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Psychiatric Drugs anD
anger ManageMent curricula—
a PersPective on school violence
By Citizens Commission on Human Rights
The preeminent international mental health watchdog
The CiTizens Commission on human RighTs® invesTigaTes and exposes psyChiaTRiC violaTions of human RighTs. iT woRks shouldeR- To-shouldeR wiTh like-minded gRoups and individuals who shaRe a Common puRpose To Clean up The field of menTal healTh. iT shall ConTinue To do so unTil psyChiaTRy's abusive and CoeRCive pRaCTiCes Cease and human RighTs and digniTy aRe ReTuRned To all.
table of contents
the role of Psychiatric Drugs in school violence
antiDePressants coulD eXPlain the rash of school shootings…
suiciDe risK
Drug WithDraWals cause violent behavior
coluMbine: a Drug anD anger ManageMent trageDy
ACTS OF PSYCHIATRIC DRUG-RELATED SCHOOL VIOLENCE: 1988-2006 OTHER TEEN VIOLENT ACTS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS ADULTS ACTS OF VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS A PERSONAL STORY ON VIOLENCE-INDUCING EFFECTS OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS 22 The Role of psyChiaTRiC dRugs in in determining any policy regarding school violence or in assessing potential common characteristics of teens responsible for school shootings and violence, the role of prescribed psychotropic (mind-altering) drugs and psychological programs must be considered. This is especially important given the evidence showing that since the introduction of the selective serotonin Reuptake inhibitors (ssRi) antidepressant prozac in 1987 and thereafter, luvox, effexor, zoloft, paxil and other ssRis, the food and drug administration has warned that these can induce suicidal behavior and Since 1988—a
agitation, hostility, impulsivity and mania.
year after Prozac
was approved for
since 1988—a year after prozac was approved for adult use—there have been 46
adult use—there
incidents of school violence involving 48 children and adolescents. of these, 38% have been 46
(18) were reported in media, websites or books to be taking psychiatric drugs or incidents of school
were withdrawing from them at the time of their shooting spree. The relationship of violence involving
psychiatric drugs in the remaining incidents of violence has not been publicly disclosed 48 children and
or the person's records are sealed. adolescents. Of
these, 38% were
of the 18 children and adolescents who committed acts of violence on psychiatric
reported to be
drugs, 9 were taking antidepressants, 5 were taking the stimulants Ritalin or dexedrine, 1 was taking a tranquilizer and 3 others took psychiatric drugs (specifics unknown). taking psychiatric
The 18 students, aged between 11 and 19, killed 47 people and wounded 104.
of the 18 children and adolescents who committed acts of violence, at least seven
students had undergone anger management/conflict resolution classes or psychological counseling that experts have also indicated could increase violent tendencies.
between 1993 and 2006, there were an additional 22 cases reported in the media of
teens committing violent crimes and murders while taking psychiatric drugs outside of school settings. during the same period, school shootings involving adults taking psychiatric drugs resulted in 5 deaths and 7 people wounded.
between 1995 and 1999, the use of antidepressants increased 151% in the 7-12
age group.1 The Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry reported a 500% increase in those 18 years of age and younger taking antidepressants between 1987 and 2002.2 between 1991 and 1996, zoloft, paxil, effexor, luvox and Celexa were all fda
approved for adult use only, yet all these drugs are cited in incidents of teen violence. it was not until January 3, 2003, that the food and drug administration (fda) approved prozac as the only ssRi to treat "depression" in children. in october 2004, the fda ordered its strongest "black box" labeling to warn that ssRi antidepressants can cause suicidal behavior in children and adolescents. 1 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE between 1990 and 2005, there was a more than 380% increase in the pediatric
use of stimulants that the fda warned in 2006 could cause psychosis, mania and
aggression.3 suicide is a risk during withdrawal.
in may 2002, the u.s. secret service and department of education report on
prevention of school attacks in the united states reviewed 37 incidents of targeted school shootings and school attacks between 1974 and June 2000—an average of 1.4 shootings per year. in comparison, the number of incidents over 18 years since 1988 Between 1993 and
was 2.5 per year or almost double. 2006, there were
an additional 22
The u.s. secret service and department of education research did not investigate
cases reported
potential psychotropic drug influence but only whether attackers had non-complied with in the media of
taking prescribed psychiatric medications, of which 10% had.4 There was no mention teens commit ing
of the studies showing severe withdrawal effects, especially from ssRi antidepressants violent crimes and
and stimulants that could predispose a child to violent behavior.
murders while
taking psychiatric
kelly patricia o'meara, author of Psyched Out: How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness
drugs outside of
and Pushes Pills That Kill, says that despite the fact that two federal law-enforcement agencies had the opportunity to view the personal files of many of the school shooters, school set ings.
important medical data gleaned from those files apparently was ignored.5 Cases of violent crimes compiled by the international Coalition for drug awareness
recorded more than 950 acts of violence over an eight-year period, committed by people of all ages taking ssRi antidepressants. This includes 362 murders; 45 attempted murders; over 100 acts of violence and assault, including 13 school shootings; 5 bomb threats or bombings; 24 acts of arson; 21 robberies; 3 pilots who crashed their planes; and more than 350 suicides and suicide attempts.
This is more than coincidental and experts say that it warrants government investigation and intervention.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 2 chaPter 1
anTidepRessanTs Could explain The Rash of sChool shooTings… harvard medical school psychiatrist, dr. Joseph glenmullen, author of Prozac Backlash, says antidepressants could explain the rash of school shootings and mass-suicides over the last decade. people who take antidepressants, he said, could "become very distraught….They feel like jumping out of their skin. The irritability and impulsivity can make people suicidal or homicidal."6 Robert whitaker, author of Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, reports, "little could the public have People who take
suspected that the madman of its nightmares, who kills without warning and for no apparent reason, was not always driven by an evil within but rather by a popular could "become
DRUG-INDUCED VIOLENCE: "IF WE'RE ONLY INTERESTED IN
They feel like
DEBATING GUN LAWS AND METAL DETECTORS, THEN WE AS
jumping out of
LEGISLATORS AREN'T DOING OUR JOB."
their skin. The
irritability and
following the Columbine school shooting in 1999, Colorado state Rep. penn impulsivity can
Pfiffner, chaired a hearing on the possible connection of violent behavior and make people
psychotropic drugs, stating, "There is enough coincidence and enough professional opinion from legitimate scientists to cause us to raise the issue and to ask further suicidal or
questions." "if we're only interested in debating gun laws and metal detectors," said Pfiffner, "then we as legislators aren't doing our job."8 Dr. Joseph
since then, many more studies and drug warnings have emerged that highlight the Glenmullen,
violent and suicide inducing effects of psychiatric drugs. for example: Harvard Medical
in september 2006, dr. david healy, director of the north wales department of Psychological Medicine, and col eagues released the findings of their study published in the journal Public Library of Science Medicine (plos) that determined glaxosmithkline's paxil raises the risk of severe violence in people taking them. "we've got good evidence that the drugs can make people violent and you'd have to reason from that that there may be more episodes of violence," Dr. Healy stated. The findings are based in part on clinical trial data gsk submit ed to the uk's Commit ee on safety of medicines expert working group.9 "i have no reason to think al of the drugs in the group don't pose just as much risk," he said. adds dr. healy, "what is very, very clear is that people do become hostile on the
in february 2006, health Canada approved a new warning label for paxil that reads,
in part: "a smal number of patients taking drugs of this type…may experience unusual feelings of agitation, hostility or anxiety, or have impulsive or disturbing thoughts,
such as thoughts of self-harm or harm to others." health Canada required paxil's
product information to detail a list of "rare" side effects, affecting fewer than one in 1,000 patients. These include delusions, hostility, psychosis and psychotic depression.11
3 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE Based on this figure, of the 1.5 million children and adolescents in the United
states currently taking antidepressants, 1,500 are potential time bombs.
The manufacturer's study of the antidepressant Remeron reported that 4% of
users experienced abnormal dreams and 3% reported abnormal thinking. other
nervous system effects that occurred frequently included apathy (blunting effect)
and agitation. The results would have been worse except that 16% of those taking
Remeron dropped out of the study because of adverse reactions.12 "Little could
in september 2004, a study titled, "aggression, mania, and hypomania induction
the public have
associated with atomoxetine" (strattera), published in Pediatrics, the journal of suspected that
the american academy of pediatrics, revealed that 33% of the patients reviewed the madman of
exhibited extreme irritability, aggression, mania or hypomania.13 while an
its nightmares,
antidepressant, strattera is prescribed largely to children with so-called attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
who kills without
warning and
substantial evidence from ssRi clinical trials shows that these drugs can trigger
for no apparent
agitation. approximately 5% of patients on ssRis in randomized trials drop
reason, was not
out because of agitation against 0.5% on placebo (dummy pill).14 The maker of
always driven
prozac reported the following frequent nervous system effects: agitation, amnesia,
by an evil within
confusion and emotional lability ("susceptible to change, error or instability"—
but rather
Webster's New World Medical Dictionary).15 by a popular
when yale university's department of psychiatry analyzed the admissions to
their hospital's psychiatric unit, they found that 8.1% of the patients "were found to have been admitted owing to antidepressant-associated mania or psychosis."16 Robert Whitaker,
author of
dr. glenmullen documented cases in psychiatric journals and in his own practice
Mad in America
of disturbing side effects linked to ssRis, including hallucinations, psychoses,
violence and attempted suicide. in august 2006, dr. glenmullen said he believed
paxil could cause homicidal episodes.17 in november 2005, the fda added "homicidal ideation" as a side effect of effexor
xR (extended release).18 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 4 chaPter 2
dr. healy also found that rather than reducing suicide, a review of published ssRi
antidepressant clinical trials determined that they increase the risk of suicide.19 in fact, two years before prozac was approved for the american market, germany's
drug licensing agency, bga, refused to approve it because of the risk of suicide. bga had determined 16 suicide attempts had been made during treatment with the antidepressant, two of these with success. it stated, "as patients with a risk of suicide were excluded from the studies, it is probable that the high proportion can be attributed to an action of the preparation." while the germans eventually licensed prozac, it was not without a warning that dr. Timothy scott, author of america Fooled, The Truth About Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and How We've Been Deceived, essentially warned those taking it that should they react to the drug they should consider asking physicians for a sedative to decrease the danger of suicidal disinhibition and agitation.20 in august 2006, The Archives of General Psychiatry published a study by mark
olfson, m.d., mph, and colleagues stating that in children and adolescents, "the risk of suicide attempts was 1.52 times higher after antidepressant drug treatment compared with no antidepressant drug treatment." They were also 15 times more likely to succeed in their suicide attempt.21 in 2005, norwegian researchers published a study of more than 1,500 patients,
entitled, "suicide attempts in clinical trials with paroxetine (paxil) randomized against placebo," in the BMC Medicine, finding that Paxil was seven times more likely to induce suicide in people taking this than those taking placebo: "The data strongly suggests that the use of ssRis is connected with an increased intensity and suicide attempts per year."22 dr. Richard kapit, a former fda researcher who investigated prozac, paxil and
Zoloft before the drugs were allowed on the U.S. market, testified in a murder case linked to ssRis that he always suspected in some patients the drugs could cause mania, a condition that can lead to violence. "in the psychiatric profession, antidepressants have always been thought to cause manic episodes," kapit said. "now, we have hard data to back up what everyone sort of believed." kapit was referring to three reviews of clinical trial data provided by drug companies and presented at an fda hearing in september 2004, showing some children and adolescents taking antidepressants may develop suicidal thoughts or actions because "There are many reports and studies confirming that SSRI antidepressants can
cause violence, suicide, mania and other forms of psychotic and bizarre behavior," 5 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE dr. healy also found that rather than reducing suicide, a review of published ssRi
says psychiatrist peter breggin in a study of ssRis, published in International antidepressant clinical trials determined that they increase the risk of suicide.19 Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine in 2003.24 The fact that drug regulatory agencies such as the fda and health Canada require ssRi packaging to include the in fact, two years before prozac was approved for the american market, germany's
warning of "anger, aggression, and violence indicates a concern that antidepressant drug licensing agency, bga, refused to approve it because of the risk of suicide. reactions can pose a danger to others," dr. breggin stated.25 further, "from agitation bga had determined 16 suicide attempts had been made during treatment with and hostility to impulsivity and mania," he warns, "antidepressant-induced behaviors the antidepressant, two of these with success. it stated, "as patients with a risk of is identical to that of pCp, methamphetamine and cocaine—drugs known to cause suicide were excluded from the studies, it is probable that the high proportion can be aggression and violence."26 Rather than
attributed to an action of the preparation." while the germans eventually licensed reducing suicide,
prozac, it was not without a warning that dr. Timothy scott, author of america attorney Jim gottstein adds, "The high rate at which we are drugging america's
a review of
Fooled, The Truth About Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and How We've Been children with psychotropics is a national disgrace."27 published SSRI
Deceived, essentially warned those taking it that should they react to the drug they should consider asking physicians for a sedative to decrease the danger of suicidal clinical trials
disinhibition and agitation.20 determined that
they increase the
in august 2006, The Archives of General Psychiatry published a study by mark
olfson, m.d., mph, and colleagues stating that in children and adolescents, "the risk of suicide.
risk of suicide attempts was 1.52 times higher after antidepressant drug treatment compared with no antidepressant drug treatment." They were also 15 times more likely to succeed in their suicide attempt.21 in 2005, norwegian researchers published a study of more than 1,500 patients,
entitled, "suicide attempts in clinical trials with paroxetine (paxil) randomized against placebo," in the BMC Medicine, finding that Paxil was seven times more likely to induce suicide in people taking this than those taking placebo: "The data strongly suggests that the use of ssRis is connected with an increased intensity and suicide attempts per year."22 dr. Richard kapit, a former fda researcher who investigated prozac, paxil and
Zoloft before the drugs were allowed on the U.S. market, testified in a murder case linked to ssRis that he always suspected in some patients the drugs could cause mania, a condition that can lead to violence. "in the psychiatric profession, antidepressants have always been thought to cause manic episodes," kapit said. "now, we have hard data to back up what everyone sort of believed." kapit was referring to three reviews of clinical trial data provided by drug companies and presented at an fda hearing in september 2004, showing some children and adolescents taking antidepressants may develop suicidal thoughts or actions because "There are many reports and studies confirming that SSRI antidepressants can
cause violence, suicide, mania and other forms of psychotic and bizarre behavior," PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 6 chaPter 3
DRUG WITHDRAWALS CAUSE VIOLENT BEHAVIOR when drug companies became concerned about the withdrawal effects from ssRis, according to dr. glenmullen, the manufacturer of prozac funded a closed-door conference with experts who decided to call this effect "antidepressant discontinuation syndrome" to avoid the negative connotations of drug withdrawal (addictive) since then, britain has warned that all ssRis "may be associated with withdrawal" "The data
and noted that paxil and effexor "seem to be associated with a greater frequency of strongly suggests
withdrawal reactions."29 that the use
pharmaceutical records show that 62% of patients in clinical trials for paxil experienced of SSRIs is
withdrawal symptoms.30 connected with
an increased
a report issued by the national preferred medicines Center inc. in new zealand on intensity and
"acute drug withdrawal," warned that withdrawal from psychoactive drugs can cause suicide attempts
1) rebound effects that exacerbate previous symptoms of a "disease," and 2) new symptoms unrelated to the condition that had not been previously experienced by the BMC Medicine,
August 2005
dr. John zajecka reported in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry that the agitation and irritability experienced by patients withdrawing from one ssRi could cause "aggressiveness and suicidal impulsivity."32 in Lancet, the british medical journal, dr. miki bloch reported on patients who became suicidal and homicidal after stopping an antidepressant, with one man having thoughts of harming "his own children."33 in august 2005, the australian Therapeutic goods administration published an adverse drug Reactions bulletin reporting that a review of ssRis found evidence that increased dosages of the antidepressants could cause akathisia, agitation, nervousness and anxiety. similar symptoms could also occur during withdrawal.34 Donald Marks, M.D., Ph.D., testified before FDA hearings in February 2004 stating, "There are many studies in the peer reviewed medical literature supporting the causal role of serotonin in disinhibition and violence. my own prescribing experience with SSRI drugs and evaluation of numerous cases referred to me has revealed significant agitation and aggression, akathisia, activation of mania and hypomania, increased depression, serious dependency and withdrawal difficulties, suicidal ideation, and toxic interactions with other drugs."35 suicide is the major complication of withdrawal from Ritalin and similar amphetamine- 7 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE COURTS DETERMINE DRUGS INDUCE VIOLENT ACTS
in January 1999, university of north dakota student Ryan ehlis, 27, shot and killed
his five-week-old daughter and wounded himself after taking the stimulant Adderall for several weeks. Ehlis' girlfriend, the mother of his children, testified that Ehlis stopped acting like himself the first day he took Adderall. After the first week, he began to describe delusions and hallucinations. shire Richwood, the manufacturer of adderall, issued a statement to the court that psychosis is a side effect of this class of stimulants. Charges were dismissed against Ehlis after various doctors testified that he suffered from "amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder." on may 25, 2001, an australian judge blamed the antidepressant zoloft for turning a
peaceful, law-abiding man, david hawkins, into a violent killer. Judge barry o'keefe of the new south wales supreme Court said that had mr. hawkins not taken the syndrome" to
antidepressant, "it is overwhelmingly probable that mrs. hawkins would not have been avoid the negative
killed…."38 further, "The killing was totally out of character" and "inconsistent with connotations of
the loving, caring relationship which existed between him and his wife and with their drug withdrawal
happy marriage of 50 years."39 in June 2001, a wyoming jury awarded $8 million to the relatives of a man, donald
schell, who went on a shooting rampage after taking paxil and killing his wife, daughter and his baby granddaughter. The jury determined that the drug was 80% responsible for inducing the killing spree.40 Testifying in the schell case was harvard psychiatrist John maltsberger who said
that ssRi manufacturers should warn that ssRis can cause some patients to experience akathisia and mania, which, he told the court, can induce violent behavior and PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 8 chaPter 4
COLUMBINE: A DRUG AND ANGER MANAGEMENT TRAGEDY on november 11, 1999, in response to the Columbine shooting, the Colorado state board of education passed the "Resolution: promoting the use of academic solutions to Resolve problems with behavior, attention, and learning," that stated, "there are documented incidents of highly negative consequences in which psychiatric drugs have been utilized for what are essentially problems of discipline which may be related to a lack of academic success." ".evaluation of
The board resolved to "encourage school personnel to use proven academic and/ numerous cases
or classroom management solutions to resolve behavior, attention, and learning referred to me
difficulties." This followed evidence presented to it of Eric Harris, the ringleader in has revealed
the Columbine shooting taking the antidepressant luvox.
in 2003, Colorado passed a law "Concerning school board policies Covering when personnel may address health Care Treatment for student behavior issues," where each school board was directed to "adopt a policy of prohibiting school personnel serious dependency
from recommending or requiring the use of a psychotropic drug for any student" and and withdrawal
that "school personnel shall not test for a child's behavior without prior written consent from the parents or guardians." Donald Marks,
in 2004, a federal child medication safety amendment also provided similar safeguards. M.D., Ph.D.,
it is now widely recognized that given the serious potential risk of violence caused by Testimony to
these drugs, that it is imperative that those recommended to take these as well as their FDA Hearing,
families be fully apprised of the side effects.
on June 30, 2006, an alaska supreme Court ruling regarding enforced psychiatric drug use determined, "given the nature and potentially devastating impact of psychotropic medications…we now similarly hold that the right to refuse to take psychotropic drugs is fundamental." Recognizing the risks of these drugs, the court stated: "psychotropic drugs ‘affect the mind, behavior, intellectual functions, perception, moods, and emotion' and are known to cause a number of potentially devastating side effects….Courts have observed that ‘the likelihood [that psychotropic drugs will cause] at least some temporary side effects appears to be undisputed and many have noted that the drugs may—most infamously—cause parkinsonian syndrome (disease of the nerves causing tremor, muscle weakness, shuffling walk) and tardive dyskinesia" (tardive, late and dyskinesia, abnormal movement of muscles).42 anger ManageMent/conflict resolution in the class
while exposing millions of children to the potential violence- and suicide-inducing 9 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE effects of psychiatric drugs on one hand, "anger management," conflict resolution programs and "death education" have also been a common denominator in some of the school shootings.
At least 7 of the school shooters identified in this report had undergone some form of anger management, conflict resolution or other psychological counseling program.
"death education, which has been used in many countries since the 1970s, requires
At least 7 of the
children to discuss suicide, and write their own wills and epitaphs." school shooters
identified in
Critics cite Colorado's Columbine high school teens eric harris and dylan
this report had
klebold as prime examples of the failure of "anger management" and "death undergone some
education." both boys had attended a court-ordered counseling program, including form of anger
anger management. Then they participated in a death education class at school in which students were asked to imagine their own death. harris, who, as referenced above, was also taking luvox, subsequently said he had a dream where he and conflict resolution
klebold went on a shooting rampage in a shopping center. harris wrote about his or other
dream and handed it in to the teacher.43 Tara becker who survived an unsuccessful suicide attempt after a death education
class at Columbine high school, stated, "The things we learned in the class taught us how to be brave enough to face death. we talked about what we wanted to look like in our coffins."44 Experts reviewing the Jefferson County's diversion program files on Harris said
that clearly "something was wrong" and they should have recognized that despite concluding an anger-management class, harris was still having problems controlling anger. harris' own words in some of the diversion documents state, for example: "short temper, often get angry at almost anything i don't like, like people i have no respect for trying to tell me what to do. people telling me what to think. i have too many inside jokes or thoughts to have very many friends. i hate too many things." harris also noted he experienced anger, anxiety, depression, disorganized thoughts,
homicidal thoughts, jealousy, loneliness, mood swings, obsessive thoughts, racing
thoughts, stress, suspiciousness and a temper.45 Compare this also to the side effects of ssRis that include, "Anxiety, agitation,
panic attacks, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia (severe restlessness),
hypomania and mania.46 Bizarre dreams and violent behavior have also been
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 10 while claiming to teach individuals to control their aggression and anger, there are
no standards for delivering anger management courses.48 "There are as many ways to approach [anger management] as there are people," said w. doyle gentry, a clinical psychologist and director of the institute for anger free living in virginia. "and it's created a lot of confusing, even bizarre methods that can't be taken seriously. i mean, if they ask you to beat a mattress with a tennis racquet [to work out your anger], it's not going to do you any good," he said.49 one anger management student beat up a "The things we
classmate so badly that six days later the boy was still hospitalized.50 learned in the
class taught us
in a report by daniel w. webster entitled, "The unconvincing Case for school- Based Conflict Resolution Programs For Adolescents," he wrote, "I am skeptical how to be brave
that existing conflict resolution programs can reduce interpersonal violence, for the enough to face
following reasons: (1) There is no evidence that such programs produce long-term death. We talked
changes in violent behavior or risk of victimization; (2) in the absence of other about what we
supporting interventions, classroom-based curricula generally have failed to produce wanted to look
sustainable behavior changes for other health and social problems among youth."51 like in our
in his book Maximum Security: The Culture of Violence in Inner City Schools, John
devine, former director of the school partnership program in new york City who Tara Becker,
also taught at the metropolitan Center for urban education at new york university, Columbine High
said, "violence-prevention courses also create the impression that schools are doing something—other than using metal detectors—about the problem, even though they do not address the fundamental causes. a violence-prevention curriculum, then, is one more method that has evolved for distracting attention from real issues."52 11 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE The Risk of menTal healTh sCReening delinquency, suicide and violence have been escalating among youths. Too often this has been falsely attributed to their "mental illness," when, in fact, the very methods used to "treat" such "illness" are the cause of the problem. Today, teachers are expected to fill out different reports on the behavior of their students using forms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (dsm) that experts say lacks any science and reliability. in their renowned book Making Us Crazy: The Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders, professors herb kutchins and stuart a. kirk say, ".the latest versions of dsm as a ".the latest
clinical tool are unreliable and therefore of questionable validity as a classification versions of DSM
as a clinical tool
are unreliable
further, the dsm has questionable ties to the pharmaceutical industry.
and therefore
a study published in the april 2006 edition of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics of questionable
determined that 56% of the psychiatrists who decided which "mental disorders" validity as a
were to be included in the fourth edition of dsm were drug-company funded. lisa Cosgrove, a psychologist from the university of massachusetts and sheldon krimsky, a Tufts university professor, conducted the study and documented how pharmaceutical companies funded psychiatrists who defined the disorders for Professors Herb
the manual. one hundred percent of those sitting on dsm-iv panels overseeing Kutchins and
so-called "mood disorders" (which includes "depression") and "schizophrenia/ Stuart A. Kirk,
psychotic disorders" were financially involved with drug companies. These are the Making Us Crazy
largest categories of psychiatric drugs in the world: 2004 sales of $20.3 billion for antidepressants and $14.4 billion for antipsychotic drugs alone.54 yet behavior evaluations of students are often based on the dsm.
The Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (dbd) Rating Scale contains 61 questions, of which 39 are taken directly from the dsm.
The "Teacher's Report form for ages 6-18" rates 112 behaviors for each child, including: "Fails to finish things he/she starts," "defiant, talks back to staff," "bragging, boasting," "can't sit still, restless, or hyperactive," "confused or seems to be in a fog," "fidgets," "daydreams or gets lost in his/her thoughts," "disobedient in school," "breaks school rules," "over-conforms to rules," "easily jealous," "hangs around with others who get into trouble," "bites fingernails," "picks nose, skin, or other body parts," "has difficulty learning," "poor schoolwork," "secretive, keeps things to self," "showing off or clowning," "speech problem," "stares blankly," "fails to carry out assigned tasks," "talks too much," and "underachieving, not working up The "Teacher problem Rating" supposedly evaluates the child's relationship with PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 12 other children, the teacher, his academic progress, how he affects the classroom and his self-esteem. The teacher is expected to make the evaluation which can range anywhere from no problem to extreme problem. based on the dsm, psychiatric screening programs such as Teenscreen™ are being implemented in schools across the United States, without any scientific veracity to "[We] found
them. program inventor, Columbia university psychiatrist david shaffer, admits there's at least an 84% error rate, while the u.s. preventive services Task force, an no evidence
independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention said it had "found no that screening
evidence that screening for suicide risk reduces suicide attempts or mortality."56 for suicide risk
reduces suicide
kelly patricia o'meara, former Congressional staff and author of Psyched Out: How attempts or
Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills That Kill, responded to this: "since when does an 84% failure rate equate to a reliable scientific test?"57 U.S. Preventive
The use of dsm-based screenings and student evaluations, anger management and Services Task
other "conflict resolution" programs, are often not only ineffective but could also potentially lead to more children being prescribed psychiatric drugs that can induce violent behavior and suicide. in addressing the rise in senseless violence in schools, the role of these and psychiatric drugs must be investigated.
13 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE in light of the above information, studies and the list of school shooters in the appendix of this report, CCHR urges that government officials and/or law enforcement bodies to: 1) hold legislative hearings to fully investigate the correlation between psychiatric treatment and violence and suicide, including the impact of anger management and conflict resolution classes in schools.
2) implement mandatory toxicology reports that specify a testing for toxicology reports
psychiatric drugs in anyone who has committed a homicide or serious violent crime.
that specify a
3) ensure that where psychiatric mind-altering drugs are implicated in such testing for
a crime, the psychiatrist prescribing the drugs be held accountable and that this psychiatric drugs
information is made public.
in anyone who
has committed
4) ensure that any advertisements for psychiatric drugs warn of the potential a homicide or
to cause violent, aggressive or suicidal behavior and that consumers are made aware serious violent
that they should report all adverse side effects of this nature to the fda's medwatch PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 14 aPPenDiX 1
aCTs of psyChiaTRiC dRug-RelaTed sChool violenCe: 1988-2006 The following are reports of teens committing acts of school violence beginning in 1988, one year after the first SSRI antidepressant was approved for the U.S. market for adult use only. more than half of the teens committing these acts were taking ssRi antidepressants. The list also includes where the teenager had undergone anger management or some other psychological counseling that may have exacerbated their condition; an * marks those taking psychiatric drugs.
1. * September 26, 1988, South Carolina: James Wilson, 19, went on a shooting spree
in an elementary schoolyard in greenwood, killing two 8 year olds, and wounding 7 other children and 2 teachers. he was taking Xanax and for the eight months prior to
the shooting had been taking several psychiatric drugs.
2. * October 1, 1997, Pearl, Mississippi: Luke Woodham, 16, shot two students to
death and wounded seven others after beating and stabbing his mother to death. public reports say the boy was taking Prozac.
3. * December 1, 1997, West Paducah, Kentucky: 14-year-old Michael Carneal
was on Ritalin, when he started firing a gun during a prayer meeting at a high school,
killing three teens aged 14 to 17, and wounding five other students, including one who is paralyzed.
4. * March 1998, Arkansas: Andrew Golden, 11, and cousin Mitchell Johnson, 13,
went on a shooting spree at westside middle school in arkansas, killing four students and one teacher. nine students and a teacher were also wounded. arkansas was one of the first states to introduce Outcome Based Education, which includes conflict resolution classes. in a review of the book Teenage Rampage: The Worldwide Youth Phenomenon, it said both boys had taken Ritalin.
5. * May 21, 1998, Oregon: 15-year-old Kip Kinkel murdered his parents and then
proceeded to school where he opened fire on students in the cafeteria, killing two and wounding 22. kinkel had been taking Prozac and an amphetamine and had also
undergone psychological anger management classes.
15 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 6. * Pocatello, Idaho: an unnamed 14 year old held 5 classmates hostage with a gun.
he surrendered to the police and no fortunately one was hurt. he was taking Zoloft.
7. * April 16, 1999, Idaho: 15-year-old Shawn Cooper fired two shotgun rounds in his
school, narrowly missing students. he was taking a prescribed SSRI antidepressant
and Ritalin.
8. * April 29, 1999, Taber, Alberta: an unnamed 14-year-old student from w.R. myers
high school shot two students, killing one. he began taking prescribed Dexedrine
immediately prior to the shooting.
9. * April 20, 1999, Colorado: 18-year-old Eric Harris, the ringleader in the
Columbine massacre killed a dozen students and a teacher before taking his own life. he was taking Luvox that the coroner confirmed was in his system through toxicology
reports. he and his co-shooter, Dylan Klebold, had also undergone psychological
anger management programs. harris had "graduated" from a juvenile detention center. They killed 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 others before killing themselves. anger management/death education were involved.
10. * May 20, 1999, Georgia: 15-year-old T.J. Solomon was being treated with
Ritalin when he opened fire on and wounded six of his classmates.
11. * December 6, 1999, Fort Gibson, Oklahoma: 13-year-old Seth Trickey fired
at least 15 shots at fort gibson middle school wounding four classmates. he was undergoing psychological counseling.
12. * March 7, 2000, Williamsport, Pennsylvania: Elizabeth Bush, 14, was taking
Prozac when she shot at fellow students, wounding one.
13. * January 10, 2001, Oxnard, California: A 17-year-old gunman fired shots at
hueneme high school before taking a female student hostage. he was later shot and killed by police. prior to the shooting he had been treated for mental illness, which PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 16 most likely included psychiatric drugs.
14. * March 22, 2001, California: 18-year-old Jason Hoffman opened fire on his
classmates, wounding three students and two teachers at granite hills high school. he had been prescribed the antidepressants Celexa and Effexor. he had also been
receiving counseling and anger management.
15. * April 2001, Washington State: 16-year-old Cory Baadsgaard took a rifle to
his high school and took 23 classmates and a teacher hostage. according to another student, "Cory was yelling and then he just stopped, looked down at the gun in his hand and woke up." fortunately, no one was hurt. Cory had been taking Effexor and had
no memory of the incident.
16. * January 2003, Elliot City, Maryland: Ryan T. Furlough, 19, killed a Centennial
high school classmate by spiking his soda with cyanide. he was being treated with 17. * February 2004, Greenbush, New York: 16-year-old, Jon Romano strolled into
Columbia high school in east Greenbush and opened fire with a shotgun. Special education teacher michael bennett was hit in the leg. The boy was treated with medication for depression.
18. * March, 2005, Minnesota: Jeff Weise, 16, shot dead his grandparents, then went
to his school on the Red lake indian Reservation where he shot dead 8 students and a teacher, and wounded 7 before killing himself. he was taking Prozac.
19. * November 8, 2005, Jacksboro, Tennessee: Kenneth Bartley, a student in
high school shot and killed an assistant principal. The principal and another assistant principal were wounded. he had previously spent about a year and a half in a residential juvenile treatment program, where he was potentially prescribed psychiatric drugs or anger management/psychological counseling.
17 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 20. * August 30, 2006, Hillsborough, North Carolina: Alvaro Castillo, 19, killed
his father, then opened fire at Orange High School, wounding two students before surrendering to police. he had been involuntarily treated in a state psychiatric hospital, and such commitment involves drugs.
21. * September 29, 2006, Wisconsin: Eric Hainstock, 15, gunned down the principal
of weston high school. he was in special education and had allegedly spent an hour in anger management class two days before the shooting.
22. * October 10, 2006, Charleston, South Carolina: Tyrell Glover, 19, took an air
rifle to Burke High School where he planned to hold students hostage and be gunned down by police. he had been taking an antidepressant for several years but his mother
took him off the drug when she saw the listed side effects in ads. however, Tyrell began taking Prozac again for approximately six months. whether he was taking a
psychiatric drug or withdrawing from it at the time of this hostage/suicide plan is yet to be confirmed.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 18 aPPenDiX 2
oTheR Teen violenT aCTs assoCiaTed wiTh psyChiaTRiC dRugs 1. October 9, 1993, Rochester, Massachesetts: 15-year-old Gerard McCra, Jr.
shot and killed his mother, father and 11-year-old sister, melanie, after taking Ritalin
2. October 23, 1994, Iowa: Kristina Fetters, 14, stabbed to death her great aunt in
polk County. she said that while taking Prozac, she attacked her aunt in a fit of rage.
3. February 19, 1996, Florida: 10-year-old Timmy Becton, grabbed his 3-year-old
niece as a shield and aimed a shotgun at a sheriff's deputy who had accompanied a truant officer to his Florida home. Becton was taking Prozac.
4. March 1997, Alabama: at 17 years old, Brian Storey killed a woman. he was
being treated with Zoloft.
5. September 27, 1997, New Jersey: 16-year-old Sam Manzie raped and strangled
another boy to death. The younger boy was selling candy door to door for the local pTa at the time of the killing. manzie was taking Paxil.
6. May 25, 1997, Nevada: 18-year-old Jeremy Strohmeyer raped and murdered a
7-year-old girl in the ladies restroom in a casino. he had been taking Dexedrine.
7. March 10, 1998, Alabama: 17-year-old Jeffrey Franklin used an ax to bludgeon
his family, killing both his parents and hospitalizing his two younger brothers and his sister. franklin had been taking Prozac, Klonopin and Ritalin.
8. August 25, 1999, Tennessee: 15-year-old Matthew Hardrick killed his father and
then shot and wounded his mother when he fired at the bathroom door she was hiding behind. he was reported to have been on the antidepressant Paxil.
9. March 5, 2000, Massachusetts: 16-year-old Valerie Hall pushed her mother
down a flight of stairs and then beat her to death with a hammer. Valerie had been taking the antidepressant, Wellbutrin.
10. March 20, 2001, Texas: Jon "Paul" Marsh, 17, killed his 14-year-old friend,
nathan mayoral. marsh was on Paxil and Resperidal in the months before he beat
mayoral to death. The paxil dosage was doubled in the weeks before the killing.
11. November 2001, Charleston, South Carolina: Christopher Pittman, 12,
shot his parents Joe frank and Joy pittman in the head before setting their house on fire. He was taking Zoloft at the time, which attorneys argued caused involuntary
12. November 2002, Lewisville, Texas: a 15-year-old unnamed girl killed her
19 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 6-year-old brother and admitted to stabbing him in the neck and burying him in a shallow grave behind their house. she was withdrawing from Paxil.
13. January 22, 2003, Michigan: 18-year-old Joe Siesling killed his mother and two
sisters. Siesling's bloodtest revealed he had the chemical fluoxetine (Prozac) in his
14. January 2003, Florida: 15-year-old Daniel Carter killed his uncle by stabbing
him 10 times with a knife. he was taking Zoloft and Ritalin.
15. September 2, 2003, Boise, Idaho: Sarah Johnson, 16, shot and killed her
parents while they slept. she was taking Zoloft as well as Ambien to help her sleep.
16. May 2004, Arkansas: 16-year-old Amy Williams killed her father. prior to the
killing she was having behavioral problems and was admitted to pinnacle pointe behavioral hospital in little Rock where she was prescribed Prozac.
17. July 2004, New Mexico: Cody Posey, 14 years old, killed his father, delbert
paul posey, his stepmother Tryone, and his 13-year-old stepsister and then hid their bodies. Cody was taking an antidepressant.
18. August 2004, Texas: a 10-year-old boy climbed into the back of his father's
sport utility vehicle, fired a pistol several times through the back of the driver's seat and then ran back inside his home. shortly beforehand he had been prescribed 19. September 21, 2004, Redding, California: Paul McCallister, 16, killed his
neighbor and then himself. he'd started taking an antidepressant a month earlier.
20. February 2005, Santa Clara, California: Neil Richardson, a 16-year-old boy
who was considered by his family to be the "golden boy," stabbed his 17-year-old brother to death. he was being treated with Paxil.
21. May 2005, Omaha, Nebraska: Charles Gray III, 15, shot his father, then shot
and killed himself. he was withdrawing from antidepressants.
22. March 2006, Seattle, Washington: a 13-year-old boy stabbed his grandmother
to death after plotting the crime. he was taking Prozac and seeing a counselor.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 20 aPPenDiX 3
ADULT ACTS OF VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS 1. December 1993, Chelsea, Michigan: Steven Leith walked back into a
school meeting and fatally shot the school superintendent and wounded two others including a fellow teacher. he was taking Prozac.
2. May 4, 1999, Costa Mesa, California: Steven Allen Abrams, 39, rammed his car
into southcoast early Childhood learning Center (preschool) playground killing two and injuring five. He was taking Lithium.
3. September 13, 2006: 25-year-old Kimveer Gill stormed montreal's dawson College
and sprayed students with bullets, killing 18-year-old anastasia de sousa before turning the gun on himself. he had been treated for depression.
4. September 28, 2006, Bailey, Colorado: Duane Morrison, 53, entered platte
Canyon high school and shot and killed one girl, and sexually assaulted 6 others. Antidepressants were found in his vehicle.
21 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE aPPenDiX 4
A PERSONAL STORY ON THE VIOLENCE-INDUCING EFFECTS OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS stephen leith 239190 Carson Correctional facility Carson City, mi 48811 Jane henney, m.d., In December 1993,
Commissioner, food and drug administration Steven Leith, a
5600 fishers lane, Rm 1471 Chelsea, Michigan
Rockville, md 20857 teacher, fatally
shot a school
dear dr. henney: and wounded two
i am writing to tell you what pRozaC did to me and to urge you to take it off the others, including a
market. in the years prior to 1992, i became depressed as i watched my wife slowly die fellow teacher. He
of cancer. in January of 1992, i sought psychiatric help and was immediately prescribed was taking Prozac.
pRozaC. after about 2 weeks it kicked in, and i was full of energy, i felt as though i Here's his story
could accomplish anything i put my mind to and began a major project. people in the about how the
school where i taught knew something had happened to me: i ran everywhere, even in the drug affected him,
school! The kids joked that i was "hitting the acid cabinet" in the back of my chemistry with highlighted
room, and the Superintendent, thinking I was on street drugs, called me into his office and sections indicating
demanded to know what was going on. i lost all discretion regarding what i said, even side effects
speaking to strangers about personal things. i became obnoxious and the students started of this type of
fearing me, especially when i began touching some of them. i now lacked control. after about six weeks, i sprained my ankle and the good feeling turned bad. my sleep
became increasingly more fitful and the depression returned. The psychiatrist suggested
taking me off pRozaC, but i begged him to leave me on it, fearing that the depression would be much worse without it. i started seeing things moving out of the corner of my eye, and i was constantly jerking my head in the perceived direction to see what it was. There was nothing, of course, but i was fooled into looking anyway. i was constantly agitated. i became disillusioned, thinking people didn't like me and were out to get
me. when i was reprimanded for my inappropriate behavior (which began after taking PROZAC), I was certain the administration was trying to fire me. I was becoming paranoid. i had gone deeply into debt, acquiring many things i did not need after going on the drug, and now i was convinced they were out to take my job from me. My temper became shorter and anything could set me off. my anger burned so
intensely it was scary. i had never experienced anything like it either before going on
pRozaC or since i was taken off of it. i had a headache all the time and was confused
much of the time. Something inside felt as if it wanted to crawl out of me, leaving a shell behind; my
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 21 brain felt like it was sloshing in my skull. after nearly two years of decline, i snapped and killed the superintendent at a grievance meeting pertaining to my bizarre behavior. only minutes later i was going about the normal routine in my classroom, wondering if the shooting had really transpired; it did not seem real. of course i was arrested and whisked away. when the lawyer arrived at the jail, i asked him if anyone got hurt! i have been incarcerated now for over six years on a life sentence. i have met others here who have been on pRozaC and several of them, without my prompting, have shared how the drug also intensified their anger and caused similar
impulse control problems.
so here i am, a trained educator, being punished for something i would not have done if i had not been on pRozaC. The superintendent, a talented man, is dead and his family is bitter over his loss and their wrecked lives. The two others who were wounded are mistrustful in their dealings with others. my wife was disgraced in the community due to my actions, and she died from the cancer two years later without me having been there to help her and comfort her. my friends deserted me and my name and reputation ruined. as you can see, many lives besides my own have been negatively impacted due to what pRozaC did to me. This drug is dangerous. both you and i know it, and it is time to do the right thing. declare this drug unsafe and take it off the market. 23 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 1 Jacqueline a. sparks, ph.d. & barry l. duncan, psy.d., "The ethics and science of medicating Children," Center for family services, palm beach County & florida institute for the study of Therapeutic Change.
2 varley Ck., vitello b, zuvekas sh, norquist gs," national estimates of antidepressant medication use among u.s. children, 1997-2002," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, mar. 2006.
3 fda statement on Concerta and methylphenidate, 28 June 2005.
4 united states secret service and united states department of education, washington d.C., The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States, may 2002, p. 22.55 Kelly Patricia O'Meara, "A Prescription for Violence?" Insight Magazine, Washington Times, 2000.
6 "fda mulls antidepressant warnings," Daily Press, 21 mar. 2004.
7 Robert whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, (perseus publishing, new york, 2002), p. 189.
8 kelly patricia o'meara, "a different kind of drug war," Insight Magazine, Washington Times, 13 dec. 1999.
9 steve mitchell, "analysis: anti-depressants tied to violence," UPI, 11 sept. 2006. 10 ibid.
11 kate Jaimet, "‘i've learned a lesson in the worst way possible': what drove a loving father to kill his son?," Ottawa Citizen, 27 aug. 2006.
12 dr. Timothy scott, America Fooled: The Truth about Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and How We've Been Deceived, (argo publishing, llC, 2006), p. 229.
13 kelly patricia o'meara, Psyched Out: How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills That Kill, authorhouse, 2006, citing Theodore a. henderson, m.d., ph.d., matrix adhd Clinic, neurobehavioral Research, keith hotman, md, "aggression, mania, and hypomania induction associated with atomoxetine," Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 3, sept. 2004.
14 david healy, andrew herxheimer, david b. menkes, "antidepressants and violence: problems at the interface of medicine and law," PLoS Medicine, volume 3, issue 9, sept. 2006, p. 3.
15 Op. Cit., Timothy scott, p. 228.
16 Ibid., p. 230, citing a. preda, R.w. maclean, et al., "anti-depressant-associated mania and psychosis resulting in psychiatry admissions," Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 2001, pp. 30-33.
17 Op. Cit., kate Jaimet.
18 fda's safety information and adverse event Reporting program, effexor xR, nov. 2005.
19 david healy, graham aldred, "antidepressant drug use & the risk of suicide," PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 24 International Review of Psychiatry, June 2005, 17 (3), pp.163-172.
20 Op. Cit., Timothy scott, p. 233.
21 mark olfson, md, mph; steven C. marcus, phd; david shaffer, md, "antidepressant drug Therapy and suicide in severely depressed Children and adults," The Archives of General Psychiatry, vol 63, aug. 2006, pp. 865-872.
22 ivar aursnes, ingunn fride Tvete, Jorund gassenyrm bent natvig, "suicide attempts in clinical trials with paroxetine randomized against placebo," BMC Medicine, 3:14, 22 aug. 2005.
23 Jason Cato, "as trial nears, defense team in pittman case grows by three," The Herald (Rock hill, s.C.), 12 oct. 2004.
24 peter breggin, "suicidality, violence and mania caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (ssRis)," International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 16 (2003/2004): pp. 31-49. 25 peter breggin, md, "Recent Regulatory Changes in antidepressant labels: implications of activation (stimulation) for Clinical practice," Primary Psychiatry, Jan. 2006; 13(1): pp.57-60. 26 evelyn pringle, "Teenscreen - prescription drug pusher in schools," Scoop Independent News, 24 July 2006.
27 evelyn pringle, "Teenscreen—normal kids labeled mentally ill," Scoop Independent News, 2 aug. 2006.
28 Joseph glenmullen, md, Prozac Backlash, (simon & schuster, ny, 2000), p. 76.
29 matt Crenson, "antidepressants prove addictive to some," Associated Press, 6 aug. 2006.
30 Chris Cuomo, PrimeTime Live, abC news, 9 dec. 2004.
31 "acute drug withdrawal," PreMec Medicines Information Bulletin, aug. 1996, modified 6 Jan. 1997, internet uRl: http://www.premec.org.nz/profile.htm, accessed: 18 mar. 1999. 32 Op. Cit., Joseph glenmullen, p. 78.
33 Ibid.
34 "suicidality with ssRis: adults and children," australian Therapeutic goods administration, Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Col 24, no. 4, aug. 2005, p. 14.
35 fda's psyChophaRmaCologiC dRugs advisoRy CommiTTee wiTh The pediaTRiC subCommiTTee of The anTi-infeCTive dRugs advisoRy CommiTTee, 2 feb. 2004, p. 118. 36 Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (dsm-iiiR), (american psychiatric association, washington, d.C., 1987), p. 136.
37 "prescription: concentration. The number of prescriptions for adderall is rising, as is the number of students using the drug for academic and recreational purposes," Oregon Daily Emerald, 2 may 2005; "man who shot Child sues drug Company," Herald, 23 sept. 2000.
25 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 38 sarah boseley, "prozac class drug blamed for killing," The Guardian (london), 2 may 2001.
39 Jim Rosack, "ssRis Called on Carpet over violence Claims," Psychiatric News, vol. 36, no. 19, 5 oct. 2001.
40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 faith myers v. alaska psychiatric institute, supreme Court, 2-11021, superior Court no. 3an-03-00277, opinion, no. 6021, 30 June 2006.
43 Richard Restak, "The ‘inner child,' the ‘true self' and the wacky map of eupsychia," The Washington Times, 18 aug. 2002.
44 Ibid.
45 "Columbine shooter's Clues overlooked," Associated Press, 5 nov. 2002.
46 "worsening depression and suicidality in patients being Treated with antidepressants medications," u.s. food and drug administration public health advisory, 22 mar. 2004.
47 "adverse ssRi Reactions," international Coalition for drug awareness, website, internet uRl: http://www.drugawareness.org; "medication profiles: serotonin Reuptake blocking agents (ssRis)," anxieties.com website, internet uRl: http://www.anxieties.com; karen Thomas, USA Today, 14 July 2002.
48 "all Things Considered," National Public Radio (npR), 28 oct. 2003; "help for hotheads," Los Angeles Times, 19 Jan. 2004.
49 diane alden, "self-esteem needs boot Camp," Education Report, The Newspaper on Education Rights, July 2001.
50 Tamer Lewin, "Class Time and Not Jail Times For Anger, but Does It Work?," The New York Times, 1 July 2001.
51 daniel w. webster, "The unconvincing Case for school-based Conflict Resolution programs for adolescents,"1990. 52 John devine, "violence: The latest Curricular specialty," Crimes of Violence, vol.2, fall 1997. 53 stuart a. kirk and herb kutchins, "The myth of the Reliability of dsm," The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 15, no. 1&2 (spring 1994): pp.71-86.
54 lisa Cosgrove, sheldon krimsky, et al., "financial Ties between dsm-iv panel members and the pharmaceutical industry," Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, may 2006, vol. 75, pp. 154-160.
55 b.k. eakman, Cloning of the American Mind: Eradicating Morality Through Education, (huntington house publishers, louisiana, 1998): pp. 98-100.
56 Op. Cit., kelly patricia o'meara, Psyched Out, pp. 45-46; 157-158.
57 Ibid., pp. 157-158.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE 26 For further information, contact:
CChR international 6616 sunset blvd.
los angeles, California 90028, u.s.a.
Tel: (323) 467-4242 or (800) 869-2247 fax: (323) 467-3720 27 PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS AND ANGER MANAGEMENT CURRICULA—A PERSPECTIVE ON SCHOOL VIOLENCE For further information, contact:
CChR international 6616 sunset blvd.
los angeles, California 90028, u.s.a.
Tel: (323) 467-4242 or (800) 869-2247 fax: (323) 467-3720 2006. all Rights Reserved. CiTizens Commission on human RighTs, CChR, and the CChR logo are trademarks and service marks owned by Citizens Commission on human Rights. printed in the u.s.a. #0080

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Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & SurgeryVolume 21, Number 3, 2003© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.Pp. 000–000 Two-Year Follow-Up Results of Copper Bromide Laser Treatment of Striae L. LONGO, M.D.,2 M.G. POSTIGLIONE, M.D.,1 O. MARANGONI, M.D.,2 and M. MELATO, M.D.3 Objective: The aim of our study was to follow-up 15 patients with stretch marks treated positively with theCuBr laser (577–511 nm) in 1998–99 and followed-up for 2 years. Materials and Methods: The patients wereItalian women, young to middle age (average 30 years old), with skin coloration classified as Fitzpatrick II–III.Biopsies were taken on some patients before the treatment and 1 month after the first treatment. Double-blindhistological, histochemical and photographic evaluation was performed. Results obtained as well as to the con-tradictory effects reported elsewhere in the literature were compared. Results: On average, the results werepositive and there were some pathogenic considerations that justified the use of laser.