Medical Care |

Medical Care



Les antibiotiques sont produits sous des formes pharmaceutiques telles que des pilules acheter du amoxil.

elles permettent d'injecter la quantité de préparation strictement nécessaire.


Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 E D I T O R I A L
RRN's Contribution towards Easing the Present Difficult Situation Nepal used to be a land of peace. It is now up on RRN's agenda. As well as addressing some of going through an unpleasant and awkward the root causes of the conflict, such as situation characterised by political instability, discrimination, poverty, marginalisation, inequality conflict, internal and external displacement of and lack of services, development projects have people. The conflict has badly affected the country's given the people options – economic options – but economic growth, physical infrastructure, also opportunities to overcome social, cultural and information and communication processes, tourism, political difficulties and differences. foreign investment, employment, education and theprivate sectors. Due to these problems, GDP growth RRN has utilised the knowledge it has gained over has also declined, as poverty and unequal the years to help give some guidance to others about socio–economic conditions have increased. Tens of how to implement conflict–compatible development thousands of people have been killed, displaced and projects. When conflicts rage in any country, they injured as a consequence of the ongoing conflictbetween the government and the rebels.
Despite the convoluted situation facing the people inall segments of the society, development agenciesare still struggling to restore peace in order to ease the pain of the people and move towards progress.
RRN's Contribution towards Easing the Present Difficult Situation .1 Like other development agencies, RRN has also beenendeavouring to implement programmes that construe a practical solution to the challenges. RRN Ms. Satisara Starts Vegetable Farming after Irrigation Support has now implemented projects in 23 districts of from RRN's Community Support Programme .2 Nepal and has engaged in successful developmentwork. Through its development projects, RRN has Issues of People's Health in Nepal .4 been able to strengthen the socio–economic RRN's Impact on Rural Nepal .9 conditions at the local level by bringing community Road to Destination Siraha . 10 people together to identify, prioritise and implement A Success Story.10 projects of collective urgency. Engaging the Better Water Use? Manage Knowledge.11 community members in the implementation andmonitoring of their schemes has contributed to RRN's Work with Conflict-Affected People in the Context of Jiwan institutionalising local leadership and community Ra Jibika Karyakram, Phase II (JJ Phase II), a Life and governance, and has been one of the main Livelihood Programme underlying causes of our continued success even Knowledge Management: an essential tool .17 during these times of conflict. Issues such as An Overview of the School Support Programme .18 pro–poor policies; promotion and protection ofeconomic, social and cultural rights; good RRN ACTIVITIES .20 governance; and conflict transformation are all high Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 1

affect all members of the society, butthose who suffer most are those Ms. Satisara Starts Vegetable already at the bottom margin ofsociety. These are the most Farming after Irrigation Support impoverished and discriminatedpeople – in Nepal, they include the from RRN's Community Support Dalits, indigenous people, womenand children. Neglected as they are,they are vulnerable and risk being caught up and compelled toparticipate in the violence. To RRN, Ruplal Aidi
working in the conflict meansfocusing mainly on these people and Monitoring Officer, Nepalgunj, Banke inculcating in them a sense ofconfidence and hope, in order to Satisara Budha, 35, of Kotgaun VDC–1, grows vegetables in an exceptional way in Rolpa. Most rural Nepalese are bound to overcome poverty, isolation and practice traditional agricultural activities due to their lack of negligence, the very factors which knowledge and resources. Rural people live in hill areas where are often deemed to be the root there is no access to irrigation facilities and other basic causes of the conflict.
infrastructures of health, education, agriculture, road and RRN's experience suggests that rural transport. Therefore, the life of the rural hill population is difficult development is the main way to cut and diverse.
the tentacles of conflict. The kind of However, Satisara has found a way to change her life pattern from development that people understand growing cereals to now growing vegetables. After the construction and are capable of undertaking of an irrigation canal at Madichaur in Kotgaun VDC–1 in Rolpa themselves, one that ensures District, she engaged herself in agricultural activity away from the immediate livelihoods to the people normal agriculture practices of growing traditional wheat and maize and offers them prospects for the and began to grow seasonal as well as off seasonal vegetables. In future while drying up the reservoir the year 2005, RRN facilitated and provided support for the of frustration. We hope that the construction of the Parewa Khola irrigation system under the knowledge RRN has gained will have community support programme funded by DFID. After the significant implications for others construction of the irrigation canal lining, the rural community working in conflict–ridden Nepal and people from the area started growing green vegetables. Like many elsewhere. But ultimately, it is our other people in her community, Satisara is one of the women who hope that one day all development successfully diverted her agriculture practices from growing organisations do not have to consider traditional cereal crops to off–season vegetable production through how to work in conflict upon the the medium of greenhouse vegetable cultivation. Along with realisation of peace, prosperity and irrigation support, RRN provided the rural community with a the absence of violence.
five–day off–season vegetable cultivation training. In this issue, we present articles, Satisara has now acquired knowledge of growing off–season case studies and activities derived vegetable cultivation in a greenhouse. She has kept aside her 0.15– from RRN programmes that are hectare (3 ropani) of land for growing vegetables and is now currently taking place in the midst of cultivating off–season vegetables along with other seasonal the conflict. We hope you'll find them vegetable crops including winter vegetable crops. She says, "Earlier useful. This publication attempts to I had no idea about growing vegetables in a progressive way.
keep you updated on RRN's activities Moreover, we had no irrigation facility." and the current initiatives of itsprogrammes. In the next issue, we Before the start of the irrigation project, the rural populations were will be printing your expressed views engaged in extensive farming. They had to invest huge labour costs and ideas on the topics presented. in large areas with very little production output. The farmers weredependent on the seasonal monsoon for water for the crops.
Whenever drought occurred, as a result of the climate change, the 2 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005

Ms. Satisara Budha, putting manure in her commercial vetable garden
output used to be lower. However, now after the began to grow and consume the seasonal and construction of this irrigation system in Madichaur, off–season vegetables. They seem to be getting an the farmers' life patterns have been changed.
adequate supply of nutrients required for their Women in the community, like Satisara have started proper growth and development for physical fitness.
semi commercial vegetable farming. Satisara has As her husband and she have started closely allocated a separate plot of land for vegetable cooperating in the work of the vegetable farming, farming, and she plans to increase the area gradually they have also seen an increase in their overall level over time. She has been doing intensive farming in a of happiness, with steady cash transactions, good limited space of land and trying her level best to schooling for their children and a very tasty food achieve maximum production. She has been supply adding to their good health all now readily receiving support from her husband, Mr. Kul Prasad Budha, for this new undertaking. Furthermore, Mr. Govinda Mishra, RRN's Assistant Satisara hopes to receive good returns from the Social Mobilisation Officer in Rolpa, adds that such vegetable farming, which includes cabbage, good results, which are on the increase can continue cauliflower, potatoes, onion and garlic crops. She has to be achieved from projects such as these, if RRN already earned 25000.00 Nepali rupees from the sale and the rural community people work together jointly of vegetables and still there is another plot of hand in hand. He believes that this kind of project vegetable crop which is likely to be ready for and cooperation can become a model for the harvesting. In total, Satisara expects to earn about economic and social empowerment of the general 40,000.00 Nepali rupees after the complete sale of community people. He says, "I feel very satisfied the vegetables from her field. In addition, Satisara with the social mobilisation activities taking place does not include the vegetables which she and her here as I see this greenery in the field throughout family consume in the total sale. She has also noticed that her children have been healthier ever since she Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 3

Issues of People's Health in Nepal Dr. Rishi Raj Adhikari
Project Director, Community Support Strategy, RRN/DFID were reiterated and a strong voice was raised on the need to dump the current patent regime, to obtain he poor socio–economic condition of the people "health for all, NOW" and to create a campaign to in Nepal has a direct effect on their health heal the planet. PHA2, as it became known, also saw conditions. Though the government, and the launching of Global Health Watch, an alternative non–government and private organisations have world health report. been working for a long time to improve the healthservice available, these services have proved Today the focus is on achieving the Millennium untimely, inadequate and of less quality in many Development Goals (MDGs) with its targets by 2015 parts of the country, especially in the remote and the and trying to meet all the health services indicators as set by the MDGs. The MDGs health goals havefocused on such indicators as reduced maternal In 1978, the governments of the world came mortality, reduction in child mortality, reduction in together to sign the Alma Ata Declaration that HIV/AID prevalence, malaria, TB and other such promised "health for all by 2000." Health services were to become the focal issue of equity, socialjustice and human rights. However, inequity, injustice 2. Health Status
and poverty are still persistent and have had severenegative impacts on the livelihoods of the majority of A large number of rural Nepalese still die from the poor and socially disadvantaged people. These preventable and curable diseases. According to the people continue to lack access to resources, thus health ministry report (HMG/N, 2003), diarrhoea, rendering the goal of ‘health for all' still elusive. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Measles aresome of the major causes of child mortality and The problem the Alma Ata faced was that the debilitating diseases. Infectious diseases and promise of ‘health for all' was never taken seriously nutritional deficiencies are some of the major causes and as such, was subsequently marginalised in of child morbidity, disability and mortality. More than health policy discussions on the country–wide level.
20,000 children die of diarrhoea–related diseases As the year 2000 approached, it appeared that every year. According to the ministry, ARI is one of governments around the world were quietly the major health problems among children under forgetting the promise of "health for all by 2000." To five, and is responsible for many deaths. Malaria is remind people of this forgotten commitment, the a major vector–borne disease prevalent in 65 First People's Health Assemble (PHA I) was organised districts, TB is still a major killer, and HIV/AIDS is in Savar, Bangladesh in 2000. The representatives raging throughout the country at an unprecedented discussed the adverse impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on people's health and therole of the World Bank, IMF and WTO in pushing The national health policy was adopted in 1991 to these policies. The assembly in a single voice bring about improvement in the health conditions of condemned these institutions and governments who the people. The primary objective of the policy was had been willingly pursuing these anti–people to extend the primary health care system to benefit policies. PHA I also criticised the multi–national the rural population from modern medical facilities corporations that used their money–power to push and trained health care providers. The policy for policies which put profits before people, and the particularly highlighted preventive, curative and basic proponents of liberalisation who recommended that primary health care services.
governments should cut expenditure in the social In addition, community participation is increasingly sector like health and education. During the second felt as a crucial aspect in health care planning and People's Health Assembly held in Cuenca, Ecuador in management of services. At the community level, July 2005, the issues raised in the first assembly participation of female community health volunteers 4 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005

(FCHVs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and referrals and follow ups. However, in the absence of other community leaders is very encouraging in supportive supervision and monitoring from district terms of educating and empowering rural health offices, health posts and sub–health posts, communities to improve their standards of health these initiatives have thus far lacked success. Strong and sanitation. Their roles have been vital in referrals political will and commitment is extremely important to peripheral health facilities like health posts and to reach the goal of "health for all"(HMG/N, 2003).
sub–health posts.
Due to policy lacuna and lack of commitment by thekey actors including the government, the planned The health ministry has developed a 20– year programme and activities have been immobilised by Second Long–Term Health Plan (1997–2017). This the general lack of lustre. Instead of inclusion of the major landmark in the health sector serves as a poor, marginalised and destitute in the health service roadmap in health sector reform that could ultimately delivery, exclusion and inequality has rather been the improve access to health care for the whole norm. There continues to be a stark difference population, and in particular those who are needy between the rich and the poor in many of the health and lack access to basic health services. The plan has indicators (IMR, U5MR, Immunization, ANC (TT +2) well addressed the key issues like disparity in health and delivery by Health Worker) as evidenced from care, gender sensitivity, and equitable community the tables below.
access to quality health care services. The plan alsoenvisions a health care system with equitable access Technical inputs in health services have resulted in and quality services in the urban and rural areas.
increased cost of production and marketing. In The long term plan aims to reduce the maternal addition, the cost recovery system carried out by the mortality rate to 250 per hundred thousand births, government has further aggravated the situation infant mortality rate to 34.4 per thousand live births with a devastating impact on the income–poor and and reduce the under–five mortality rate to 62.5 per social–poor sectors of society. The poor have no thousand. It also ambitiously aims to increase the life income to pay for the medicines and related medical expectancy to 68.7 years and reduce the total birth services. The privatisation of the health service rate to 3.05. Undoubtedly, there are many challenges system has instead benefited the better off of the ahead to meet these ambitious targets successfully Nepalese society and significantly excluded the more in the present context.
needy section of the community: the poor, women,dalits, ethnic minorities and other destitute people.
There has been significant progress in maternal and Thus, the health service system has tended to be in child health, family planning and other health care favour of the rich and people already privileged in service delivery and management over the years.
the urban setting (Onta, 2005).
Based on the Asia Pacific Report on MDG II goals The inequalities exhibited spatial dimensions from 1990 – 2000, the under–nutrition rate dropped between the districts, western districts being the from 20% to 17%; the mortality rate for children worst hit as evidenced by table two. The statistics as under five went from 145% to 82%; and infant reported in the worst–off districts in both tables can mortality from 100% to 61% (UNESCAP/UNDP/ADB, also be said to reflect some of the root causes of the 2005). The Tenth Plan has set an objective of making on–going conflict involving the poor and health care services easily available, and developing marginalised communities. human resources that support poverty reduction.
Decentralisation in the health sector is expected to facilitate VDCs in participatory planning in healthcare so that issues of community participation, local ownership, gender and health, and local health needs will be addressed and integrated into theVDCs' annual development plans. Primary Health Care (PHC) outreach clinics havebeen established in the VDCs in order to improve accessibility and coverage by providing health Delivery by HW 2.9 education; counselling and IEC; family planning services such as pills, condoms, Depo Provera; basicmaternity services; as well as minor treatments, Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 5

overloaded with patients as their coverage area oftenextends over a considerable distance. average District District
Lack of medical supplies and the well–trained
medical staff:
People do not have access to the
quantity of medicine, medical equipment, and Proportion of <40 17.7 available medical staff needed for proper treatment.
This is a result of the inadequate supply available of each in comparison to the number of people who Use of witch doctors: People neglect the disease
in the early stage, and instead consult witch doctors.
Only when their condition becomes serious, do they 3. Issues of People's Health: Many socio–
seek medical care. Modern medical technologies are economic, cultural, administrative and technological often the last alternative chosen, as people are not factors have a direct negative impact on the health confident in its ability to effectively treat their of the general masses in the country. The following factors had been presented in the ‘sharing meetings'in different districts by the participants themselves: Lack of sharing: People tend to not want to talk
about their diseases to others in the initial stage,
Poverty: People are of the view that their poverty
even to the family member, until their condition and low income is the main hindrance towards becomes serious. accessing required health services.
Use of local herbal medicines: Though the use of
Lack of Awareness: Due to lack of social
indigenous medical knowledge, resources and awareness and lack of other physical facilities, the technology can be helpful in curing medical people in the communities have not been practicing conditions, at times people use them without proper hygienic behaviour. processing or using the wrong raw materialsrequired.
Lack of Education: Lack of education is a very
important and unavoidable component for the
Mother and child mortality: Generally, people do
improvement of community health. Without proper not have a good understanding of proper maternal education, little improvement in the health status of and child care. Many problems related to people can be reached.
inappropriate nutrition, primary health care,sanitation, balanced diet, etc. cause high mortality Food deficiency /nutrition /balanced diet:
rates among women and children.
Nutritional deficiency and overall lack of foodconsumption are the predisposing factors for health Women and fasting: Women in Nepali culture
problems. Due to the lack of awareness and their observe frequent fasting. It is also customary for overall poor economic conditions, people in the women to wait for their husbands and other senior community do not have access to a balanced diet. members of the family to eat first. As a result, manytimes whether voluntarily or involuntarily, women do Hard work: People work very hard and thus, have
not eat for a long period of time. This custom has little time to take proper care of their health. extremely negative consequences on the health of Clean drinking water and sanitation: In the
remote communities, there is a lack of clean drinking Transmission of diseases: Because of the lack of
water and people are not aware of how improper knowledge available, people sit together with sanitation can have detrimental health patients with contagious diseases and are consequently infected, as well. Treatment access: The health facilities are both
Training: Medical staff members are not properly
lacking and not accessible in the remote and rural trained and often lack encouragement and areas. The available health facilities are often too far enthusiasm in their performing their jobs. for people to walk to receive treatment, and are 6 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 Conflict: Ongoing strikes and blockades are
Sometimes patients needing emergency health negatively affecting the delivery of health services.
care die on the way or before, especially women The data collected from the field clearly indicates that very poor standards of health care are given to – Many health facilities have been destroyed.
the impoverished people who live in remote and rural According to the local human rights organisation, areas of the country. INSEC, at least 40 rural health posts were 4. Conflict and its effect on health
destroyed between January 2002 and December2004. The rebels burn the medical supplies.
Since the start of the conflict twelve years back in Sometimes the army blocks the delivery of Nepal and the mobilisation of the army by the state, medical supplies in order to prevent it from the death of security personnel, rebels, and the reaching the rebel held areas. Thus, the ordinary innocent civilians has risen to astronomical rates. In people in that area suffer. Health workers said addition, health professionals have also been that their posts were usually attacked when they casualties. The rebels often use health personnel to refused to give medical aid to the rebels. The treat their wounded comrades, thus putting the supply of medicine, which used to be distributed medical ethics of the prior in jeopardy. When medical free by the government, have now been severely assistance is given to the rebels without restricted and in many places stopped entirely.
appropriately notifying the authorities, these medical Ordinary people even with a minor disease have professionals also suffer being branded as to go to the capital city for treatment, which is ‘supporters to the terrorists' and are liable to be totally unrealistic given the poverty and geographical realities of Nepal.
The conflict has affected people's access to health – Health outreach programmes, family planning facilities as follows: camps, and maternal and child health have beendisturbed due to lack of safety. The Vitamin A – The lack of transportation and the inability of distribution programme has also suffered due to qualified health personnel to travel owing to lack of supervision and monitoring.
frequent local and national strikes, roadblockades and ambush strikes have caused many – Similarly, the child immunisation programmes disturbances in the delivery of timely medical have also been affected negatively due to care. As the conflict rages on and escalates, breakage of cold chain despite assurance by the further health care restrictions have resulted. The warring parties.
rebels claim to have control or influence over – ARI has affected up to a million children. There 80% of rural Nepal. In addition, the rural are also concerns that many primary health population is afraid of being associated with initiatives in the remote areas have been closed allegations of supporting the rebels and therefore, as they are being forced to register with the it is difficult to collect data on the impact on Maoists before launching any programme. "In health. Porters carry medicine and supplies for Nepal, chronic political instability has made it the clinics in many parts in the country due to bad difficult for patients to receive care in a weakened conditions of the roads and rugged mountain that health care system already hindered by poverty make it difficult to drive. Rebels have found it and insufficient medical personnel and supplies," easy to intercept the porters and confiscate the said the 2003–2004 activity report of the medical supplies en route. NGO, Medicines Sans Frontiers (MSF). MSF was – Medical personnel have been staying in district forced to curtail its activities in Jumla, one of headquarters and are reluctant to travel to Nepal's poorest districts in the mid–west.
remote locations in the interior of the districts – Health education programmes are on the decline where there is more need for public health care with the danger of a rise in communicable diseases, health workers say. "All this is the reality – Checkpoints, curfews, blockades, the psychology today and if we don't take appropriate measures of danger in travelling, damaged culverts, bridges there could be serious outbreaks of disease in etc. hinder the free and timely movements of rural Nepal that we would be powerless to health personnel, patients, and medical supplies.
prevent," explained a foreign health expertworking with the health ministry.
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 7
concerns relevant to both warring sides.
Health is the most important asset human beings – Strengthen health facilities/programmes in the possess. Almost every child born is healthy. However, rural areas.
it is the environment and the political, social,economic and cultural impacts that result in the – Lobby to both sides to allow free flow of medical problems to his/her health. It is extremely important supplies, especially life saving drugs.
for everyone to be aware of his/her health issues.
– Make programmes efficient and transparent to Regular check–ups and unhindered conversation on the communities.
health issues amongst family and communitymembers reduces the socio–health problems like – Enhance level of involvement of communities in mother–child mortality and the problems of the health delivery programme.
contagious diseases. The current conflict, andparticularly the ‘only armed response' policy of the – Devolve programmes and make it more flexible to current state, is hampering health services to a great respond rapidly to the changing environment at extent. The policy of the government on privatisation the local level.
and cost recovery, and the lack of allocation ofsufficient resources in the health sector and its urban – Staff should be oriented on Conflict Sensitive bias coupled with lack of commitment have caused the demise of earlier plans for the "Health for All" – Work through non–political and respectful local – Enhance the coordination between relevant – Reorientation of health care system towards more pro–poor and rural bias.
– Sufficient infrastructure should be constructed – Moving the system closer to the people, not away like maternity service facilities with sufficient drugs and equipment.
– Awareness programmes about seasonal diseases – Private sector and market forces must not hold should be done frequently in the rural community.
– The health system should allocate an appropriate – Quarterly Mobile Health Camps should be place for the private sector.
organised (e.g. for eye, gynaecology, schoolstudents) – The private sector must not swell at the cost of public sector.
– Efforts should be given to eradicate Encephalitis diseases as soon as possible.
– Cost recovery should be considered based on the – Qualified and adequate doctors should be socio–economic condition of the people.
available in the district and VDC level health – Improve efficiency without reducing the investment in public sector.
– Well– being of the citizen should be the priority of – HMG Nepal, Health Ministry. 2003. Annual Report. – INSEC. 2004. Annual Report – Tie up health sector development with poverty – Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF). 2004. Nepal Activity Report. – Bring peace to the country even by implementation of a ‘give and take' approach – Onta, Sharad. 2005. Peoples Health Agenda.
amongst the warring parties.
Paper presented at the National ConsultativeMeeting on PHA II. Kathmandu. – Wide–ranging awareness campaigns for – UNESCAP/UNDP/ADB. 2005. MDG Asia Pacific respecting human rights and humanitarian Report, presented at ADB in the Philippines. ? 8 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN's Impact on Rural Nepal Bharat Karki
Nepal is a hilly and landlocked country. Most of mid–western region of Nepal. RRN has received a the population of this country lives in the rural great deal of recognition for this kind of work in the area. At present, more than 80 percent of the field of rural development. total population lives in the rural area.
RRN's approach is a four–fold one, aimed to increase Though it is a small country, Nepal is rich in natural livelihood opportunities for the rural people. RRN resources like water and forests. We all are familiar works to increase the literacy rate, and improve with the popular saying "Green forest, the wealth
health, sanitation and knowledge of these issues of Nepal". Nepal is the second richest country in the
through various types of skills development trainings world in terms of water resources.
All these various natural resources in Nepal are not being channelled marginalised people. It I believe that RRN is a
in an appropriate and fiscally sound has brought safe drinking kind of learning centre water and the resources to
the rural areas to help the for social development.
Nepal is one of the most deprived population and underdeveloped countries in the Through the years, RRN empower them to create
world. Because of the political has contributed its skills
instability in the country, the RRN has initiated many development of the nation has and knowledge to its
changes in people's grown increasingly stagnant. The attitudes towards health, people in positions or power do not sanitation and education put much thought towards the programmes. It has
that have contributed to development of the nation.
improving the lives of Corruption and the use of violence many of the beneficiary are widespread. As a result, it is groups. Additionally, in the often different I/NGOs, CBOs and health sector, RRN's focus economic support, and
other organisations that have taken on preventive rather than it upon themselves to initiate many additional employment curative measures has
social development and already provided various infrastructural projects in the rural kinds of physical, social areas of Nepal. Among these in Nepal.
and economic benefits to organisations, RRN, one of the the rural communities. leading NGOs in Nepal, has beenworking for more than one and half decade in the In conclusion, I would like to offer my beliefs on the movement for economic and social development, work performed by RRN. I believe that RRN is a kind cultural rights and the development of the proper of learning centre for social development. Through infrastructure for livelihood opportunities.
the years, RRN has contributed its skills and Modernisation could be a way forward in order to knowledge to its development programmes. It has facilitate the introduction of additional livelihood also provided educational and economic support, and opportunities, so as to contribute to the lives of additional employment opportunities in Nepal. As an individual Nepalese, as well as the nation as a whole.
RRN staff member myself, I am of the conviction that Therefore, RRN has initiated different programmes RRN is one of the country's foremost leaders in social and strategies in order to bring about the desired development. I believe this organisation has made a social reform more rapidly into the rural area. RRN's direct and positive impact on the communities and development projects have especially focused on has used its organisational strategies in a assisting the Dalit and Kamaiya groups in the constructive manner to help the rural people. ? Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 9
Road to Destination Siraha Bikram Rana
District Engineer, RRN Siraha Nepal is burning, caught in a protracted armed milestone in Siraha's case. As the old proverb goes: "it conflict with its democratic process on hold. The is easier to wake a sleeping man up than a man who development process in the country seems to be only pretends to be asleep." As is the case in Siraha, the at a standstill. All the organisations working amidst the people here are aware of development but being conflict situation have a common goal: "Good accustomed to the opaque behaviour of their Governance." They have begun to execute their goal in development partners, demonstrate and expect the the nation through the eradication of poverty, provision same kind of behaviour from RRN. of livelihood, and the creation of good health, better However, RRN in Siraha has established and education, self–governance and a corruption–free demonstrated transparency in its projects with their society. Though the conflict has produced duress concerned stakeholders. Siva Charan Mahato of throughout the nation, it also has produced some Mohanpur, Siraha says, "People feel very positive about unlikely good results. It has decreased the number of cases of fraud in the rural areas, which has a chance to RRN's programme and its strategies to execute the projects." He added, it would be much better if the local save the ill society yet from the depths of forgery and people were enrolled as RRN staff. In fact, his belief corresponds with RRN's finding in its Annual Report The Siraha district, population of 5,25,840 and a density 2004 in which it is pointed out that "The project staff, of 338 persons per km, is the not the only area of the with the exception of technical experts, should be local." country facing stagnation; it seems as it is a reality for Our job is not just to talk about action, but to actually the whole nation. Despite this difficult situation, RRN has successfully sown the seeds for corruption–free reconcile the communities and create from within them, development work in Siraha and the projects it has a corruption free society. The road to destination Siraha has been built, now it is our turn to walk on the road. executed are transparent, which seems to be a radios, calculators, watches and B/W televisions. In the future, he is interested in expanding his service centre and managing all the maintenance equipment. Dambar hopes that at some Yubaraj Adhikari, SMO, RRN, Solukhumbu
point in the future, local consumers will buy and service their electronic items locally instead of going outside for these Dambar Singh Rai, 28, married, of Lokhim VDC–2,
Solukhumbu was a local unemployed young man. He worked daily as a labourer on the agricultural lands of the other farmers As the case of Dambar shows, RRN's programmes have the in order to sustain his six family members. When Rural opportunity to create livelihoods and self–employment through Reconstruction Nepal started the Rural Community training courses. With such initiatives, the local poor people canInfrastructure and Livelihood Support Programme (RCILSP) in also receive empowerment and encouragement. As Dambar Solukhumbu in November 2004, he took the opportunity to reflects, "Now I am a successful entrepreneur in my enrol himself in RRN/DFID's 45– day electro–mechanic community. I do not need to go elsewhere to find a job like my maintenance training. friends must do. I can afford all my family's expenses through this profession." Upon completion of the training, Dambar established a service and sales centre for electronic equipment, in Lokhim VDC–4, In the future, Dambar thinks to take a refresher training course, Sitakhum. Today, he is servicing the electronic equipment for as well as receive additional training in colour television and CDpeople throughout the Lokhim, Jubu and Deusa VDCs, and player maintenance which are in public demand. He would like includes a door–to–door service and participation in the weekly RRN to renew the initial seed money, which could support the Haat bazaar to increase business profits. RRN has helped extension of his service centre. Dambar to establish his service centre with 6000.00 as seed money. In addition, Dambar has invested NRs. 7000.00 of his In conclusion, it can be said that anyone can achieve success through strong motivation, hard work and the extension of a own money. As of July 2005, he has served nearly 345 persons. good business/training opportunity. Self–employment and He earns around NRs.4000–4500 per month in the financial independence are important hallmarks ofmaintenance and selling of electronic equipments, such as confidence–building. ? 10 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 Better Water Use? Manage Knowledge UNESCO–IHE, Delft, Netherlands Background and Problem Description
organising this process – on both personal and organisational levels. any organisations throughout the world haveemerged with the common objective of Knowledge Management aims to facilitate the supply providing better water service facilities to of the right knowledge to the right person at the their local communities. However, such organisations right time. The development of electronic media has do not work in tandem.
offered new tools that have made it easier to find,accumulate and transfer information. Other tools Nepal is one of the countries in the world where have included face–to–face interactions, and people lack adequate acccess to water and networks among like–minded organisation including sanitation. Among other factors, lack of effective international and national forums. In Nepal, the information flow has been realised as one of the difficulty comes if related people on projects become major contributing hindrances to development unavailable, leave the organisation, or do not initiatives. People still do not package and store information in realise that information is a a way that is easy to access. valuable resource, comparable tohuman and financial resources. Management aims to
Field studies, evaluation reports, facilitate the supply of
training notes, research the right knowledge to Knowledge Management can be
publications, and case study practiced on three levels. The the right person at the
reports are at times difficult to first is the personal level on access. They are sometimes kept right time. The
which individuals acquire and in undisclosed locations, are not create knowledge, manage user–friendly and/or are documents, share learning and voluminous. Often the existence electronic media has
collaborate with colleagues.
of reports or documents that sit in offered new tools that Ideally, every person takes
the drawers of individuals are responsibility for what he or she have made it easier to
unknown to others and hence, knows, does not know or wants are duplicated– a waste of find, accumulate and to know. This makes it easier to
financial resources. implement KM initiatives on the transfer information. organisational level with a focus
In Nepal, expertise information on creating, capturing and within such reports does not reach other experts re–using knowledge to attain the organisation's within the field, and as such, it has become very objectives. Efforts on this level should be directed at difficult for coordination and synergy to occur within establishing a culture of openness and knowledge this sector. Organisations publish resource materials sharing as well as encouraging face–to–face and with important information, but circulate only among interpersonal communications. Finally, KM can take a handful of individuals and organisations without the form of networking, where staff members come systematic information sharing on a wider scale. together to share information, skills and experiences. Why Knowledge Management (KM)?
Data is comprised of numbers and facts, and In Nepal, the constraints on the personal level information is often organised into this useful form.
include ignorance, lack of a standard system, lack of Knowledge is the ability to use information to achieve knowledge and skill, lack of relevant human a useful end. Knowledge management is about resources, unclear and unbalanced job responsibility, Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 11
and a lack of basic facilities like electricity, computers – Strengthening of the existing information sharing or internet access.
At the community level, constraints are the continued – Development of resource centres enforcement of traditional practices (and an – Promotion of face to face communication unwillingness to change), lack of training support, and lack of basic facilities in the rural areas includingthe knowledge and skills to use ICT tools.
– Networking at national and international levels to create and share success stories Lastly, the constraints at the organisational level – Discussion forums include unhealthy competition, lack of innovation,working without understanding its relevance, lack of For scaling up the practice of knowledge training support, unclear job responsibility, management, the following is suggested: inappropriate distribution of ICT resources within the – Development of strategic planning organisation, and a lack of the proper utilisation ofavailable resources or facilities. Many organisations – Weekly sharing have libraries but in many cases, they are not – Access to information, ICT and its use– Sharing – internal and external Knowledge is power. Many
– Creation of opportunities for capacity building benefits can be achieved with
through participation in meetings, trainings, its management such as the
workshops, seminars and conferences possibility to change from
– Field visits (community level) unhealthy to healthy
– Exposure visits (national and international level) competition, give rise to a new
– Agreement/coordination among like–minded organisations for a common understanding culture of innovation and
creativity, as well as increase
– Access to ICT and its use in efficiency and effectiveness.
– Regularisation of sharing – Define Knowledge and KM according to the Nepali systematically managed and cannot be accessed byall. Some organisations have not yet developed their – Consensus building, and being proactive to grab websites, which can often serve as a very effective opportunities for sharing, and advocacy tool for information dissemination. – KM with the active participation of government Recommendations and Scaling Up
Knowledge is power. Many benefits can be achievedwith its management such as the possibility to – Knowledge management explained, online change from unhealthy to healthy competition, give publication, rise to a new culture of innovation and creativity, as – Knowledge management: worth the effort?! well as increase efficiency and effectiveness.
Workshop report, 20 September 2004 jointlyorganised by Nepal Water for Health (NEWAH) Further actions for the knowledge management – Design of and practical experiences with the – Replication of success stories Learn@WELL knowledge management module by – Promotion of new ICT technologies Jaap Pels and Frank Odhiambo ? 12 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN's Work with Conflict–Affected People in the Context of Jiwan Ra Jibika Karyakram, Phase II (JJ Phase II), a Life and Livelihood Programme Programme Coordinator, RRN Centre What does RRN stand for? (Concept and
Why JJ Phase II?
Since the outbreak of the People's War (on 13 RN from the very beginning of its February 1996), as of August 2005 at least 365 establishment has been endeavouring to children have been killed, several dozens seriously ensure JUSTICE, EQUALITY, PEACE and injured, more than 2,000 orphaned and more than PROSPERITY and thereby IMPROVE the LIVES of the 35,000 have been displaced. Approximately 12,786 RURAL POOR PEOPLE. people have lost their lives, 5,205 are missing andmany others have been abducted. As a result, the For the last one and half decades, RRN has worked live of many children, youth and women have been to achieve its mission and adversely affected either goals by delivering services economically, mentally or/and RRN's community based
and utilities to those people in physically. If no efforts are need. The organisation has project, Jiwan Ra Jibika
made to overcome their done this through the Karyakram; a Life and
problems, they may suffer implementation of a wide even more and their situation range of programmes varying might drastically worsen from the construction of addresses the plight of
large–scale infrastructure conflict–affected children,
facilities like road construction, RRN's community based establishment of micro–hydro youths and single women project, Jiwan Ra Jibika
electricity, the protection of Karyakram; a Life and implemented with the
water springs and the Livelihood Programme observation of the local financial support of World addresses the plight of
cultural festivals through the
process of people's youths and single women implemented with the financial support of WorldEducation. This programme has successfully seen Moreover, despite the threat of risk while equitable project benefits in the target community.
implementing its programmes, the field staff of RRN The present ongoing programme is the outcome of and its volunteers have with full enthusiasm and the phased out programme, Asahaya Bal Balikakolagi dedication pushed on in order to reach the poor Jiwan Ra Jibika Karyakram. Because of the people in the conflict zones. overwhelming demand at the grass–roots level and Recently, RRN has initiated more than a half dozen the need to continue to support the target full fledged programmes aimed to attain its population, the second phase of the programme has millennium goals through the Four Fold Principles.
begun after extensive modification in the project Jiwan Ra Jibika Karyakram (JJ Phase II); a Life and design and models. Once more, this second phase Livelihood Programme is among the newly has been made possible by the financial support of operational RRN community based projects. the World Education. Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 13
What is the aim of JJ II?
Jiwan Ra Jibika Karyakram, Phase II in this new Who can benefit from the project outcome?
broadened module aims to support the childrenaffected by the conflict by providing them with the The following target people can ultimately enjoy the opportunities to ensure basic education in formal project's benefits: schools and a normal life through the process of – Conflict affected displaced orphans, disabled and psychological treatment. children at risk; Similarly, this programme addresses the efforts made – Conflict affected displaced youths and widows; to improve the economic and social status of the conflict affected youths and single women throughsmall scale income generating enterprises and – Youths at risk and vulnerable to conflict.
employment, with more vocational and livelihood What will we achieve during the project cycle?
trainings opportunities becoming available for them.
During the project period, it has been proposed that In order to ensure that quality education and that the in order for the project undertaking to be successful, economic status of the schools are up to par, this the following activities in the project districts must programme targets the neediest schools by assisting them with some infrastructural support andfederalising the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) – 30 project staff, including the social workers, will so to make them more capable through the be trained on TOT through a 5–day Psychosocial distribution of peace materials in the schools. Counselling Training at the district level, who inturn will conduct the community based trainings The specific goals and objectives of the Jiwan Ra in the project districts; Jibika Karyakram, Phase II are: – At least 90 social workers who have played key – To assist the conflict affected and displaced roles in the communities will receive a 3– day youths and widows by ensuring they receive the Community Based Psychosocial Counselling proper opportunities for generating income Training at the community–wide level, and will through the support of livelihood trainings ultimately assist the programme in delivering (Enterprises Development Training) and counselling services to the conflict affected vocational education (Vocational Skill Development Training); – A minimum of 900 conflict affected children, – To provide community based psychosocial youths and widows shall receive counselling counselling and referral services to the conflict services on different matters; affected and displaced orphans, disabled childrenand youths, children and youths at risk and the – 100 children, youths and widows who have been single women so that they can attempt to live severely affected by the conflict shall receive the their lives normally; appropriate assessment and referral services onrelated matters; – To manage an academic scholarship programme for ensuring basic education for the conflict – More than 500 displaced, conflict affected and affected and displaced orphans, disabled children orphaned children will continue their basic and the children at risk through the process of education and will be provided with enrolment in enrolling them in formal schooling; formal schools through academic scholarships. – To support and enhance the participation of the – Four Education Motivators will be assigned to the communities and the stakeholders in the schools programme and will be made well versed in the of the conflict affected areas and assist these management of PTA and quality education schools in running more smoothly and make them through the process of PTA Training; more capable by ensuring the quality of educationthey dispense. – 40 PTAs in 40 schools will be made financially sound by involving them in income generating 14 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 activities through the formation of the PTA and – Strengthen the district –level coordination and the will receive support with matching funds.
information flow system in the context of the Additionally, these PTAs will be brought into a children, youths and the widow; strong networking chain and will have regularmeetings at the district–wide level; – Provide community based trainings to the social workers and volunteers to ensure effective – 200 youths and widows affected by the conflict will hopefully have their lives transformed intobetter ones by employing them in certain – Provide psychosocial counselling services to the vocational activities. They will also receive conflict affected children, youths and single vocational skill development trainings; – 160 vulnerable students will be involved either off – Establish adequate linkages and assist in the time or after school in income generating referral services of the worst conflict affected vocational activities and will receive a six months long school based vocational training course at – Make available the opportunities of education and school. This will help them to continue their employment to conflict affected children through formal education; the process of scholarship support and school – Some 8 economically weak schools in the conflict based vocational training; affected areas will receive physical support for – Manage viable market–based vocational skill their rehabilitation and thereby increase the training for the youths and single women smooth operation of their service facilities; – More than 100 single women (widows) will be – Manage livelihood trainings for single women enlisted to enhance their skills and knowledge (widows) and provide them with in–group micro– base by developing and running micro enterprises finance support in running small–scale and providing them with opportunities to improve their life style through the process of incomegenerating activities, livelihood trainings and – Develop mechanisms for creating jobs micro finance support; employment and for ensuring job employment forthose who have received vocational skills – 25 schools will be chosen as ‘zones of peace' and mechanisms to ensure the quality of educationwithin them will be carried out, as well as the – Provide assistance for infrastructural support to distribution of peace materials. schools and arrange vocational skills trainings andmaterials for students in schools; How will we achieve the goals and objectives
to ensure that the target population benefits?

– In order to ensure quality education in schools, the Parents Teachers Association will also be In order to successfully implement the project provided with assistance in income generation; activities and achieve the proposed result of theprogramme, the following strategies and – Provide the necessary materials to schools for methodologies will be employed: peace education. – Enhance the capacity building of the community The implementation of this programme
so that standards of identifying conflict affectedchildren can be made by the community; This project is being implemented in six districts offour cluster areas as follows: – In order to involve the agencies working in the communities in identifying the children and help 1. Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha Districts them to maintain systematic records, the 2. Jhapa and Morang Districts communities will provided with community–based 3. Surkhet District 4. Rolpa District Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 15
The project has been designed for a period of 18 – If we are to reach the target community, a months from June 15, 2005 to December 2006. thorough primary baseline survey in which thecommunity participates should be executed. What have we achieved in JJ I & II so far?
– An information sharing and orientation on the The following are the beneficiaries of different projects should also be disseminated amongst groups who have been receiving a variety of service different locally–based stakeholder groups. deliveries from the project: Children / Youths
Youths / Widows
Boys Girls
Female Widows Total
Scholarship Support Vocational Trainings Capacity Building 1876 1511 3387
School Strengthening Support / PTA etc What have we learned from the project?
– The design and planning of the projects should be done following a thorough interaction with the If we are to achieve the objectives of the project and field staff.
deliver services to the target population, we shouldkeep in mind that the following must be transformed – A concrete and a cost effective network system for ensuring a smooth flow of information shouldbe established in the conflict areas.
– Prior to the implementation of any development projects, the executing agency should conduct an – The recruitment of Community Level Mobilisation orientation for the project team.
staff should be selected from the project areas. ? 16 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 Knowledge Management: an essential tool Gender and Social Justice Unit, RRN After reading Cecial's paper entitled "Better Water GSJU and its Structure
Use? Manage Knowledge" (page 11) focusing on Knowledge Management (KM), I began to think about the issues that the Gender and Social Justice Unit GENDER AND SOCIAL JUSTICE UNIT
(GSJU) has started working on, that is the issues related to gender and social exclusion. Gender and social exclusion is a cross–sectoral factor in the development process that is not an issue on its own, but rather a Small Working Team at
I realised that to create a political will that would enable gender mainstreaming on an organisational level, firstly Advisory Committee - 3 we should sensitise the organisation's decision–makersas well as other actors from different levels (i.e. from the central, regional and district levels including community level) about such matters. To do so, more collaborative Small Working Team at
work must occur with the other staff members of the organisation. Unless and until the sharing of knowledgehappens in practice, developmental change will be impossible. In order to incorporate mainstream gender understanding on the different levels of the organisation, facts and figures will only serve to keep us informed about the present context while the actual Advisory Committee - 1 (RC) Advisory Committee - 1 (RC) sharing of knowledge and the use of that knowledge will facilitate the flow of that knowledge to the right person at the right time. (See the article on page 11 for more information on this concept.) The sharing of knowledge and the use of knowledge ought not to be sufficientunless it is practiced on the personal level, organisational level and when networking with other like–minded stakeholders from both national and works, and will then assess how various development approaches affect the lives of the rural poor men and GSJU heading towards more collaborative work
women and other disadvantaged groups like ethnic minorities and Dalits. The team will also be responsible The RRN's Gender and Social Justice Unit (GSJU) has for monitoring and evaluating the implementation and begun gearing up to actively begin the process of impact of RRN's development projects and policy sensitising the staff members of the organisation to the advocacy initiatives from a gender and social inclusion need for increased gender awareness in all RRN's work perspective. I am sure that the team will be able to on both the individual and organisational levels. For utilise our individual skills and collectively use them to instance, recently, a Working Team (WT) under the work together to meet the goals of the WT. Gender and Social Justice Unit (GSJU) has been formed.
This was the first achievement of the unit itself, and In today's ever–changing workplace, more work is being successfully brought together many staff members to performed in a team capacity. Thus, GSJU, too, saw fit begin the work on sensitising and practicing the to utilise a working team that can serve as a cord treatment of women as equal partners in the social between the community and central administration development process of Nepal. The team will be levels in order to meet RRN's ultimate vision of creating responsible for addressing gender and social a world where there is JUSTICE, EQUALITY, PEACE
inclusion/exclusion issues at different levels, such as the and PROSPERITY for all citizens– men and women and
organisational and communal levels at which RRN disadvantage groups (DAGs) alike. ? Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 17
An Overview of the School Support Programme Er. Nirajan Pokharel
District Engineer, RRN Khotang ‘Good education and health are the their schools every year. fundamental rights of children'. However, inunderdeveloped countries like Nepal, access Since October 2004, RRN has initiated the Rural to social services is problematic. Strikes, Bandhas, Community Infrastructure and Livelihood Support and the use of schools as headquarters by the Programme (RCILSP) in 15 different VDCs in the security forces and the Maoists both, are some Khotang district– that is Dhitung, Houchour, factors that have acted as a constraint to quality Nunthala, Nerpa, Chiuridanda, Khalle, Laphyang, Temma, Yamkha, Dandagaun, Saptesworchhitapokhari, Chhorambu, Batase, Mattim, and Khotang is a remote district in the eastern region of Faktang, In these VDCs, there is one higher Nepal with 76 VDCs. In Khotang district, there are secondary school, 14 secondary schools, 11 lower four higher secondary schools, 57 secondary schools, secondary schools and 77 primary schools.
58 lower secondary schools, 345 primary schools and45 educational child development centres. But One of the major activities of the RCILSP is the almost all schools suffer from poor infrastructure integrated support element. Support is given for and/or a disruptive learning environment. Due to the building construction (rehabilitation or new lack of furniture, many students are forced to sit on construction), roofing the school buildings, and moist ground, and stones or straw mats, which they toilets and furniture. The school building support must carry from their own home. In the rainy season, programme is comprised of two kinds of scheme. For many students are forced to sit on a wet surface in primary schools, two–room blocks are constructed the classroom. The old CGI sheets and thatch with each room measuring 14'x18' and in secondary coverings of the school buildings often leak during schools, two room blocks are constructed with each the rainy season. Such poor infrastructural room measuring 14'x22'. Up until September 2005, conditions are the reason that many children leave 11 school blocks have been constructed. RRN also 18 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 financially supported the acquisition of non–local demand from the other VDCs in Khotang that this materials, as well as transportation and skilled labour programme be implemented in their schools as well.
costs. Additionally, the local community supportedthe project through use of local labour to construct The community participation in the construction of the school blocks. The cost of schemes varied from the school buildings has been very encouraging.
NRs 130000 to 224000, of which, the community was Many of the community and school leaders have responsible for 25%to 30% of the total cost.
praised the work of RRN's RCILSP. The Headmistressof the Dalit Janajagaran primary school, Dhitung In the roofing support programme, new GI sheet are Urmila Devi Aryal said, "RRN has reached the Dalit put on the existing buildings. The cost of the scheme community in providing the benefits of the project.
varied from NRs 64000 to 167000. In the toilet The work it has done has been exemplary." The support programme, a two–room toilet with a septic President of the Users' Committee of the tank is built in the schools. Separate toilets are made Namobuddha Primary school, Nunthala, Shanti Devi for girls and boys. Up until September 2005, four Tamamg added, "RRN has done great work in our roofing support schemes and one toilet support area and we are hopeful that another new scheme had been completed. programme can be implemented here." The The school support programme of the
RCILSP has been found to be a very
effective mechanism in improving the
educational sector. The community
has started to see new possibilities
with the activity of RRN.
The furniture support programme provides wooden Headmaster of the Jalapa secondary school, desks, benches, tables, chairs, cupboards, armed Nunthala, Hem Raj Rai also remarked that, "RRN has benches, black boards, etc, to the classrooms. Again, done very good work in a difficult environment." the local community is supported with the use of Lastly, the Users' Committee President of the local hardwood and local carpenter labour. By Roshabhanjyang primary school, Sapteswor September 2005, 33 school furniture support Chhitapokhari, Balram Dahal said, "RRN proved that schemes have been completed. The cost of schemes if the people want development activity, it is still varied from NRs 20000 to 60000.
possible despite living in the conflicting situation. We Overall impression and impact
hope that RRN would launch broad supportprogrammes in the coming days." Through the school support programme, 10515(5185 male, 5330 female) students have benefited.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Among them, have been 1503 Dalits, 4182 Hill ethnic The school support programme of the RCILSP has groups and 5030 BCN. More than 85% of the been found to be a very effective mechanism in children are from poor and marginalised groups.
improving the educational sector. The community So far, the construction activity has been quick and has started to see new possibilities with the activity the infrastructure has been constructed in clear view.
of RRN. Yet our task is not finished. In Khotang The selection and implementation of the schemes district, more educational sector improvement is has been fair and transparent. RRN has successfully needed. In the coming days, more broad school assisted the Dalit, poor and marginalised support programmes should be launched like the communities with the implementation of this school fencing playground scheme, the addition of programme. As such, there has been growing drinking water provisions and other importantinfrastructural structures. ? Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005 RRN Newsletter : 19
The Exposure Visit of RRN's
Western Senior Staff Members
A nine–day exposure visit programme was organisedfor the senior staff members from six districts(Kanchanpur, Bardiya, Banke, Dang, Salyan andRolpa) from November the 20th to the 27th, 2005.
The objective was to share and learn from theexperiences of others, thereby broadening theknowledge of the staff. The visit was planned to takeplace in the eastern districts where RRN's activitieswere taking place. The district coordinators, theproject engineers, social mobiliser officers and the Exposure Team Observing Irrigation Scheme in Saptari
assistant to the social mobiliser officers allparticipated in the exposure visit. During the event, utilised more advanced tactics than the western we visited the rehabilitation schemes of the irrigation region in every aspect. The project schemes were projects, the drinking water supply programme sites, implemented with excellent efforts and were culverts and check dams; attended the briefing completed in good form. The collaboration sought orientation session held by the regional coordinators, with other stakeholders in the eastern region seems district coordinators; and participated in the informal to have been a very positive experience, and indeed interactions with the UG and RRN staff in the eastern increased RRN's credibility in helping the rural people region. It was a great learning session for all who improve their quality of life. As a whole, we saw broader ideas being implemented pertaining totechnical, social–cultural diversity, geological aspects We were highly inspired by the friendly and forward of the programmes, and the community reacted very nature of the community people and the staff, the positively towards the development efforts initiated beauty of the nature and well implemented project by RRN. The people of the communities were very schemes, which we will all remember fondly. We open and proactive in their communities' were most fascinated to learn about some of the development efforts. It was noticed that the Siraha schemes which utilised different technologies, the and Saptari districts were highly influenced by the cultural differences between the eastern and western culture of Bihar–India. We were very impressed by regions, and the greater number of VDCs in the the community dialogue which stressed the eastern districts as compared to western region. maintenance of transparency and visibility in theproject schemes. The community owned the projects The exposure visit was worth the planning effort, as themselves, and members participated equally on it was an eye opening experience in how such the projects, with representation by all gender, ethnic innovative ideas implemented in the eastern region and ethnic minority groups exhibited. The as a canal gate check dam, water filtration bed, the collaboration of other stakeholders on the project construction of a strong retaining wall, and furniture schemes was also commendable.
design could be replicated here in the westernregion. Reported by: Ruplal Aidi. Monitoring Officer,Nepalgunj, Banke It was observed that the eastern communities Advisors: Dr. Arjun Karki, Dr. Rishi Adhikari
Editorial Team: Dr. Neeraj Narayan Joshi, Karen Bernstein, Premkala Nembang, Ruth Segal
For more information, please contact:
Rural Reconstruction Nepal (RRN), GPO Box: 8130, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: 977–1–4415418, Fax: 977–1–4418296, Email:, Website: 20 : RRN Newsletter
Volume 9, Issue 3, December 2005


Microsoft word - memento v7.doc

MINISTÈRE DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES & LE COMITÉ D'INFORMATION MÉDICALE (Ministère des Affaires Étrangères – Maison des Français à l'Étranger) Mémento à l'usage des professionnels de santé La Société de Médecine des VoyagesetLe Comité d'Information MédicaleMinistère des Affaires Étrangères –Maison des Français de l'Étranger EXPATRIATION ET SANTÉ,Mémento à l'usage des professionnels de santé

Efficient usage of hydrogen peroxide in tetracycline degradation via photo-fenton process

Enhanced photo-Fenton Process for Tetracycline Degradation using Efficient Hydrogen Peroxide Dosage Evelyn Yamal-Turbay*, Esther Jaén, Moisès Graells, Montserrat Pérez-Moya Departament d'Enginyeria Química, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Comte d'Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona, Spain Abstract The remediation of water solutions containing Tetracycline antibiotic (TC) using photo-Fenton