythe most obvious fakes. For the rest, we will need a moredetailed analysis.
3. Multi-dose Containers. In the United States, we are
used to our injectable medications coming in multi-dose
1. Sloppy Printing. Drug manufacturing is not a small
vials (these have a rubber top to let needles pass through scale endeavor. Sizable pharmaceutical companies control more than once), and our pills loose in bottles. Most other the global drug trade, and make products that are countries, however, do not allow this type of packaging for typically very professional in appearance. You should not human medicines. They consider it unsterile, and permit it expect to see things like runny inks, sloppy lines, or only for animal drugs. Instead, they require each dosage misaligned images on real drug packaging. Sometimes unit to be separate. This usually means break open glass counterfeiters still use cheap (small-scale) printing and ampules for injectable medications, and push through reproduction methods, which make labels and boxes that blisters for pills and capsules. Since you are unlikely to find stand out as sloppy. Don't ever use a product if it just real American products on the black market, it may be doesn't "look right" to you. You are probably best to avoid all multi-dose containers when it comes to subconsciously picking up on minor deviations.
human pharmaceuticals. Most are going to be counterfeit.
When you find veterinary drugs in multi-dose containers, 2. Cheap Packaging. Virtually all legitimate steroid
extra care should be taken to examine them closely, since products come in boxes. Inside the box you should find a these products are more easily counterfeited.
drug information sheet. Some counterfeiters will skip

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
The photographs below show what it looks like when thelot number and expiration date are added after the initialbox/label printing, as well as counterfeit products withoutthis feature. The characters on a real pharmaceuticalproduct should stand out from the rest of the printing,which will consist of tiny dots blended together to createa solid image (see Step #3 for more information on theink). When the lot/expiration information is added with amechanical stamp, the ink will be much more solid undermagnification (note that it may appear blotchy underdeep magnification). Depending on the equipment, it mayalso have left a physical indent you can feel when rubbingyour thumb over the information. When the dates wereadded by computer, we usually see large dots that are The above is a crude copy of an American testosterone
visible to the naked eye. Be careful to look at the product, which uses the same label on the box and vial. A
characters closely. Counterfeiters will try to make the counterfeit as simple as this is rare to find today.
information look like it was added by machine orcomputer, even though it was printed. If you see that tinydots make up the characters under 200X magnification, itis not legitimate stamp or computer printing.
Another example of an obvious counterfeit. This box is
crude in design and uses a brand name that has been off
the market since the 1980s.

Step #2: Examine Lot Number/Expiration
A more formal analysis should always begin with the lotnumber/expiration date. Pharmaceutical companies havetheir boxes and labels manufactured in bulk, usually at anoffsite printing facility. They are not serialized; lotnumbers/expiration dates have not yet been applied to them. This information is added with a mechanicalstamping machine or computer/inkjet printer at the timethe drug is packaged. Counterfeiters often don't wait, and Example #1. A real box of Proviron. Under magnification we
simply print the lot number/expiration date with the rest can see that the lot number and expiration date were
of the boxes and labels. This means less work, less stamped on mechanically.
equipment, and less cost. Knowing this, examining the lotnumber/expiration date information can be a good wayto spot counterfeits. You need to look at the lot/dateinformation very closely, preferably with a handheldmicroscope with 100-200X magnification.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Example #2. Another example of mechanical stamping of
the lot number and expiration date.

Example #4. Another real product (Proviron) with
information applied post-printing with a computer printer.

Example #3. Real testosterone cypionate from Watson (U.S.)
The above lot/expiration date were added by computer

printer. Under magnification we see the large dots are solid

Example #5. (Counterfeit). At first glance the slight run on
the ink appears to be the result of mechanical stamping.
Under magnification, however, we see this is simulated.

William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Methyltestosterone (oral) weight gain following surgery, chronic infection, trauma, orweight loss without definite pathophysiologic reason. In Oxandrolone is an oral anabolic steroid derived from spite of its ongoing track record of safety, Searle decided to dihydrotestosterone. It was designed to have a very strong voluntarily discontinue the sale of Anavar on July 1, 1989.
separation of anabolic and androgenic effect, and no Lagging sales and growing public concern about the significant estrogenic or progestational activity.
athletic use of anabolic steroids appeared to be at the root Oxandrolone is noted for being quite mild as far as oral of this decision. With the Anavar brand off the market, steroids are concerned, well tailored for the promotion of oxandrolone had completely vanished from U.S.
strength and quality muscle tissue gains without pharmacies. Soon after, oxandrolone products in significant side effects. Milligram for milligram it displays as international markets (often sold by or under license from much as six times the anabolic activity of testosterone in Searle) began to disappear as well, as the leading global assays, with significantly less androgenicity.421 This drug is manufacturer of the drug continued its withdrawal from a favorite of dieting bodybuilders and competitive athletes the anabolic steroid business. For several years during the in speed/anaerobic performance sports, where its early 1990's, it looked as if Anavar might be on its way out tendency for pure tissue gain (without fat or water of commerce for good.
retention) fits well with the desired goals.
It would be approximately six years before oxandrolone tablets would be back on the U.S. market. The product Oxandrolone was first described in 1962.422 returned to pharmacy shelves in December 1995, this time developed into a medicine several years later by under the Oxandrin name by Bio-Technology General pharmaceutical giant G.D. Searle & Co. (now Pfizer), which Corp. (BTG). BTG would continue selling it for the FDA sold it in the United States and the Netherlands under the approved uses involving lean mass preservation, but had Anavar trade name. Searle also sold/licensed the drug also been granted orphan-drug status for the treatment of under different trade names including Lonavar (Argentina, AIDS wasting, alcoholic hepatitis, Turner's syndrome in Australia), Lipidex (Brazil), Antitriol (Spain), Anatrophill girls, and constitutional delay of growth and puberty in (France), and Protivar. Oxandrolone was designed to be an boys. Orphan drug status gave BTG a 7-year monopoly on extremely mild oral anabolic, one that could even be used the drug for these new uses, allowing them to protect a safely by women and children. In this regard Searle seems very high selling price. Many patients were outraged to to have succeeded, as Anavar has shown a high degree of learn that the drug would cost them (at wholesale price) therapeutic success and tolerability in men, women, and between $3.75 and $30 per day, which was many times children alike. During its early years, Anavar had been more costly than Anavar had been just several years back.
offered for a number of therapeutic applications, including The release of a 10 mg tablet from BTG several years later the promotion of lean tissue growth during catabolic did little to reduce the relative cost of the drug.
illness, the promotion of lean tissue growth following Oxandrin® continues to be sold in the U.S., but is now surgery, trauma, infection, or prolonged corticosteroid under the Savient label (formerly known as BTG). It is administration, or the support of bone density in patients currently approved by the FDA for "adjunctive therapy to with osteoporosis.
promote weight gain after weight loss following extensive By the 1980's, the FDA had slightly refined the approved surgery, chronic infections, or severe trauma and in some applications of oxandrolone to include the promotion of patients who without definite pathophysiologic reasons William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
fail to gain or to maintain normal weight, to offset the male pattern hair loss.Women are warned of the potential protein catabolism associated with prolonged virilizing effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids. These administration of corticosteroids, and for the relief of the may include a deepening of the voice, menstrual bone pain frequently accompanying osteoporosis." irregularities, changes in skin texture, facial hair growth, Generic versions of the drug are now available in the U.S. , and clitoral enlargement. Oxandrolone is a steroid with which has reduced the price of oxandrolone therapy.
low androgenic activity relative to its tissue-building Outside of the U.S., oxandrolone remains available, actions, making the threshold for strong androgenic side although not widely.
effects comparably higher than with more androgenicagents such as testosterone, methandrostenolone, or Oxandrolone is available in select human drug markets.
The low androgenic activity of oxandrolone is due in part Composition and dosage may vary by country and to it being a derivative of dihydrotestosterone.This creates manufacturer. The original Anavar brand contained 2.5 a less androgenic steroid because the agent lacks the mg of steroid per tablet. Oxandrin contains 2.5 mg or 10 capacity to interact with the 5-alpha reductase enzyme mg per tablet. Other modern brands commonly contain and convert to a more potent "di-hydro"form.This is unlike 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg of steroid per tablet.
testosterone, which is several times more active in androgen responsive target tissues such as the scalp, skin,and prostate (where 5-alpha reductase is present in high Oxandrolone is a modified form of dihydrotestosterone. It amounts) due to its conversion to DHT. In essence, differs by: 1) the addition of a methyl group at carbon 17- oxandrolone has a more balanced level of potency alpha to protect the hormone during oral administration between muscle and androgenic target tissues. This is a and 2) the substitution of carbon-2 in the A-ring with an similar situation as is noted with Primobolan and Winstrol, oxygen atom. Oxandrolone is the only commercially which are also derived from dihydrotestosterone and not available steroid with such a substitution to its basic ring known to be very androgenic substances.
structure, an alteration that considerably increases theanabolic strength of the steroid (partly by making it Side Effects (Hepatotoxicity):
Oxandrolone is a c17-alpha alkylated compound. This dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle tissue).
alteration protects the drug from deactivation by the liver, Side Effects (Estrogenic):
allowing a very high percentage of the drug entry into thebloodstream following oral administration. C17-alpha Oxandrolone is not aromatized by the body, and is not alkylated anabolic/androgenic steroids can be measurably estrogenic. Oxandrolone also offers no related hepatotoxic. Prolonged or high exposure may result in An anti-estrogen is not liver damage.
In rare instances life-threatening necessary when using this steroid, as gynecomastia dysfunction may develop. It is advisable to visit a should not be a concern even among sensitive physician periodically during each cycle to monitor liver individuals. Since estrogen is the usual culprit with water function and overall health. Intake of c17-alpha alkylated retention, oxandrolone instead produces a lean, quality steroids is commonly limited to 6-8 weeks, in an effort to look to the physique with no fear of excess subcutaneous avoid escalating liver strain.
fluid retention. This makes it a favorable steroid to useduring cutting cycles, when water and fat retention are Oxandrolone appears to offer less hepatic stress than major concerns. Oxandrolone is also very popular among other c-17 alpha alkylated steroids. The manufacturer athletes in strength/speed sports such as sprinting, identifies oxandrolone as a steroid that is not extensively swimming, and gymnastics. In such disciplines one usually metabolized by the liver like other 17-alpha alkylated does not want to carry around excess water weight, and orals, which may be a factor in its reduced hepatotoxicity.
may find the raw muscle-growth brought about by This is evidenced by the fact that more than a third of the oxandrolone to be quite favorable over the lower quality compound is still intact when excreted in the urine.424 mass gains of aromatizable agents.
Another study comparing the effects of oxandrolone toother alkylated agents including methyltestosterone, Side Effects (Androgenic):
norethandrolone, fluoxymesterone, and methandrioldemonstrated that oxandrolone causes the lowest Although classified as an anabolic steroid, androgenic side sulfobromophthalein (BSP; a marker of liver stress) effects are still possible with this substance. This may retention of the agents tested.425 20 mg of oxandrolone include bouts of oily skin, acne, and body/facial hair produced 72% less BSP retention than an equal dosage of growth. Anabolic/androgenic steroids may also aggravate fluoxymesterone, which is a considerable difference being William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
that they are both 17-alpha alkylated.
thought to signify potential for this drug as a lipid-lowering agent.426 With further investigation it was found, A more recent study looked at escalating doses (20 mg, 40 however, that any lowering of total cholesterol values was mg, and 80 mg) of oxandrolone in 262 HIV+ men.The drug accompanied by a redistribution in the ratio of good was administered for a period of 12 weeks. The group (HDL) to bad (LDL) cholesterol that favored greater taking 20 mg of oxandrolone per day showed no atherogenic risk.427 428 This negates any positive effect this statistically significant trends of hepatotoxicity in liver drug might have on triglycerides or total cholesterol, and aminotransferase and alanine actually makes it a potential danger in terms of cardiac aminotransferase) values. Those men taking 40 mg risk, especially when taken for prolonged periods of time.
noticed a mean increase of approximately 30-50% in liver Today we understand that as a group, enzyme values, while the group of men taking 80 mg anabolic/androgenic steroids tend to produce noticed an approximate 50-100% increase. Approximately unfavorable changes in lipid profiles, and are really not 10-11% of the patients in the 40 mg group noticed World useful in disorders of lipid metabolism. As an oral c17 Health Organization grade III and IV toxicity according to alpha alkylated steroid, oxandrolone is even more risky to AST and ALT values. This figure jumped to 15% in the 80 use in this regard than an esterified injectable such as a mg group. While serious hepatotoxicity cannot be testosterone or nandrolone.
excluded with oxandrolone, these studies do suggest thatit is measurably safer than other alkylated agents.
To help reduce cardiovascular strain it is advised tomaintain an active cardiovascular exercise program and The use of a liver detoxification supplement such as Liver minimize the intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and Stabil, Liv-52, or Essentiale Forte is advised while taking simple carbohydrates at all times during active AAS any hepatotoxic anabolic/androgenic steroids.
administration. Supplementing with fish oils (4 grams per Side Effects (Cardiovascular):
day) and a natural cholesterol/antioxidant formula such asLipid Stabil or a product with comparable ingredients is Anabolic/androgenic steroids can have deleterious effects also recommended.
on serum cholesterol. This includes a tendency to reduceHDL (good) cholesterol values and increase LDL (bad) Side Effects (Testosterone Suppression):
cholesterol values, which may shift the HDL to LDL All anabolic/androgenic steroids when taken in doses balance in a direction that favors greater risk of sufficient to promote muscle gain are expected to The relative impact of an suppress endogenous testosterone production.
anabolic/androgenic steroid on serum lipids is dependant Oxandrolone is no exception. In the above-cited study on on the dose, route of administration (oral vs. injectable), HIV+ males, twelve weeks of 20 mg or 40 mg per day type of steroid (aromatizable or non-aromatizable), and caused an approximate 45% reduction in serum level of resistance to hepatic metabolism. Oxandrolone testosterone levels.The group taking 80 mg noticed a 66% has a strong effect on the hepatic management of decrease in testosterone. Similar trends of decrease were cholesterol due to its structural resistance to liver noticed in LH production, with the 20 mg and 40 mg breakdown, non-aromatizable nature, and route of doses causing a 25-30% reduction, and the 80 mg group administration. In the previously cited study in HIV+ noticing a decline of more than 50%. Additionally, studies males, 20 mg of oxandrolone daily for 12 weeks caused a on boys with constitutionally delayed puberty have mean serum HDL reduction of 30%. HDL values were demonstrated significant suppression of endogenous LH suppressed 33% in the 40 mg group, and 50% in the 80 and testosterone with as little as 2.5 mg per day.429 This was accompanied by a statistically Without the intervention of testosterone stimulating significant increase in LDL values (approximately 30-33%) substances, testosterone levels should return to normal in the 40 mg and 80 mg groups, further increasing within 1-4 months of drug secession. Note that prolonged atherogenic risk. Anabolic/androgenic steroids may also hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can develop adversely effect blood pressure and triglycerides, reduce secondary to steroid abuse, necessitating medical endothelial relaxation, and support left ventricular hypertrophy, all potentially increasing the risk ofcardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction.
The above side effects are not inclusive. For more detaileddiscussion of potential side effects, see the Steroid Side Effects At one time oxandrolone was looked at as a possible drug section of this book. for those suffering from disorders of high cholesterol ortriglycerides. Early studies showed it to be capable oflowering total cholesterol and triglyceride values incertain types of hyperlipidemic patients, which was William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
drugs. This would be taken for no longer than 4-6 weeks.
Eager females may wish to add another mild anabolic Studies have shown that taking an oral anabolic steroid such as Winstrol®, Primobolan® or Durabolin®. When with food may decrease its bioavailability.430 combined with such anabolics, the user should notice caused by the fat-soluble nature of steroid hormones, faster, more pronounced muscle-building effects, but it which can allow some of the drug to dissolve with may also increase the likelihood of seeing androgenic side undigested dietary fat, reducing its absorption from the effects (or hepatotoxicity in the case of Winstrol).
gastrointestinal tract. For maximum utilization, this steroidshould be taken on an empty stomach.
Pharmaceutical preparations containing oxandrolone arefairly limited. The drug is unavailable in Europe, and with a The original prescribing guidelines for Anavar called for a handful of exceptions in the west, its production is daily dosage of between 2.5 mg and 20 mg per day (5-10 increasingly being shifted to less regulated markets in mg being most common). This was usually recommended Asia. In reviewing some of the remaining products and for a period of two to four weeks, but occasionally it was changes on the global pharmaceutical market, we have taken for as long as three months. The dosing guidelines made the following observations.
recommended with the current U.S. production form ofthe drug (Oxandrin, Savient Pharmaceuticals) also call for Various forms of generic oxandrolone are now available in between 2.5 and 20 mg of drug per day, taken in the U.S. in both 2.5 mg and 10 mg dosages, from intermittent cycles of 2 to 4 weeks. The usual dosage for manufacturers such as Par Pharm, Sandoz, Upsher Smith, physique- or performance-enhancing purposes is in the range of 15-25 mg per day, taken for 6 to 8 weeks. These Brand name Oxandrin is still available in the U.S. under the protocols are not far removed from those of normal Savient brand name. It comes in bottles of 60 (10 mg) tablets or 100 (2.5 mg) tablets each.
Oxandrolone is often combined with other steroids for a The generic Italian product Oxandrolone (SPA) is no more dramatic result. For example, while bulking one longer available. It was previously being made for export might opt to add in 200-400 mg of a testosterone ester sales only. There are no remaining oxandrolone products (cypionate, enanthate, or propionate) per week. The result available on the Italian market.
should be a considerable gain in new muscle mass, with amore comfortable level of water and fat retention than if Atlantis (Mexico) produces an oxandrolone product called taking a higher dose of testosterone alone. For dieting Xtendrol. It carries 2.5 mg of steroid per tablet, and comes phases, one might alternately combine oxandrolone with in a box of 30 tablets each.
a non-aromatizing steroid such as 150 mg per week of atrenbolone ester or 200-300 mg of Primobolan® Asia Pharma makes the product Oxanabolic in Malaysia. It (methenolone enanthate). Such stacks are highly favored comes in strips of 10 tablets each, 10 strips per box. Each for increasing definition and muscularity. An in-between product should carry a unique product ID code that can (lean mass gain) might be to add in 200-400 mg of a low be verified with the company for authenticity. This estrogenic compound like Deca-Durabolin® (nandrolone product is presently export only, but the manufacturer decanoate) or Equipoise® (boldenone undecylenate).
claims to be in the process of seeking Thai FDA approval.
Balkan Pharmaceuticals (Moldova) makes the productOxandrolon. It is prepared in 10 mg tablets, with 20 tablets The original prescribing guidelines for Anavar did not contained in each foil and plastic strip.
offer separate dosing recommendations for women,although it was indicated that women who werepregnant, or may become pregnant, should not use thedrug. The current guidelines for Oxandrin also do notmake special dosing recommendations for women.
Women who fear the masculinizing effects of manysteroids would be quite comfortable using this drug, asthese properties are very rarely seen with low doses. Forphysique- or performance-enhancing purposes, a dailydosage of 5-10 mg should illicit considerable growthwithout the noticeable androgenic side effects of other William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
seems to be in the area of patient comfort. Cypionic acid isless irritating at the site of injection than enanthoic acid Testosterone cypionate is a slow-acting injectable ester of (enanthate) for a small percentage of patients. This makes the primary male androgen testosterone. Testosterone is testosterone cypionate a more favorable choice for those also the principle anabolic hormone in men, and is the with recurring issues of injection-site pain with basis of comparison by which all other testosterone enanthate. This difference likely had anabolic/androgenic steroids are judged. As with all something to do with the early development of this testosterone injectables, testosterone cypionate is highly testosterone ester as a commercial drug product.
favored by athletes for its ability to promote strongincreases in muscle mass and strength. It is interesting to The main use of testosterone cypionate in clinical medicine note that while a large number of other steroidal has historically been the treatment of low androgen levels compounds have been made available since testosterone in males, although many other applications have existed injectables, they are still considered to be the dominant for this drug as well. During the 1960's, for example, the bulking agents among bodybuilders. There is little drug's prescribing recommendations called for such uses argument that these are among the most powerful mass as supporting bone structure maturity, drugs available, testosterone cypionate included.
menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) and excessivelactation in females, and increasing muscle mass and combating osteoporosis in the elderly. It was also being Testosterone cypionate first appeared on the U.S. drug recommended for increasing male fertility, whereby market during the mid-1950's under the brand name of induced testosterone/spermatogenesis suppression Depo-Testosterone cyclopentylpropionate (soon abridged (caused by administering 200 mg of testosterone to simply Depo-Testosterone). It was developed by the cypionate per week for 6 to 10 weeks) was potentially pharmaceutical giant Upjohn, and is still sold to this day by followed by a period of rebound spermatogenesis (due to the same company under the same trade name (although temporarily higher than normal gonadotropin levels).
now they are called Pharmacia & Upjohn). This is a drug By the 1970's, the FDA had been granted much stronger with limited global availability, and has historically been control over the prescription drug market, and the broad (largely) identified as an American item. It is not surprising uses in which testosterone cypionate was first indicated that American athletes have long favored this form of were now being refined. For example, "testosterone testosterone over testosterone enanthate, the dominant rebound therapy" as a way to increase male fertility was slow-acting ester of testosterone on the global market.This proving to be unreliable, especially in the face of newer preference, however, is likely rooted in history and more effective medications, and was soon eliminated from availability, not actual therapeutic advantages.
prescribing guidelines. So too was the recommendation for Testosterone cypionate and testosterone enanthate its use to treat things like excessive menstrual bleeding provide extremely comparable patterns of testosterone and lactation. In general, testosterone therapy was being release. Not only are physical advantages not possible in pulled back to focus mainly on male androgen deficiency, one over the other, but actual differences in and less on other applications, especially when involving pharmacokinetic patterns are hard to notice (these two populations more susceptible to androgenic side effects, drugs are for all intents and purposes functionally such as women and the elderly.
interchangeable).The only key difference between the two William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Today, testosterone cypionate remains readily available Side Effects (Estrogenic):
on the U.S. prescription drug market, where it is FDA- Testosterone is readily aromatized in the body to estradiol approved for hormone replacement therapy in men with (estrogen). The aromatase (estrogen synthetase) enzyme conditions associated with a deficiency of endogenous is responsible for this metabolism of testosterone.
testosterone, and as a secondary treatment for inoperable Elevated estrogen levels can cause side effects such as metastatic breast cancer in women (although it is not increased water retention, widely used for this purpose anymore). Testosterone gynecomastia. Testosterone is considered a moderately cypionate is currently available outside of the United estrogenic steroid. An anti-estrogen such as clomiphene States, but not widely. Known international sources for the citrate or tamoxifen citrate may be necessary to prevent drug include Canada, Australia, Spain, Brazil, and South estrogenic side effects. One may alternately use an aromatase inhibitor like Arimidex® (anastrozole), which more efficiently controls estrogen by preventing itssynthesis. Aromatase inhibitors can be quite expensive in Testosterone cypionate is available in select human and comparison to anti-estrogens, however, and may also veterinary drug markets. Composition and dosage may have negative effects on blood lipids.
vary by country and manufacturer, but usually contain 50mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, or 200 mg/ml of steroid Estrogenic side effects will occur in a dose-dependant dissolved in oil.
manner, with higher doses (above normal therapeuticlevels) of testosterone cypionate more likely to require the concurrent use of an anti-estrogen or aromatase inhibitor.
Testosterone cypionate is a modified form of testosterone, Since water retention and loss of muscle definition are where a carboxylic acid ester (cyclopentylpropionic acid) common with higher doses of testosterone cypionate, this has been attached to the 17-beta hydroxyl group.
drug is usually considered a poor choice for dieting or Esterified forms of testosterone are less polar than free cutting phases of training. Its moderate estrogenicity testosterone, and are absorbed more slowly from the area makes it more ideal for bulking phases, where the added of injection. Once in the bloodstream, the ester is removed water retention will support raw strength and muscle size, to yield free (active) testosterone. Esterified forms of and help foster a stronger anabolic environment.
testosterone are designed to prolong the window of Side Effects (Androgenic):
therapeutic effect following administration, allowing for aless frequent injection schedule compared to injections of Testosterone is the primary male androgen, responsible free (unesterified) steroid. The half-life of testosterone for maintaining secondary male sexual characteristics.
cypionate is approximately 8 days after injection.
Elevated levels of testosterone are likely to produceandrogenic side effects including oily skin, acne, andbody/facial hair growth.
Men with a genetic Pharmacokinetics of Testosterone
predisposition for hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) may notice accelerated male pattern balding.Those concerned about hair loss may find a more comfortable option in nandrolone decanoate, which is a comparably lessandrogenic steroid. Women are warned of the potential virilizing effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids, especially with a strong androgen such as testosterone.
These may include deepening of the voice, menstrual Testosterone 1 0
irregularities, changes in skin texture, facial hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
In androgen-responsive target tissues such as the skin, scalp, and prostate, the high relative androgenicity oftestosterone is dependant on its reduction to Figure 1. Pharmacokinetics of 200 mg testosterone
dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5-alpha reductase enzyme is responsible for this metabolism of testosterone. The concurrent use of a 5-alpha reductase hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in serum
inhibitor such as finasteride or dutasteride will interfere after injection of testosterone enanthate or
with site-specific potentiation of testosterone action, lowering the tendency of testosterone drugs to produce Nieschlag E. Fertility and Sterility 33 (1980):201-3.
androgenic side effects. It is important to remember that William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
anabolic and androgenic effects are both mediated via Due to the positive influence of estrogen on serum lipids, the cytosolic androgen receptor. Complete separation of tamoxifen citrate or clomiphene citrate are preferred to testosterone's anabolic and androgenic properties is not aromatase inhibitors for those concerned with possible, even with total 5-alpha reductase inhibition.
cardiovascular health, as they offer a partial estrogeniceffect in the liver. This allows them to potentially improve Side Effects (Hepatotoxicity):
lipid profiles and offset some of the negative effects of Testosterone does not have hepatotoxic effects; liver androgens. With doses of 600 mg or less per week, the toxicity is unlikely. One study examined the potential for impact on lipid profile tends to be noticeable but not hepatotoxicity with high doses of testosterone by dramatic, making an anti-estrogen (for cardioprotective administering 400 mg of the hormone per day (2,800 mg purposes) perhaps unnecessary. Doses of 600 mg or less per week) to a group of male subjects. The steroid was per week have also failed to produce statistically taken orally so that higher peak concentrations would be significant changes in LDL/VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, reached in hepatic tissues compared to intramuscular apolipoprotein B/C-III, C-reactive protein, and insulin injections. The hormone was given daily for 20 days, and sensitivity, all indicating a relatively weak impact on produced no significant changes in liver enzyme values cardiovascular risk factors.481 When used in moderate including serum albumin, bilirubin, alanine-amino- doses, injectable testosterone esters are usually transferase, and alkaline phosphatases.478 considered to be the safest of all anabolic/androgenicsteroids.
Side Effects (Cardiovascular):
To help reduce cardiovascular strain it is advised to Anabolic/androgenic steroids can have deleterious effects maintain an active cardiovascular exercise program and on serum cholesterol. This includes a tendency to reduce minimize the intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and HDL (good) cholesterol values and increase LDL (bad) simple carbohydrates at all times during active AAS cholesterol values, which may shift the HDL to LDL administration. Supplementing with fish oils (4 grams per balance in a direction that favors greater risk of day) and a natural cholesterol/antioxidant formula such as The relative impact of an Lipid Stabil or a product with comparable ingredients is anabolic/androgenic steroid on serum lipids is dependant also recommended.
on the dose, route of administration (oral vs. injectable),type of steroid (aromatizable or non-aromatizable), and Side Effects (Testosterone Suppression):
level of resistance to hepatic metabolism.
All anabolic/androgenic steroids when taken in doses Anabolic/androgenic steroids may also adversely affect sufficient to promote muscle gain are expected to blood pressure and triglycerides, reduce endothelial suppress endogenous testosterone production.
relaxation, and support left ventricular hypertrophy, all Testosterone is the primary male androgen, and offers potentially increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease strong negative feedback on endogenous testosterone and myocardial infarction.
production.Testosterone-based drugs will, likewise, have a Testosterone tends to have a much less dramatic impact strong effect on the hypothalamic regulation of natural on cardiovascular risk factors than synthetic steroids. This steroid hormones.
Without the intervention of is due in part to its openness to metabolism by the liver, testosterone-stimulating substances, testosterone levels which allows it to have less effect on the hepatic should return to normal within 1-4 months of drug management of cholesterol. The aromatization of secession. Note that prolonged hypogonadotrophic testosterone to estradiol also helps to mitigate the hypogonadism can develop secondary to steroid abuse, negative effects of androgens on serum lipids. In one necessitating medical intervention.
study, 280 mg per week of testosterone ester (enanthate) As with all anabolic/androgenic steroids, it is unlikely that had a slight but not statistically significant effect on HDL one will retain every pound of new bodyweight after a cholesterol after 12 weeks, but when taken with an cycle is concluded. This is especially true when aromatase inhibitor a strong (25%) decrease was seen.479 withdrawing from a strong (aromatizing) androgen like Studies using 300 mg of testosterone ester (enanthate) testosterone cypionate, as much of the new weight gain is per week for 20 weeks without an aromatase inhibitor likely to be in the form of water retention, quickly demonstrated only a 13% decrease in HDL cholesterol, eliminated after drug discontinuance. An imbalance of while at 600 mg the reduction reached 21%.480 anabolic and catabolic hormones during the post-cycle negative impact of aromatase inhibition should be taken recovery period may further create an environment that is into consideration before such drug is added to unfavorable for the retention of muscle tissue. Proper ancillary drug therapy is usually recommended to helprestore hormonal balance more quickly, ultimately William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
helping the user retain more muscle tissue.
was much more common before the 1990's, whencypionate vials were usually very cheap and easy to find. A Another way to lessen the post-cycle "crash" is to first "more is better" attitude is easy to justify when paying replace testosterone cypionate with a milder anabolic only $20 for a 10cc vial (today the typical price for a single such as nandrolone decanoate or methenolone injection). At dosages of 800-1000 mg per week or more, enanthate. The new steroid would be administered alone water retention will likely account for more of the for one to two more months, at a dosage of 200-400 mg additional weight gain than new muscle tissue. The per week. In this "stepping down" procedure the user is practice of "megadosing" is inefficient (not to mention attempting to eliminate the watery bulk of a testosterone- potentially dangerous), especially when we take into based drug while simultaneously preserving the solid account the typical high cost of steroids today.
muscularity underneath. This practice can prove to beeffective, even if mainly for psychological reasons (some may view it as simply dividing the crash into water and Testosterone cypionate is rarely used with women in hormonal stages). Testosterone-stimulating drugs are still clinical medicine. When applied, it is most often used as a typically used at the conclusion of therapy, as secondary medication during inoperable breast cancer, endogenous testosterone production will not rebound when other therapies have failed to produce a desirable during the administration of nandrolone decanoate or effect and suppression of ovarian function is necessary.
Testosterone cypionate is not recommended for women The above side effects are not inclusive. For more detailed for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes due to discussion of potential side effects, see the Steroid Side Effects its strong androgenic nature, tendency to produce section of this book. virilizing side effects, and slow-acting characteristics(making blood levels difficult to control).
To treat androgen insufficiency, the prescribing guidelinesfor testosterone cypionate call for a dosage of 50-400 mg Testosterone cypionate remains widely available as a every two to four weeks. Although active in the body for a prescription drug product. Its production is largely longer time, testosterone cypionate is usually injected on associated with American companies, although recently a weekly basis for physique- or performance-enhancing has been expanding into loosely regulated Asian markets purposes. The usual dosage is in the range of 200-600 mg that still cater to demand by bodybuilders and athletes. In per week, taken in cycles 6 to 12 weeks in length.This level reviewing some of the products and changes in the global is sufficient for most users to notice exceptional gains in pharmaceutical market, we have made the following muscle size and strength.
Testosterone is usually incorporated into bulking phases Brand name testosterone cypionate (Depot-Testosterone) of training, when added water retention will be of little remains available in the United Stated from Prizer. This is a consequence, the user more concerned with raw mass high-profile target of counterfeiters. All legitimate boxes than definition. Some do incorporate the drug into will carry a "Jh" symbol hidden on one of the top inside cutting cycles as well, but typically in lower doses (100- flaps. It will appear when placed under UV light.
200 mg per week) and/or when accompanied by an Many generic forms of the drug are also produced in the aromatase inhibitor to keep estrogen levels under control.
U.S. market by manufacturers such as Watson, Sandoz, Testosterone cypionate is a very effective anabolic drug, Paddock, Synerx, and Bedford. All come packaged in and is often used alone with great benefit. Some, however, multiple-dose vials. Due to strict controls these products find a need to stack it with other anabolic/androgenic are rarely diverted for illicit sale. There are also several steroids for a stronger effect, in which case an additional pharmacies custom-compounding testosterone 200-400 mg per week of boldenone undecylenate, cypionate for doctors that specialize in androgen methenolone enanthate, or nandrolone decanoate should provide substantial results with no significanthepatotoxicity. Testosterone is ultimately very versatile, Cypionax is available in Thailand by T.P. Drug Laboratories.
and can be combined with many other It comes in 2 mL ampules containing 100 mg/mL of anabolic/androgenic steroids to tailor the desired effect.
While large doses are generally not advised, some Cypiobolic from Asia Pharma (Malaysia) is now approved bodybuilders have been known to use excessively high for sale through pharmacies in Thailand. Each box should dosages of this drug (1,000 mg per week or more). This carry a scratch-off security sticker, which will display a William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
code that can be validated on the company website.
Testex Prolongatum remains available in Spain. Thissteroid is produced by Laboratorios Q Pharma. It ispackaged in 2 mL dark glass ampules with grey silkscreenlettering. It comes in two doses, containing a total of 100mg or 250 mg of steroid. Testex has always been a high-profile item for counterfeiters.
Found in Chile is a high-dose cypionate product calledciclo-6. The product is manufactured by the firm DragPharma, and contains 300 mg/ml of steroid in a 2 mLampule (600 mg of cypionate in total).
Balkan Pharmaceuticals (Moldova) makes the productTestosterona C. It is prepared in both 1 mL ampules andmulti-dose vials.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
Insulin (rDNA Origin)
anabolic/androgenic steroids can be a very synergisticcombination. This is because the two actively support an Insulin is peptide hormone produced in the Islets of anabolic state through different mechanisms. Insulin Langerhans in the pancreas. The release of this hormone in strongly enhances the transport of nutrients into muscle the human body is most closely tied to blood glucose cells and inhibits protein breakdown, and the anabolic levels, although a number of other factors including steroids (among other things) strongly increase the rate of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones, amino acids, protein synthesis.
fatty acids, and ketone bodies are also involved. The mainbiological role of insulin is to promote the intracellular As mentioned, the usual medical purpose for insulin is to utilization and storage of amino acids, glucose, and fatty treat different forms of diabetes. More specifically, the acids, while simultaneously inhibiting the breakdown of human body may not be producing enough insulin (Type- glycogen, protein, and fat. It is most notably identified with I diabetes), or may not recognize insulin well at the cell site the control of blood sugar levels, and insulin medications although some level is present in the blood (Type-II are typically prescribed to people with diabetes, a diabetes). Type-I diabetics are, therefore, required to inject metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high insulin on a regular basis, as they are left without a blood sugar).While insulin targets many different organs in sufficient level of this hormone. Along with medication, the the body, this hormone is both anabolic and anti-catabolic individual will need to constantly monitor blood glucose to skeletal muscle tissue,926 927 928 a fact that explains the levels and regulate their sugar intake. Together with inclusion of pharmaceutical insulin in the realm of athletics lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and and bodybuilding.
developing a balanced diet, insulin dependent individualscan live a healthy and full life. When left untreated, The use of insulin to improve performance and body however, diabetes can be a fatal disease.
composition can be a little tricky because this hormonecan also promote nutrient storage in fat cells.This, however, is an activity of insulin that can be somewhat managed by Insulin first became available as a medicine during the the user. Athletes have found that a strict regimen of 1920s. Credit for the discovery is most appropriately given intense weight training and a diet without excess caloric to Canadian physician Fred Banting and Canadian and fat intake can enable insulin to show a much higher physiologist Charles Best, who worked together to affinity for protein and glucose storage in muscle (as produce the first insulin preparations, and the world's first opposed to fatty acid storage in adipose) cells. This is effective treatment of diabetes. Their work stemmed from especially true in the post-exercise enhanced-absorptive an idea initially proposed by Banting, who as a young state, where insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle has been doctor theorized that an active extract could be made from shown to increase significantly over baseline (rested) animal pancreases to regulate blood sugar in human levels.929 When used during the post-training window, the patients. He needed help to try and actualize his idea, and hormone is, likewise, capable of producing rapid and he sought out world-renowned physiologist J.J.R. Macleod noticeable muscle gains. The muscles often begin to look at the University of Toronto. Macleod, initially less than fuller (and even sometimes more defined) very soon after impressed with the unusual concept (but likely impressed initiating insulin therapy, and the overall results of therapy with Banting's conviction and tenacity), assigned a couple are often described as dramatic.
of graduate students to assist him in his work. A coin flip The fact that insulin use cannot be detected by urinalysis determined who would work with Banting, and he was has ensured it a place in the drug regimens of many eventually paired with graduate student Best. Together athletes and professional bodybuilders. Note that there has they made medical history.
been some progress in drug detection, especially with the The first insulin preparations they produced were made of analogs, but to date regular insulin is still considered a crude pancreatic extracts taken from dogs. At one point "safe" drug. Insulin is often used in combination with other the supply of laboratory animals was exhausted, and "contest safe" drugs like human growth hormone, thyroid desperate to continue their research, the pair actually medications, and low dose testosterone injections, and began taking stray dogs to supplement their pancreas together can have a dramatic effect on the user's physique supply. Shortly after, the two found that they could work and performance without fear of a positive urinalysis with the pancreases of slaughtered cows and pigs, making result. Those who do not have to worry about drug testing, their work much easier (and ethically acceptable). They however, often find that insulin combined with successfully treated their first diabetic patient with insulin William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
in January 1922. By August of that year, they had been followed, reaching market by 1950. This preparation was successful in treating a group of clinical patients, including very similar to PZI insulin except that it could be mixed 15-year-old Elizabeth Hughes, daughter of former with regular insulin without disturbing the release curve presidential candidate Charles Evans Hughes. Elizabeth of the respective insulins. In other words, a regular insulin was diagnosed with diabetes in 1918, and her dramatic drug could be mixed in the same syringe with NPH insulin, fight for life with the disease gained national attention.
providing a biphasic release pattern characterized by an Elizabeth would be saved by insulin on the doorstep of early peak effect due to the regular insulin, and an starvation, as severe calorie restriction was the only extended action brought on by the NPH.
remedy known to slow the disease at the time. Banting In 1951 the Lente insulins began to surface, which and Macleod swiftly won the Nobel Prize for their included semilente, lente, and ultra-lente preparations.
discovery, which was presented to them approximately a The amount of zinc used in each varied, producing year later in 1923. Shortly after, dispute over credit arose, preparations with distinct and long-acting and ultimately Banting shared his prize with Best, and pharmacokinetics. Unlike previous Insulins, this was also Macleod shared his prize with J. B. Collip, a chemist that achieved without the use of protamine. Many physicians assisted in the extraction and purification process.
were soon able to successfully switch their patients from After initially declining the assistance in the hopes that NPH insulin over to a single morning dose of Lente insulin, they could work out production issues on their own, often heralding the release of the new drugs as a big Banting and his team worked with Eli Lilly & Co. to develop advance in insulin medications (though some would still the first mass-produced insulin medicines using their require an evening dose with a Lente insulin to maintain animal extraction techniques. Their production success full control over blood glucose levels during the 24-hour was extreme and rapid, and the drug became period). Up to this point the insulin drugs made by the commercially available on a wide scale in 1923, the same large pharmaceutical companies worked very well. No year Banting and Macleod won the Nobel prize.That same substantial step forward in the development of new year, Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium was founded by Danish insulin delivery technologies would come for another 23 scientist Augusta Krogh, who desperately wanted to bring back an insulin manufacturing technique to Denmark to In 1974, chromatographic purification techniques allowed treat his wife, who was ill with diabetes.This Denmark firm the manufacture of animal insulin with extremely low eventually became Novo Nordisk, the world's second impurity levels (less than 1 pmol/l of protein impurities).
leading producer of insulin next to Eli Lilly & Co.
Novo was the first to release a drug made with this The early insulin medications were fairly impure by technology, which it called monocomponent (MC) Insulin.
today's standards. They typically contained 40 units of Eli Lilly also released a version called "Single Peak" Insulin, animal insulin per milliliter, in contrast to today's accepted likely referring to the single protein peak noticed upon standard concentration of 100 units. The large doses chemical analysis. This advance, though significant, would needed with these early low-concentration drugs were be short lived. In 1975, Ciba-Geigy produced the first not very comfortable for patients, and injection-site synthetic insulin preparation (CGP 12831). And just three reactions were not uncommon. They also contained years later, scientists at Genentech were able to produce significant protein impurities that would sometimes cause insulin using modified E. coli bacteria, the first synthetic allergic reactions in users. Despite these faults, the drugs insulin with an identical amino acid sequence as human saved the lives of countless individuals who beforehand insulin (although the animal insulins work fine in humans were faced with a sure death sentence following a their structures are slightly different). The U.S. Food and diagnosis of diabetes. Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk improved Drug administration approved the first such medicines in the purity of their products in the coming years, but no 1982, with the acceptance of Humulin R (Regular) and major improvements in insulin technology developed Humulin NPH from Eli Lilly & Co. The name Humulin is a until the mid-1930s, when the first longer-acting insulin contraction of the words "human" and "insulin", of course.
preparations began to surface.
Novo would follow with semi-synthetic insulins ActrapidHM and Monotard HM.
The first longer-acting drug made use of protamine andzinc to delay the action of insulin in the body, extending The FDA has approved a variety of other insulin drug the activity curve and reducing the number of daily combinations over the years, including various biphasic injections required for many patients. Dubbed Protamine insulin blends that use differing amounts of rapid and Zinc Insulin (PZI), the preparation would have an effect longer-acting insulins. More recently, we have also seen lasting as long as 24-36 hours. Neutral Protamine the FDA approval of Eli Lilly's rapid-acting insulin analog Hagedorn (NPH) Insulin, also known as Isophane insulin, Humalog. Several other analogs are also now available William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
including Lantus and Apidra from Aventis, and Levemir and Novorapid from Novo Nordisk. A number of Below is a list showing the distinctions between popular additional analogs are also under investigation at this forms of biosynthetic insulin.
time. With the large variety of different insulinmedications approved and sold in the U.S. and other nations, it is important to understand that "insulin"represents an extremely broad class of medicines. As a Humalog® (Insulin Lispro): Humalog® is a short-acting class, these drugs are likely to continue to expand as new analog of human insulin, specifically the Lys(B28) Pro(B29) agents are developed and successfully tested. Today, it is analog of insulin created when the amino acids at estimated that 55 million people use some form of positions 28 and 29 are reversed. It is considered injectable insulin on a regular basis to manage their equipotent to regular soluble insulin on a unit-to-unit diabetes, making this an extremely important and basis, but with more rapid activity.930 The onset of drug lucrative area of human medicine.
action following subcutaneous administration isapproximately 15 minutes, and its peak effect is reached in 30 to 90 minutes. It has a total duration of action between3 and 5 hours. Insulin lispro is usually used as a Pharmaceutical insulin comes from one of two basic supplement to a longer acting insulin product, providing origins, animal or synthetic.With animal source insulin, the a fast-acting medication that can be taken before or hormone is extracted from the pancreas of either pigs or immediately after meals to mimic the body's natural cows (or both) and prepared for medical use. These insulin response. Many athletes believe that its short preparations are further divided into the categories window of effect makes it an ideal insulin medication for "standard" and "purified", dependent on the level of purity physique- or performance-enhancing purposes, as most and non-insulin content of the solution. With such of its action can be concentrated in the post-training products there is always the slight possibility of pancreatic contaminants making their way into the prepared drug.
Specifically called biosynthetic, synthetic insulin is Novolog® (Insulin Aspart): Novolog is a short-acting analog produced by a recombinant DNA procedure similar to the of human insulin created when the amino acid proline at process used to manufacture human growth hormone.
position B28 is replaced with aspartic acid. The onset of The result is a polypeptide hormone consisting of one 21- drug action following subcutaneous administration is amino acid "A-chain" coupled by two disulfide bonds with approximately 15 minutes, and its peak effect is reached in one 30-amino acid "B-chain".The biosynthetic process will 1-3 hours. It has a total duration of action between 3 and produce a drug free of the pancreatic protein 5 hours. Insulin lispro is usually used as a supplement to a contaminants possible with animal insulin, and that is longer acting insulin product, providing a fast-acting structurally and biologically identical to human medication that can be taken before or immediately after pancreatic insulin. With the innate (remote) risk of meals to mimic the body's natural insulin response. Many contamination involved with animal insulin, coupled with athletes believe that its short window of effect makes it an the fact that the structure is (very slightly) different from ideal insulin medication for physique- or performance- human insulin, synthetic human insulin drugs dominate enhancing purposes, as most of its action can be the market today. Biosynthetic human insulin/insulin concentrated in the post-training enhanced-nutrient- analogs are also the most common insulins of use among uptake window.
athletes, and the main focus of this profile.
There are a variety of synthetic insulins available, witheach possessing unique properties relating to speed ofonset, peak and duration of activity, and concentration ofdose. This therapeutic variety may allow physicians totailor a treatment program for insulin-dependantdiabetics that allows for the least amount of dailyinjections and the greatest level of patient comfort. It isimportant that one should be aware of the individualactivity of any insulin drug before attempting its use. Dueto the differences between preparations, it is also Humulin®-R "Regular" (insulin Inj): Identical to human medically advised that extreme care be taken whenever a insulin. Also sold as Humulin-S® (Soluble) in some physician attempts to switch an insulin-dependant markets, this product consists of zinc-insulin crystals diabetic patient from one form of insulin medication to dissolved in clear fluid. There is nothing added to slow the William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
release of this product, so it is generically referred to assoluble human Insulin. This drug works rapidly and has ashort duration of effect.The onset of drug action followingsubcutaneous administration is 20-30 minutes, and itspeak effect is reached in 1-3 hours. It has a total durationof action between 5 and 8 hours. Together with Humalog,these two forms of insulin are the most popular (almostexclusive) choices among athletes and bodybuilders forphysique- or performance-enhancement purposes.
Humulin®-U, Ultralente (prolonged zinc suspension): Acrystalline suspension of insulin with zinc to delay itsrelease and extend its action. Humulin-U is considered along-acting insulin. The onset of drug action followingsubcutaneous administration is approximately 6 hours,and its peak effect is reached in 14-18 hours. It has a totalduration of activity lasting 18-24 hours.This type of insulinis not commonly used for physique- or performance-enhancement purposes.
Intermediate- and Long-acting Insulins:
Humulin®-N, NPH (insulin isophane): A suspension of insulin with protamine and zinc to delay its release and extend its action. Insulin isophane is considered intermediate length insulin. The onset of drug action following subcutaneous administration is approximately 1-2 hours, and its peak effect is reached in 4-10 hours. It has a total duration of activity lasting more 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
than 14 hours. This type of insulin is not commonly used Time (hours after injection)
for physique- or performance-enhancement purposes.
Lantus (insulin glargine): A long-acting analog of humaninsulin. Insulin glargine is created when the amino acidasparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine, and twoarginines are added to the C-terminus of the insulin Bchain. The onset of drug action following subcutaneousadministration is approximately 1-2 hours, and the drug isconsidered to have no significant peak (it is designed tohave a very stable release pattern throughout theduration of activity). Insulin glargine lasts between 20-24hours in the body following subcutaneous injection. Thistype of insulin is not commonly used for physique- orperformance-enhancement purposes.
Humulin®-L, Lente (medium zinc suspension): A crystallinesuspension of insulin with zinc to delay its release andextend its action.
Humulin-L is considered an intermediate length insulin. The onset of drug actionfollowing subcutaneous administration is approximately1-3 hours, and its peak effect is reached in 6-14 hours. Ithas a total duration of activity lasting more than 20 hours.
This type of insulin is not commonly used for physique- orperformance-enhancement purposes.
William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
death. Note that in some cases the symptoms ofhypoglycemia are mistaken for drunkenness.
Humulin® Mixtures: These are mixtures of regular solubleinsulin for a fast onset of action, and a long- or It is also very important to note that you may notice a intermetiate-acting insulin for a prolonged effect. These tendency to get sleepy after injecting insulin. This is an are labeled by the mixture percentage, commonly 10/90, early symptom of hypoglycemia, and a clear sign the user 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, and 50/50. Mixtures using Humalog as should be consuming more carbohydrates. One should the rapid-acting insulin are also available.
absolutely avoid the temptation to go to sleep at thispoint, as the insulin may take its peak effect during rest, Warning: Concentrated Insulin
and blood glucose levels could be left to drop The most common forms of insulin come in a significantly. Unaware of this condition during sleep, the concentration of 100 IU of hormone per milliliter. These athlete may be at a high risk for going into a state of are identified as "U-100" preparations in the U.S. and many severe hypoglycemia. The serious dangers of such a state other regions. In addition to this, however, there are also have already been discussed, and unfortunately concentrated forms of insulin available for patients that consuming more carbohydrates during sleep will not be require higher doses and a more economical or an option. Those experimenting with insulin would, comfortable option to U-100 preparations. In the U.S., therefore, be wise to always stay awake for the duration of products containing as much as 5 times the normal the drug's effect, and also avoid using insulin in the early concentration, or 500 IU per milliliter, are also sold. These evening to ensure the drug will not be inadvertently are identified as "U-500" preparations, and are available by active when retiring for the night. It is also important to prescription only. It can be extremely dangerous or life make sure others are aware of your use of the drug so that threatening to replace a U-100 insulin product with a U- they may inform emergency medical technicians should 500 product without making the necessary dosing you lose consciousness or the ability to inform others of adjustments to compensate for the greater drug your condition due to hypoglycemia. This information can concentration. Given the general difficulty in accurately spare valuable (perhaps life saving) time in helping measuring athletic doses (2-15 IU) with a drug of such medical professionals establish a diagnosis and provide high concentration, U-100 preparations are used almost exclusively for physique- and performance-enhancing Side Effects (Lipodystrophy):
The subcutaneous administration of insulin may cause a Side Effects (Hypoglycemia):
localized increase in adipose tissue at the site of injection.
Hypoglycemia is the primary danger with the use of This may be compounded by the repeated administration insulin. This is a dangerous condition that occurs when of insulin at the same site of injection.
blood glucose levels fall too low. It is a common and Side Effects (Allergy to Insulin):
potentially fatal reaction experienced at some time oranother by most medical and nonmedical insulin users, so In a small percentage of users, the administration of it needs to be taken seriously. It is, therefore, critical to insulin may cause a localized allergy. This may include understand the warning signs of hypoglycemia. The irritation, swelling, itching, and/or redness at the site of following is a list of symptoms that may indicate mild to injection. This often subsides as therapy continues. In moderate hypoglycemia: hunger, drowsiness, blurred some instances it may be due to an allergy to an vision, depressive mood, dizziness, sweating, palpitation, ingredient, or in the case of animal insulin, a protein tremor, restlessness, tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or contaminant. Less common, but potentially more serious, tongue, lightheadedness, inability to concentrate, is a systemic allergic reaction to insulin administration.
headache, sleep disturbances, anxiety, slurred speech, This may include a rash on the whole body, wheezing, irritability, abnormal behavior, unsteady movement, and shortness of breath, fast pulse, sweating, and/or a personality changes. If any of these warning signs should reduction in blood pressure. In rare instances this may be occur, one should immediately consume a food or drink life threatening. Any adverse reaction should be reported containing simple sugars such as a candy bar or to a medical authority.
carbohydrate drink.This will hopefully raise blood glucose levels sufficiently enough to ward off mild to moderatehypoglycemia. There is always a possibility of severe Given that there are varying forms of insulin available for hypoglycemia, which is very serious and requires medical use with differing pharmacokinetic patterns, as immediate emergency medical attention. Symptoms of well as products with different drug concentrations, it is this include disorientation, seizure, unconsciousness, and extremely important that the user be familiar with the William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
dosage and actions of any specific insulin preparation injecting a dose, as some find they tolerate slightly more they intend to use so that peak-effect, total time of effect, or less insulin than weight guidelines would dictate.
total dosage, and carbohydrate intake can be closely Athletes using growth hormone in particular often have monitored. Rapid-acting insulin preparations (Novolog, slightly higher insulin requirements, as HGH therapy is Humalog, and Humulin-R) are the most popular choices shown to both lower secretion of, and induce cellular for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes, and resistance to, insulin.
the subject of the dosing information presented in this One must also remember that it is very important to book. It is also important to stress that before one consume carbohydrates for several hours following considers using insulin they should also become very insulin use. One should generally follow the rule-of-thumb familiar with using a glucometer. This is a medical device of ingesting at least 10-15 grams of simple carbohydrates that can give you a quick and accurate reading of your per IU of insulin injected (with a minimum immediate blood glucose level. This device can be indispensable in intake of 100 grams regardless of dose).This is timed 10 to helping one manage and optimize their 30 minutes after subcutaneous injection of Humulin-R, or immediately after using Novolog or Humalog.The use of a carbohydrate replacement drink is often used as a fastcarbohydrate source. Properly cautious insulin users will Short acting forms of insulin (Novolog, Humalog, always have a source for simple sugars on-hand in case an Humulin-R) are designed for subcutaneous injection.
unexpected drop in glucose levels is noticed. Many Following subcutaneous injection, the injection site athletes will also take creatine monohydrate with their should be left alone and not rubbed, to prevent the drug carbohydrate drink, since the insulin may help force more from releasing into circulation too quickly. It is also creatine into the muscles. 30-60 minutes after injecting advised to rotate subcutaneous injection sites regularly to insulin, one should also eat a good meal and consume a avoid the localized buildup of subcutaneous fat that may protein shake. The carbohydrate drink and meal/protein develop due to the lipogenic properties of this hormone shake are absolutely necessary, as without them blood (see Adverse Reactions: Lipodystrophy). The medical sugar levels may drop dangerously low and the athlete dosage will vary depending on the individual may enter a state of hypoglycemia (see Adverse requirements of the patient. Furthermore, changes in such Reactions: Hypoglycemia). Carbohydrates and proteins are things as diet, activity level, or work/sleep schedule may continually provided in sufficient amounts to meet the required insulin dose. Although not glucose requirements throughout the entire window of recommended medically, it is possible to administer some insulin effect.
short-acting insulins via intramuscular injection. This,however, may create more variability (and potential risk) with regard to drug dissipation and hypoglycemic effect.
and Biphasic Insulins):
Insulin dosages can vary slightly among athletes, and are Intermediate-acting, long-acting, and biphasic insulins are often dependent upon factors like body weight, insulin designed for subcutaneous injection. Intramuscular sensitivity, activity level, diet, and the use of other drugs.
injection will cause the drug to be released too rapidly, Most users choose to administer insulin immediately after potentially resulting in hypoglycemia.
a workout, which is the most opportunistic time of the day subcutaneous injection, the injection site should be left to use this drug. Among bodybuilders, dosages of regular alone and not rubbed, to prevent the drug from releasing insulin (Humulin-R) used are usually in the range of 1IU into circulation too quickly. It is also advised to rotate per 15-20 pounds of lean bodyweight; 10IU is perhaps the subcutaneous injection sites regularly to avoid the most common dosage. This amount may be adjusted localized buildup of subcutaneous fat due to the downward slightly for users of the more rapid-acting lipogenic properties of this hormone (see Adverse Humalog and Novolog preparations, which provide a Reactions: Lipodystrophy). The medical dosage will vary higher and faster peak effect. First-time cautious users depending on the individual requirements of the patient.
usually ignore bodyweight guidelines, and instead start at Furthermore, changes in such things as diet, activity level, a low dosage with the intention of gradually working up or work/sleep schedule may affect the required insulin to a normal dosage. For example, on the first day of insulin dose. Intermediate-acting, long-acting, and biphasic therapy one may begin with a dose as low as 2 IU. Each not widely used for physique- or consecutive post-workout application this dosage might performance-enhancing purposes due to their longer be increased by 1IU, until the user determines a acting nature, which makes them poorly suited for comfortable range. Many feel this is safer and much more concentrating the nutrient partitioning effect of insulin tailored to the individual than simply calculating and during the short post-workout enhanced-nutrient-uptake William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS, 10th ed.
U-100 insulins may be dispensed from pharmacies in theUnited States without a prescription. This is so that aninsulin-dependent diabetic will have easy access to thislife-saving medication. Concentrated (U-500) insulin issold by prescription only. In most regions of the world,high medical use of the drug leads to easy access and lowprices on the black market.
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Introduction to psychology Objectives: 1. To be able to understand the scientific nature of Psychology. 2. To enumerate the goals of Psychology. 3. To briefly trace the historical development of Psychology. 4. To describe the different schools of thought and contemporary approaches in 5. To be familiar with the different methods used by psychologists. 6. To identify different issues tackled by the different subfields of psychology.

10 - sutherland

USING ENZYMES TO CLEAN UP PESTICIDE RESIDUES Tara Sutherland and Robyn Russell from CSIRO Entomology in Canberra, Australia, and Michael Selleck ofOrica Australia Pty Ltd. describe exciting work being done on the use of enzymes to clean up pesticideresidues Current research focuses on several major insecticide classes Increasing pesticide use in recent years has led to public